Alice Lytwyn

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (43)174.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: An APTIMA specimen collection and transportation (SCT) kit was developed by Hologic/Gen-Probe. To compare cervical SCT samples to PreservCyt and SurePath samples and self-collected vaginal samples to physician-collected vaginal and cervical SCT samples. To determine ease and comfort of self-collection with the kit. Each woman (n = 580) self-collected a vaginal SCT, then filled out a questionnaire (n = 563) to determine ease and comfort of self-collection. Colposcopy physicians collected a vaginal SCT and cervical PreservCyt, SCT, and SurePath samples. Samples were tested by APTIMA HPV (AHPV) assay. Agreement between testing of cervical SCT and PreservCyt was 91.1% (κ = 0.82), and that of SurePath samples was 86.7% (κ = 0.72). Agreement of self-collected vaginal SCT to physician-collected SCT was 84.7% (κ = 0.68), and that of self-collected vaginal to cervical SCT was 82.0% (κ = 0.63). For 30 patients with CIN2+, AHPV testing of cervical SCT was 100% sensitive and 59.8% specific compared with PreservCyt (96.6% and 66.2%) and SurePath (93.3% and 70.9%). Vaginal SCT sensitivity was 86.7% for self-collection and 80.0% for physician collection. Most patients found that vaginal self-collection was easy, 5.3% reported some difficulty, and 87.6% expressed no discomfort. Cervical samples collected with the new SCT kit compared well to traditional liquid-based samples tested by AHPV. Although there was good agreement between self-collected and physician-collected samples with the SCT, in a limited number of 30 women, vaginal sampling identified fewer with CIN2+ precancerous cervical lesions than cervical SCT sampling. Comfort, ease of use, and detection of high-risk HPV demonstrated that the kit could be used for cervical and vaginal sampling.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 06/2014; 41(6):365-8. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to estimate trends in incidence and relative survival in women diagnosed with invasive squamous cell vulvar cancer in the United States (U.S.) and Canada over the periods of 1973-2010 for U.S. and 1992-2008 for Canada.
    Gynecologic oncology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Use of a new collection kit for vaginal and cervical sampling was reported as easy by the majority of 692 women and not uncomfortable (87.4% ≥ 25 years, 78.8% <25 years). By APTIMA testing, patient and physician-collected samples agreed strongly for C. trachomatis (99.6% to 99.3%, k-0.93-0.88) and T. vaginalis (99.9% to 98.8%, k-0.97-0.78).
    Journal of clinical microbiology 12/2013; · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva with ≤1 mm stromal invasion is classified as stage 1A. Cancer staging systems state that the depth of invasion should be measured from the epithelial-stromal junction of the adjacent most superficial dermal papilla to the deepest point of the invasive tumor. Measurement of the depth of invasion guides patient management. Even though this measurement is critical, no studies have reported the reliability among pathologists for determining the cutoff point of ≤1 mm stromal invasion in vulvar cancer. We assessed agreement among pathologists for determining whether a vulvar tumor is invasive, for the depth of invasion, and for tumor thickness. Forty-five cases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma with a depth of invasion of ≤5 mm were chosen. Eleven gynecologic pathologists independently reviewed the slides and, for a subset of cases, pictorially recorded measurements on photographs. The number of cases that were reported as invasive by the 11 pathologists ranged from 21 to 44. The number of cases that were reported as showing a depth of invasion of ≤1 mm ranged from 7 to 27. Eight pathologists provided measurements for all lesions reported as invasive, the remaining 3 pathologists stated that they were unable to measure 2, 7, and 16 lesions, respectively. Mean κ for diagnosing vulvar carcinoma as invasive was 0.24 and for measuring the depth of invasion and thickness was 0.51 and 0.49, respectively. There was only fair agreement in determining whether the lesion was invasive. In cases in which pathologists agreed upon the diagnosis of invasion, agreement on depth was moderate. When using the recommended cancer staging method, interpretation of the location of the most superficial dermal papilla varied among pathologists. Measuring thickness did not improve agreement. This is the first study that has assessed the reliability of the diagnosis of invasion in vulvar cancer among gynecologic pathologists, the interobserver agreement for reporting the critical 1 mm threshold of depth of stromal invasion, and the way in which the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics method is used by pathologists.
    The American journal of surgical pathology 09/2013; 37(9):1336-41. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Correlation of intraoperative frozen section diagnosis with final diagnosis can be an important component of an institution’s quality assurance process. We performed a quality assurance review of 1207 frozen section diagnoses from 812 surgical cases performed in the Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Programme during a 6-month period in 2007. We reviewed the frozen section and permanent slides from all potentially discordant cases using a multiheaded microscope to arrive at a consensus pertaining to the type and reason for error. We reviewed the clinical record to determine whether there had been a potential adverse impact on immediate clinical management. Frozen sections were most commonly requested for head and neck, nervous system and female genital tract specimens. Twenty-eight frozen sections (3%) were deferred. We identified 24 discordant diagnoses involving 3% of cases and 2% of specimens. The organ systems showing the greatest frequency of discordance relative to the total number from that system were the nervous system, head and neck, and the lungs. Of the errors identified, most occurred owing to diagnostic misinterpretation, followed by problems related to tissue sampling. There was a potential adverse impact on immediate clinical management in 14 cases. Our results add to the Canadian data on the correlation between frozen sections and permanent sections; we note comparability to the concordance rates reported in the literature.
    Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie 06/2013; 56(3):E13-E18. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have suggested serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) of the fallopian tube to be a putative precursor to ovarian and peritoneal serous carcinoma. It has been recommended that resected fallopian tube specimens should be rigorously examined for STIC, especially in women at high risk of serous carcinoma, such as those with BRCA mutations or with a strong family history. The SEE-FIM protocol allows for the greatest surface area of the tube to be histologically assessed. There have been suggestions that multiple deeper sections should be examined if the initial hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) sections are negative; however, whether this identifies more cases of STIC has not rigorously examined. We examined deeper sections from 56 cases of pelvic carcinoma in which the initial H&E sections of the fallopian tubes were negative for STIC. All initial and deeper sections underwent consensus review by panel of experts in gynecologic pathology. These cases are part of a larger study in which we had examined 300 consecutive bilateral salpingectomies using the SEE-FIM protocol and a single-H&E section per block and had identified 68 cases of pelvic serous carcinoma, of which 12 were associated with STIC. We calculated the sensitivity of a single-H&E section to detect STIC, as compared with examination of multiple deeper sections, and reevaluated the clinicopathologic data of the parent study in light of the additional cases of STIC. In the 56 cases initially negative for STIC, 4 cases of STIC were identified after examination of multiple deeper sections of the fallopian tubes. The single-H&E section SEE-FIM approach therefore detected only 75% (95% confidence interval, 51%-90%) of STIC that was present. Three of these new cases were associated with primary ovarian serous carcinoma and 1 with primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. All 3 new cases associated with ovarian carcinoma were noted in women without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In considering the data from the parent study, we calculated a statistically significant lower incidence of STIC in women with ovarian serous carcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy as compared with those who did not (P=0.042). Our study demonstrated that additional cases of STIC can be detected if deeper sections are examined. These additional cases also highlighted a statistically significant difference in the incidence of STIC associated with ovarian serous carcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy relative to those who did not. Consideration to this should be given in future studies of the prevalence of STIC and to routine examination of salpingectomy specimens from women at high risk for pelvic serous carcinoma.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 05/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been widely used for cervical cancer screening. Despite numerous studies and systematic reviews, to the authors' knowledge few large studies to date have focused on biopsy-confirmed cervical lesions and controversy remains concerning its diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the current study was to assess LBC for detecting biopsy-confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cancer. A pooled analysis of LBC using data from 13 population-based, cross-sectional, cervical cancer screening studies performed in China from 1999 to 2008 was performed. Participants (n = 26,782) received LBC and human papillomavirus testing. Women found to be positive on screening were referred for colposcopy and biopsy. The accuracy of LBC for detecting biopsy-confirmed CIN of type 2 or worse (CIN2+) as well as CIN type 3 or worse (CIN3+) lesions was analyzed. Of 25,830 women included in the analysis, CIN2+ was found in 107 of 2612 with atypical squamous cells (4.1%), 142 of 923 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (15.4%), 512 of 784 with high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (65.3%), 29 of 30 with squamous cell carcinoma (96.7%), 4 of 27 with atypical glandular cells (14.8%), and 85 of 21,454 with normal cytology results (0.4%). No invasive cancers were found to have atypical squamous cells, atypical glandular cells, or cytologically normal slides. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of LBC for detecting CIN2+ were 81.0%, 95.4%, 38.3%, 99.3 %, and 94.9%, respectively. Although Hybrid Capture 2 was more sensitive than LBC, the specificity, positive predictive value, and overall accuracy of LBC were higher than those of Hybrid Capture2 at 85.2%, 18.6%, and 85.5%, respectively. The results of the current study indicate that the performance of LBC can effectively predict the risk of existing CIN2+ and may be a good screening tool for cervical cancer prevention in a developing country. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2013;. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 04/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated the value of ancillary techniques, including p57 immunohistochemistry and short tandem repeat genotyping, for distinguishing hydatidiform moles (HM) from nonmolar specimens and for subtyping HMs as complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) and partial hydatidiform moles (PHM). With rare exceptions, CHMs are p57-negative and androgenetic diploid; partial hydatidiform moles are p57-positive and diandric triploid; and nonmolar specimens are p57-positive and biparental diploid. Androgenetic/biparental mosaic/chimeric conceptions can have morphologic features that overlap with HMs but are genetically distinct. This study characterizes 11 androgenetic/biparental mosaic/chimeric conceptions identified in a series of 473 products of conception specimens subjected to p57 immunohistochemistry and short tandem repeat genotyping. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on 10 to assess ploidy. All cases were characterized by hydropically enlarged, variably sized and shaped villi. In 5 cases, the villi lacked trophoblastic hyperplasia, whereas in 6 there was a focal to extensive villous component with trophoblastic hyperplasia and features of CHM. The villi lacking trophoblastic hyperplasia were characterized by discordant p57 expression within individual villi (p57-positive cytotrophoblast and p57-negative stromal cells), whereas the villous components having trophoblastic hyperplasia were uniformly p57-negative in both cell types. Short tandem repeat genotyping of at least 2 villous areas in each case demonstrated an excess of paternal alleles in all regions, with variable paternal:maternal allele ratios (usually >2:1); pure androgenetic diploidy was identified in those cases with a sufficiently sized villous component having trophoblastic hyperplasia and features of CHM. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated uniform diploidy in 7 cases, including 4 of 5 tested cases with trophoblastic hyperplasia and 3 of 5 cases without trophoblastic hyperplasia. Two cases without trophoblastic hyperplasia had uniformly diploid villous stromal cells but 1 had triploid and 1 had tetraploid cytotrophoblast; 1 case with trophoblastic hyperplasia had uniformly diploid villous stromal cells but a mixture of diploid, triploid, and tetraploid cytotrophoblast. In 3 cases with a CHM component, persistent gestational trophoblastic disease developed. These results indicate that androgenetic/biparental mosaic/chimeric conceptions are most often an admixture of androgenetic diploid (p57-negative) and biparental diploid (p57-positive) cell lines but some have localized hyperdiploid components. Recognition of their distinctive p57 expression patterns and genotyping results can prevent misclassification as typical CHMs, PHMs, or nonmolar specimens. The presence of androgenetic cell lines, particularly in those with a purely androgenetic CHM component, warrants follow-up because of some risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 01/2013; · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To estimate and compare the five-year trends in excess mortality rate, net probability of death, and crude probability of death for patients diagnosed with epithelial invasive gynecological cancers in Canada. We compared these trends among ovarian, uterine, and cervical cancers. METHODS: A flexible parametric model was used to estimate the three mortality indices for gynecological cancers. We incorporated age group, type of cancer, and year of diagnosis in the model to estimate these indices over a five-year period after diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 39,681 women who were diagnosed with epithelial invasive gynecological cancers were included in this analysis with a mean age of 57.9 (SD=15.1) years at diagnosis. Approximately 30% of patients were younger than 50years old at diagnosis and 45% were between 50 and 69years old. Ovarian cancer had the worst prognosis among the gynecological cancers based on all three mortality indices. CONCLUSIONS: The three mortality indices provide a clear insight in understanding the elements of mortality in population-based cancer studies where the underlying cause of death is not correctly identified, the accuracy of death certificates varies overtime and among countries, and death tends to be a multi-factorial event.
    Gynecologic Oncology 08/2012; · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer was estimated to affect approximately 1300 women in Canada in 2011, and 350 women were expected to die from this disease. We estimated the trends in the relative survival ratio for patients diagnosed with epithelial invasive cervical cancer in Canadian population during the period 1992-2005. A flexible parametric model was used to estimate the relative survival ratio. Relative survival ratio is defined as the observed survival among patients with cancer divided by the expected survival in the general population. We incorporated age group, histology of tumor, geographical region, and year of diagnosis in the model to predict 2- and 5-year relative survival ratios. A total of 13,424 patients with a diagnosis of epithelial invasive cervical cancer were included in this analysis, whose mean (SD) age was 49.3 (16.0) years at the time of diagnosis. The histologic classification of the cervical tumor was squamous for 75.4% of the cases followed by glandular for 18.5% of the cases. Other epithelial tumors accounted for 6.2% of the cases. The same pattern was observed for all regions. The glandular and the "other epithelial" cancers had the best and worst survival, respectively. Fifty percent of all cases were diagnosed in Ontario. This article indicates gradual improvements for relative survival ratio for all age groups, all types of tumor, and all geographical regions in Canada during the 1992-2005 period. The improvements may be related to evolutions in screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Further progress may be achieved by extending the screening coverage, possibly changing the screening test, or advances in treatment.
    International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 07/2012; 22(7):1208-13. · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of pelvic serous carcinoma. We hypothesized that, if this is the case, the frequency of STIC should be substantially lower in endometrial serous carcinomas, in nonserous gynecologic malignancies, and in benign gynecologic neoplasms than in ovarian or peritoneal serous carcinomas. From 2007 to 2009 the fallopian tubes of 342 consecutive gynecologic cases were entirely submitted for histology using the Sectioning and Extensively Examining the FIMbriated end protocol. This study included 300 of these cases (277 TAH-BSO, 23 BSO) after exclusion. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides from the fallopian tubes were independently reviewed by 2 gynecologic pathologists who were blinded to all other findings; disagreements were resolved by a third pathologist. Among 46 cases of ovarian malignancies, STIC was identified in 6 (18.8%) of 32 cases of serous carcinoma, but not in any other subtype. Similarly, STIC coexisted in 4 (14.3%) of 28 cases of endometrial serous carcinoma; however, no STIC was identified in any of the 74 cases of nonserous endometrial malignancies. STIC was identified in 2 (28.6%) of 7 cases of peritoneal serous carcinoma. No STIC was identified among 15 nongynecologic malignancies, 90 cases of benign conditions, and 27 cases of other conditions including 4 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions, 8 cases of endometrial atypical complex hyperplasias, and 15 cases of ovarian borderline tumors. In conclusion, the fallopian tube may be the origin of some pelvic serous carcinomas. Other possibilities that may explain the origin of pelvic high-grade serous carcinoma are discussed. Given that STIC coexisted with 14% of endometrial serous carcinomas, a more unifying theory may be that gynecologic serous carcinomas and STIC are multifocal lesions.
    International journal of gynecological pathology: official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists 03/2012; 31(2):103-10. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ovarian cancer affects about 2600 women annually in Canada and about 1750 are expected to die from this disease. We estimated the trends in the relative survival ratio for patients diagnosed with epithelial invasive ovarian cancer in Canadian population between 1992 and 2005. A flexible parametric model was used to estimate the relative survival ratio. Relative survival ratio is defined as the observed survival among cancer patients divided by the expected survival in the general population. We incorporated age group, histology of tumour, and region of patient residence at the time of diagnosis into a model to predict two- and five-year relative survival ratios based on the year of diagnosis where the effect of each variable was adjusted for the effects of the other variables. A restricted cubic splines with five knots was used to include year of diagnosis in the model. In total 7771 patients diagnosed with epithelial invasive ovarian cancer were included in this analysis with the mean age of 59.6 (SD=13.5) years at the time of diagnosis. About 75% of the patients were 50 years and older at the time of diagnosis and relative survival ratio substantially decreased with age. The tumour type was serous for 43% of cases followed by endometrioid (30.5%), clear cell (14.5%), mucinous (9.5%), and transitional cell (2.5%). The same pattern was observed for all regions although with some variation in the proportions. The worst survival observed for serous tumours. About 50% of the cases were diagnosed in Ontario. This is the first report that compares relative survival ratio for epithelial invasive ovarian cancer among geographic regions of Canada where a higher relative survival ratio was observed in Ontario compared to the other regions. The relative survival decreased with age and showed geographic variation. The work indicates that advances in management of women with ovarian cancer have improved two- and five-year relative survival ratios.
    Gynecologic Oncology 08/2011; 123(2):192-5. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal management strategy for women with low-grade biopsy-proven cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is not clear. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of regular colposcopic follow-up and treatment of progressive disease only versus immediate treatment. Data were accrued between November 2000 and March 2006 for a noninferiority randomized clinical trial of 415 women with biopsy-proven grade 1 CIN from 8 Canadian and 2 Brazilian colposcopy clinics. Subjects were randomly assigned to either undergo immediate treatment with a loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) or receive regular colposcopic follow-up for 18 months. The primary outcome was progression of disease to CIN 2 to 3 was based on histology obtained during 18 months of follow-up. Treatments were compared using differences of proportion with a 9% noninferiority margin. Analysis was conducted on the basis of intention-to-treat. An initial LEEP was performed on 179 women. Disease progression was found in 32. Easily controlled vaginal bleeding occurred in 16 (8.9%). During follow-up, disease progression was identified in 3 (1.7%) women in the immediate treatment arm and 9 (4.4%) in the colposcopic follow-up arm-a tolerable difference of 2.7% with 1-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) upper limit of 6.0%. Compliance with all 3 follow-up visits was 61% overall, but significantly worse in women ≤30 years of age (P < .05). The risk of progression to CIN grade 2 or 3 or cancer over 18 months was similar in the 2 treatment groups. In Canada and Brazil, follow-up for 18 months is a reasonable management strategy for women with persistent low-grade cytology who are found to have grade 1 CIN on referral for colposcopy and cervical biopsy.
    Cancer 04/2011; 117(7):1438-45. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anal cancer screening may be considered in HIV-infected men who have sex with men because they are at increased risk. Cancer screening can provoke anxiety, which may lead to poorer screening compliance. This study aimed to measure the psychological consequences of anal cancer screening in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. This investigation is a prospective cohort study. This study was conducted in primary and tertiary care HIV clinics in Toronto, Canada. One hundred four HIV-infected men who have sex with men were studied. : Psychological impact was measured at 4 time points (before screening, after screening, after receiving results, and before follow-up) using the Impact of Events Scale, the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale, and the Psychological Consequences Questionnaire. Median age was 44, 77% were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and 11% had high-grade anal dysplasia (anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3). Fifteen to 32% of the patients reported high levels of negative psychological consequences across the 4 time points; the highest levels occurred at time 2. Higher HIV symptom count and baseline level of negative impact were significantly associated with higher Impact of Events scores, whereas younger age and a higher baseline level of negative impact were significantly associated with higher scores with use of the Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale. Anal cancer screening is not associated with greater adverse psychological impact in most HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Younger patients, those with more HIV-related symptoms and greater baseline psychological distress, are at risk for increased psychological distress during screening.
    Diseases of the Colon & Rectum 03/2011; 54(3):352-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: In population-based cancer studies a cure fraction model classifies patients into those who survive the cancer and those who encounter excess mortality risk compared to the general population [1]. In this presentation we report the proportion cured and the relative survival pattern for patients diagnosed with uterine cancer in Canada over the period of 1992-2005. Methods: We used a non-mixture cure fraction model to estimate the cure fraction rate and the relative survival among “uncured†patients [1]. Then, we predicted the cure fraction rate and median survival for each age group based on the year of diagnosis. Results: Relative survival and cure fraction rate decreased with age but increased gradually over time. Relative survivals for Eastern Canada and Ontario were lower compared to the other regions. The same applies to the comparison between cure fraction rates between the geographical regions. Conclusion: This is the first study using cure fraction model for analysis of uterine cancer. Although there are some limitations attached to this model, it is flexible enough to be used with different parametric distributions and to include different link functions for relative survival analysis. [1] Lambert PC. Modeling of the cure fraction in survival studies. Stata Journal 2007;7:1-25.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: To systematically review literature on women's acceptance, preference, willingness, and attitudes toward human papillomavirus DNA vaginal self-sampling and assess study validity using the STROBE statement. From September to October 2008, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically over all years available. Participants were women who either completed vaginal self-sampling or were described the procedure. Studies were required to report women's acceptance, preference, willingness or attitudes toward self-sampling. Two independent reviewers assessed abstracts and articles for inclusion and collected study data. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty studies were included. Of 8 studies, 7 reported that women found self-sampling acceptable. Of the 13 studies, 8 found that more women (63%-94%) preferred self-sampling to clinician-collected sampling. Most women were also receptive to self-sampling as part of future screening. Common opinions expressed by women included an uncertainty if they had or could perform the self-test properly and greater confidence in clinician sampling. Only 2 studies used questionnaires that had been validated, and selection bias favoring self-sampling could not be ruled out in most studies. Vaginal human papillomavirus DNA self-sampling is generally well received among women. However, the possibility of selection bias and survey instrument measurement error may have led to an overestimate of women's favorable opinions for self-sampling. A self-sampling option may increase screening coverage, but concerns of women must also be addressed.
    Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease 10/2010; 14(4):356-62. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess anal oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cytology as screening tests for detecting high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN 2+), as this is an immediate anal cancer precursor. Cross-sectional study of 401 HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The endpoint was histologically confirmed AIN 2+ obtained by high-resolution anoscopy. Cytology and biopsy specimens were assigned random numbers and independently assessed by two pathologists. We did concomitant anal cytology, anal HPV testing and HRA with directed biopsies without knowing the results of each intervention. The main outcome measures were the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of anal cytology and oncogenic HPV for the detection of AIN 2+. Cytology was abnormal in 67% of patients: high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 12%; low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 43% and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 12%. Biopsies were abnormal in 68% of patients: AIN 2+, 25% and AIN 1, 43%. HPV was detected in 93% with multiple HPV types in 92% and oncogenic HPV types in 88%. Test performance characteristics for the detection of AIN 2+ using any abnormality on anal cytology were: sensitivity 84%, specificity 39%, negative predictive value 88% and positive predictive value 31%; using oncogenic HPV: sensitivity 100%, specificity 16%, negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 28%. Anal cytology and HPV detection have high sensitivity but low specificity for detecting AIN 2+. HIV-positive men who have sex with men have a high prevalence of AIN 2+ and require high-resolution anoscopy for optimal detection of high-grade anal dysplasia.
    AIDS (London, England) 06/2010; 24(9):1307-13. · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the research lessons learned in the process of conducting qualitative research on cervical cancer screening perspectives among multiple ethnolinguistic groups of immigrant women and to provide guidance to family medicine researchers on methodologic and practical issues related to planning and conducting focus group research with multiple immigrant groups. Observations based on a qualitative study of 11 focus groups. Hamilton, Ont. PARTICPANTS: Women from 1 of 5 ethnolinguistic immigrant groups and Canadian-born women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted 11 focus groups using interactive activities and tools to learn about women's views of cervical cancer screening, and we used our research team reflections, deliberate identification of preconceptions or potential biases, early and ongoing feedback from culturally representative field workers, postinterview debriefings, and research team debriefings as sources of information to inform the process of such qualitative research. Our learnings pertain to 5 areas: forming effective research teams and community partnerships; culturally appropriate ways of accessing communities and recruiting participants; obtaining written informed consent; using sensitive or innovative data collection approaches; and managing budget and time requirements. Important elements included early involvement, recruitment, and training of ethnolinguistic field workers in focus group methodologies, and they were key to participant selection, participation, and effective groups. Research methods (eg, recruitment approaches, inclusion criteria) needed to be modified to accommodate cultural norms. Recruitment was slower than anticipated. Acquiring signed consent might also require extra time. Novel approaches within focus groups increased the likelihood of more rich discussion about sensitive topics. High costs of professional translation might challenge methodologic rigour (eg, back-translation). By employing flexible and innovative approaches and including members of the participating cultural groups in the research team, this project was successful in engaging multiple cultural groups in research. Our experiences can inform similar research by providing practical learning within the context of established qualitative methods.
    Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien 04/2010; 56(4):e130-5. · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast (ACCB) is a rare malignancy with favorable prognosis: axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastases, and death due to disease are uncommon. ACCB may recur locally many years after primary surgical excision and may be substantially higher if primary procedure is lumpectomy rather than mastectomy. Pathology database searched to identify patients diagnosed with ACCB between 1988 and 2007 at Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.Two pathologists independently reviewed histology to confirm diagnosis of ACCB, and documented surgical procedure, tumor size, tumor grade, surgical margin, and lymph node status. Immunohistochemistry was performed on representative blocks and independently reviewed by 2 pathologists. Clinical and radiologic data were retrospectively reviewed. Fifteen cases of ACCB were identified and pathology slides were available for 12. The median age was 62 years. Seven patients presented with a palpable mass and breast pain was described in 3. Positive surgical margins were identified in 5 patients (42%). Only 3 patients had postoperative radiation therapy. Our series shows frequent resection margin involvement in ACCB. Neither clinical nor mammographic examination consistently delineated full tumor extent preoperatively. Future use of magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative assessment may prevent high positive margin rate when lumpectomy is planned. Histologic assessment of tumor extent may be difficult, but immunohistochemistry may be helpful in this regard.
    American journal of clinical oncology 09/2009; 33(1):28-31. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse are at risk for anal cancer. We determined whether human papilloma virus (HPV) biomarkers were correlated with anal pathology in these men. HPV genotype was determined by PCR/line blot assay. Real-time PCR assays were done for viral load, E6 transcripts for HPV genotypes 16, 18, and 31, and p16 transcripts. The most common oncogenic HPV types were HPV 16 (38%), 18 (19%), 45 (22%), and 52 (19%). HPV types 16, 18, 31, 52, 59, and 68 were associated with high-grade histology. The number of HPV genotypes per anal swab was higher for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) 2/3 than for normal or AIN 1 histology [median, 5 types (interquartile range) (IQR), 3-7 versus 3.5 (IQR), 2-6; P = 0.0005]. HPV 16 viral load was also associated with AIN 2/3 histology. There was no difference in p16 or E6 transcripts between histologic grades. In the multivariable logistic regression model, HPV genotypes 16 [odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.31-5.08; P = 0.006] and 31 (odds ratio, 4.74; 95% CI, 2.00-11.22; P = 0.0004), baseline CD4 count < 400 cells/mm(3) (odds ratio, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.46-5.99; P = 0.0025), and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness (odds ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.22-4.82; P = 0.01) were associated with high-grade histology after adjusting for age. The presence of high-grade anal pathology (AIN 2/3) in HIV-positive men was associated with multiple HPV genotypes, HPV genotypes 16 and 31, and HPV 16 viral load.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 06/2009; 18(7):1986-92. · 4.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

675 Citations
174.64 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • McMaster University
      • • Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine
      • • Department of Family Medicine
      Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2000–2003
    • University of Toronto
      • • Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada