A Oliet

Hospital Universitario Severo Ochoa, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (46)115.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis due to Leishmania Infantum is an endemic parasitic infection in the Mediterranean area. Since 2009, Europe's largest outbreak of Leishmaniasis has been reported in the region of Madrid (Spain). Renal involvement is an unusual complication. Different forms of renal disease have been described: interstitial, glomerular, and vascular damage. Direct invasion of renal parenchyma by the parasite has been described as a mechanism of kidney damage, especially in the immunocompromised. Immune complex deposition and T cells adhesion molecules activation have demonstrated that a pathogenic role in glomerulonephritis related to visceral leishmaniasis. The association between mixed cryoglobulinemia and visceral leishmaniasis has been previously reported in six patients. Renal involvement is only described in one of them. From July 2009 to October 2012, 4 patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and mixed cryoglobulinemia with negative serology for hepatitis B and C were diagnosed in our hospital. Serology of Leishmania in serum bank samples was performed; it was positive in 3 patients. Leishmania parasite was confirmed by other tests. We present 3 patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis as first clinical manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis.
    Clinical nephrology 01/2015; DOI:10.5414/CN108195 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Lower serum sodium levels have been associated with increased mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to analyze the independent factors associated with lower sodium levels among nondialysis patients with advanced CKD and to evaluate the evolution of these patients in comparison to those with higher plasma sodium over a 1-year period. Methods: We included 72 patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 without clinically evident cardiopathy or liver disease. Bioelectrical impedance and echocardiography were performed to analyze the possible relation between plasma sodium and volume status and subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. During follow-up, we compared the evolution of patients with lower baseline plasma sodium (low quartile: <138 mEq/l) with that of patients with higher levels over a 1-year period. Results: At baseline, the independent predictors of lower plasma sodium were C-reactive protein (CRP; OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.91-0.99) and body mass index (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.78-0.99). An inverse correlation between plasma sodium and CRP was observed (r = -0.32; p = 0.01). Plasma sodium did not correlate with extracellular water and was not different between patients with or without echocardiographic data of LV dysfunction (p = 0.7). During follow-up, patients with lower sodium at baseline showed persistently lower sodium values (p = 0.04), higher CRP (p = 0.05), lower serum albumin (p < 0.01) and higher erythropoietin-stimulating agent resistance index (p = 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest an association between lower plasma sodium and a microinflammatory state among patients with advanced CKD. Inflammation could be an underlying confounding factor explaining the increased mortality in these patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 11/2014; 128(3-4). DOI:10.1159/000368116 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients older than 75 years with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), the decision between treatment with dialysis [intention to treat with dialysis (ITD)] or conservative care (CC) is a challenge. Geriatric assessment can be helpful. The aim was to identify which factors had had an influence on decision-making. Methods: We recruited 56 patients. At baseline we analyzed age, frailty (defined following the criteria of Fried et al. [J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2001;56:146-156]), dependence for activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive impairment, depression, comorbidity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. After full information about prognosis and treatment options, the preferences of the patients and families were taken into consideration as determinants in the decision-making process. During the follow-up, we evaluated clinical and laboratory parameters, hospitalization, mortality and reevaluated frailty. Results: Twenty patients opted for CC, and 36 patients opted for ITD. On univariate analysis, the predictive factors of the election of CC were age, prefrailty, cognitive impairment, and dependence for ADL. In the multivariate analysis, age and prefrailty remained as predictors for the choice of CC. Hospitalizations were more frequent in CC. Survival was similar in both groups (p = 0.098). Conclusions: Frailty assessment could be useful for decision-making about the treatment in elderly patients with CKD. CC may be a good treatment option. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 11/2014; 128(1-2). DOI:10.1159/000363624 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Although tacrolimus is recommended by KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for Glomerulonephritis for the treatment of idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN), little is known about factors that influence response and relapse of the disease after tacrolimus therapy.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfu306 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as induction and maintenance treatment in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of MF in patients with refractory and relapsing LN. Methods: Data were retrospectively obtained for 85 patients (35 refractory and 50 relapsing) from 11 nephrology departments in Spain. The primary endpoints were the incidence and cumulative number of renal responses and relapses and their relationship with baseline clinical and analytical data. The secondary endpoint was the appearance of side effects. Results: The main clinical and analytical variables were similar both in refractory and relapsing LN. Most of the patients had received cyclophosphamide, and all of them switched to MF. 74 patients (87%) achieved a response (69% partial, 31% complete). Age at starting MF, gender, pathological classification, body mass index, blood pressure, baseline renal function, and proteinuria were not associated with achieving response. After stopping MF, 3 of 19 patients (15.7%) relapsed, all at 6 months of follow-up. No differences were found between clinical and analytical variables and number of relapses. Side effects were unremarkable, except for 1 patient, who died of thrombocytopenia and ovarian hemorrhage. Conclusions: Switching to MF from other immunosuppressive treatments is effective and safe in refractory and relapsing LN. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American Journal of Nephrology 07/2014; 40(2):105-112. DOI:10.1159/000365256 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. We examine whether cystatin C, a surrogate marker of renal function, could identify patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an increased risk of renal disease progression, death, or cardiovascular events. Methods. Data were obtained for 180 patients, with a diagnosis of chronic renal failure based on serum creatinine estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcreat) <90 mL/min/1.73 m(2). This population was grouped in tertiles according to cystatin C and creatinine values at baseline. Cardiovascular events and overall mortality were estimated for each tertile. Predictors of overall mortality and for the development of renal disease progression were analyzed. Results. The median age was 75 years (interquartile range 69-82) and the median eGFRcreat 38 mL/min m(2) (interquartile range 33-49). Overall mortality was lower on the first and on the second tertiles of cystatin C than on the third one (HR = 0.060; 95% CI: 0.008-0.447 and HR = 0.094; 95% CI: 0.022-0.406, resp.). Deaths related to the creatinine tertiles followed the same pattern, but differences were not as large. Cardiovascular mortality was lower on the second than on the third cystatin C tertile (HR = 0.198; 95% CI: 0.040-0.987), but it did not show differences on the first and the second creatinine tertiles compared with the third one (HR = 0.126; 95% CI: 0.013-1.265 and HR = 0.403; 95% CI: 0.093-1.740). The only independent predictors of mortality during followup were baseline cystatin C (OR = 0.100; 95% CI: 0.021-0.463) and baseline uric acid (OR = 1.377; 95% CI: 1.070-1.773). Conclusion. Cystatin C may be an alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of death and cardiovascular events in a population with CKD.
    International Journal of Nephrology 02/2014; 2014:127943. DOI:10.1155/2014/127943
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Low serum magnesium has been associated with an increased cardiovascular risk in the general population and in dialysis patients. Our aim was to analyze the influence of serum magnesium on overall mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with advanced CKD not yet on dialysis. Methods. Seventy patients with CKD stages 4 and 5 were included. After a single measurement of s-magnesium, patients were followed a mean of 11 months. Primary end-point was death of any cause, and secondary end-point was the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal CV events. Results. Basal s-magnesium was within normal range ( mg/dL), was lower in men and in diabetic patients , and was not different between patients with and without cardiopathy. Magnesium did not correlate with PTH, calcium, phosphate, albumin, inflammatory parameters (CRP), and cardiac (NT-proBNP) biomarkers but correlated inversely ; with the daily dose of loop diuretics. In univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models, magnesium was not an independent predictor for overall mortality or CV events. Conclusions. Our results do not support that serum magnesium can be an independent predictor for overall mortality or future cardiovascular events among patients with advanced CKD not yet on dialysis.
    06/2013; 2013. DOI:10.5402/2013/191786
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as a maintenance therapy after induction therapy in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). However, little is known about its role in patients with impaired renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MF as a maintenance therapy for LN and its association with renal function. Methods: Data were obtained for 56 Spanish patients who were receiving MF as a maintenance therapy for LN. Patients were classified into two groups according to renal function at the initiation of MF treatment: group 1 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)] and group 2 (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). The primary endpoints of the study were the rates of renal relapse and responses, and their relationship with baseline renal function. Secondary outcomes were the appearance of side effects during treatment. Results: At initiation of MF treatment, the only differences between the groups were for age, hemoglobin levels, anti-DNA antibody titer, proteinuria, and renal function. In group 1 (n = 38), the eGFR was 98 ± 34 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and in group 2 (n = 18) the eGFR was 43 ± 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Only 3 cases had an eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). No significant differences were observed in the rate of relapse at 6 months (group 1: 20%; group 2: 23%) or at 12 months (group 1: 25%; group 2: 17%). Response rates were also similar in both groups. Side effects were unremarkable. Conclusions: MF is effective and safe as a maintenance therapy for LN both in patients with normal renal function and in those with renal impairment.
    American Journal of Nephrology 05/2013; 37(6):509-517. DOI:10.1159/000350756 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Mycophenolate (MF) is effective as induction therapy for lupus nephritis (LN) in patients with normal renal function; however, little is known about its role in patients with impaired renal failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response to MF in LN and its association with baseline renal function. Methods: Data were obtained for 90 patients from 12 Spanish renal units who were receiving MF as induction therapy for LN. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and group 2 (eGFR <60 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2)). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of patients who achieved any response and its relationship with initial eGFR. The secondary outcome measures were the percentage of patients who achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and the appearance of relapses during treatment and side effects. Results: At initiation of MF treatment, there were no differences in the main parameters between group 1 (n = 63; eGFR 87 ± 23 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2)) and group 2 (n = 27; eGFR 44 ± 12 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Exposure to prednisone and MF was similar. The percentages of patients who achieved a response in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively, 69.2 and 43.8% at 6 months and 81.3 and 73.7% at 12 months. CR was more frequent in group 1, whereas PR was similar in both groups. Four patients relapsed and side effects were unremarkable. Conclusions: MF is effective and safe as induction therapy for LN, and response is even achieved in patients with baseline renal impairment.
    American Journal of Nephrology 04/2012; 35(5):424-33. DOI:10.1159/000337916 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pleiotropic effects of vitamin D are known to go beyond mineral metabolism. The aims of this study were to: 1) Determine the 25(OH)D levels in predialysis outpatients. 2) Find out the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, and predictive factors for the deficiency. Patients and methods: An observational study in 79 predialysis outpatients was performed. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analysed in terms of nutrition, inflammation and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25(OH)D. Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15ng/ml were considered to be deficient. Serum levels of 25(OH)D were deficient in 41 patients (52%). The comparative study regarding levels of vitamin 25(OH)D showed the group of patients with a deficiency, i.e. those with less than 15ng/ml, were older (70 ± 11.97 vs. 61 ± 14.5; p = 0.005), had a greater body mass index, BMI, (30±4.06 vs. 27.1 ± 5.08; p = 0.003) and increased proteinuria (1.42g/24h (0.53-2.96) vs. 0.51 (0.20-1.48), p = 0.009). This group included a greater number of diabetic patients: 20 (76.9%) vs. 6 (23%), p = 0.002. They had a higher level of parathyroid hormone (PTH): 359 (239-658) vs. 233 (129-323), p = 0.000; and more patients were under treatment with Calcitriol: 28 (62.2%) vs. 17 (37.8%), p = 0.024. In the multivariate analysis, high levels of PTH (OR 13.38; CI 95% [2.94-60.89]; p=0.001), increased proteinuria (OR 4.41; CI 95% [1.12-17.25]; p = 0.033); and being diabetic (OR 5.713; CI 95% [1.43-22.77]; p = 0.014) were independent predictor factors for patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. In our study, we observed a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency among patients with CKD. The increased levels of PTH, the increase of proteinuria and the presence of diabetes were independent predictors for 25(OH)D deficiency.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 03/2011; 31(2):185-91. DOI:10.3265/Nefrologia.pre2011.Jan.10560 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) have been associated with increased mortality in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesize that elevated ALP could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Doppler echocardiography was performed in 68 patients with advanced CKD followed up for a median of 2.1 years. Time-averaged levels of ALP and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were compared between patients with and without diastolic dysfunction. We also evaluated the effect of intensifying diuretic treatment on ALP levels in a small group of 16 patients with high ALP and signs of volume overload. ALP correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with GGT but not with parathyroid hormone (p = 0.09). Patients with diastolic dysfunction showed higher ALP (p = 0.01), higher GGT (p = 0.03) and lower albumin (p = 0.04). The highest values of ALP were observed in patients with diastolic dysfunction plus pulmonary hypertension (p = 0.01). Intensifying diuretic therapy in a subgroup of patients with signs of fluid overload induced a significant reduction in body weight, GGT (p < 0.001) and ALP levels (p < 0.001). Elevated ALP in patients with advanced CKD could be partly explained by subclinical liver congestion related to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, hypervolemia or both. The worse prognosis of these patients could be explained by their myocardial damage.
    01/2011; 1(1):283-91. DOI:10.1159/000335303
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Decreased levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) have been reported in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The pleiotropic effects of vitamin D are known to go beyond mineral metabolism. Objetives: The aims of this study were to: 1) Determine the 25(OH)D levels in predialysis outpatients. 2) Find out the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with 25(OH)D deficiency, and predictive factors for the deficiency. Patients and methods: An observational study in 79 predialysis outpatients was performed. Clinical and biochemical parameters were analysed in terms of nutrition, inflammation and mineral metabolism in relation to serum levels of 25(OH)D. Levels of 25(OH)D lower than 15ng/ml were considered to be deficient. Results: Serum levels of 25(OH)D were deficient in 41 patients (52%). The comparative study regarding levels of vitamin 25(OH)D showed the group of patients with a deficiency, i.e. those with less than 15ng/ml, were older (70 ± 11.97 vs. 61 ± 14.5; p = 0.005), had a greater body mass index, BMI, (30±4.06 vs. 27.1 ± 5.08; p = 0.003) and increased proteinuria (1.42g/24h (0.53–2.96) vs. 0.51 (0.20–1.48), p = 0.009). This group included a greater number of diabetic patients: 20 (76.9%) vs. 6 (23%), p = 0.002. They had a higher level of parathyroid hormone (PTH): 359 (239–658) vs. 233 (129–323), p = 0.000; and more patients were under treatment with Calcitriol: 28 (62.2%) vs. 17 (37.8%), p = 0.024. In the multivariate analysis, high levels of PTH (OR 13.38; CI 95% [2.94–60.89]; p=0.001), increased proteinuria (OR 4.41; CI 95% [1.12–17.25]; p = 0.033); and being diabetic (OR 5.713; CI 95% [1.43–22.77]; p = 0.014) were independent predictor factors for patients with 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions: In our study, we observed a high prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency among patients with CKD. The increased levels of PTH, the increase of proteinuria and the presence of diabetes were independent predictors for 25(OH)D deficiency.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 12/2010; 31(2):185-191. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous remission is a well known characteristic of idiopathic membranous nephropathy, but contemporary studies describing predictors of remission and long-term outcomes are lacking. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of 328 patients with nephrotic syndrome resulting from idiopathic membranous nephropathy that initially received conservative therapy. Spontaneous remission occurred in 104 (32%) patients: proteinuria progressively declined after diagnosis until remission of disease at 14.7 +/- 11.4 months. Although spontaneous remission was more frequent with lower levels of baseline proteinuria, it also frequently occurred in patients with massive proteinuria: 26% among those with baseline proteinuria 8 to 12 g/24 h and 22% among those with proteinuria >12 g/24 h. Baseline serum creatinine and proteinuria, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonists, and a >50% decline of proteinuria from baseline during the first year of follow-up were significant independent predictors for spontaneous remission. Only six patients (5.7%) experienced a relapse of nephrotic syndrome. The incidence of death and ESRD were significantly lower among patients with spontaneous remission. In conclusion, spontaneous remission is common among patients with nephrotic syndrome resulting from membranous nephropathy and carries a favorable long-term outcome with a low incidence of relapse. A decrease in proteinuria >50% from baseline during the first year predicts spontaneous remission.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2010; 21(4):697-704. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2009080861 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to analyze the longitudinal changes in cardiac biomarker levels in hemodialysis patients with high comorbidity treated in our special hospital unit. We hypothesize that strict volume control strategy (salt-restricted diet, extended dialysis sessions and dry weight clinical assessment and reassessment in every session) could prevent progression of left-ventricular damage and, therefore, progressive increment in cardiac biomarker levels over time. This is a longitudinal cohort study including 46 dialysis patients in which a strategy of strict volume control has been adopted. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), troponin T and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured at baseline and prospectively at 4, 8 and 12 months. The possible association between volume control and cardiac biomarker levels was analyzed. Dry weight could be reduced (p < 0.01) over time. A reduction in systolic BP (p < 0.05) and in CRP levels (p < 0.05) was observed, whereas NT-proBNP and troponin T values remained stable. However, patients in the high quartile of NT-proBNP at baseline showed a reduction (p = 0.02) in troponin T over time with no significant trend (p = 0.08) to progressive reduction in NT-proBNP values. Strict volume control in dialysis patients may prevent progressive increment in cardiac biomarker levels over time. The impact seems to be higher among patients with higher levels at baseline in whom strict volume control can even reduce cardiac biomarker levels on follow-up.
    Nephron Clinical Practice 07/2009; 113(2):c96-103. DOI:10.1159/000228541 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated the use of telemedicine in the long-term control of stable patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis at home. From September 2003 to August 2005, patients were randomly selected from current cases and invited to join study group A, in which they had telemedicine support. Patients not selected for this group, or who refused the invitation, were placed in study group B, and used for comparison. There were 25 patients in group A and 32 patients in group B. Videoconferencing equipment was installed in each patient's home, connected to a videoconferencing unit at the hospital by three ISDN lines. Patients in group A were followed for a mean of 8 months (range 3-24) with alternate months of teleconsultations and hospital visits. A total of 172 teleconsultations were conducted. A mean of 22 min (SD 9) were spent on each teleconsultation, significantly less than in hospital consultations, which took a mean of 33 min (SD 8) (P<0.01). In 148 teleconsultations (89%) medical treatment was modified. In 4 cases (2%) patients needed a hospital visit. In all instances (100%) the condition of the catheter exit site and the presence of oedema could be evaluated. In group A, the estimated cost of telemedicine was euro198 and that of a hospital visit was euro177. The mean hospitalization rate was 2.2 days/patient/year in group A and 5.7 days/patient/year in group B (P<0.05). Home telemedicine appears to be clinically useful in the long-term follow-up of stable patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and the costs and savings also seem to be encouraging.
    Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 09/2007; 13(6):288-92. DOI:10.1258/135763307781644906 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (SEP) is a rare but serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with a high morbi-mortality. We describe our experience with patients was diagnostic of SEP, their characteristics in CAPD and their clinic evolution after diagnosis. 190 CAPD patients were follow-up during 17 years. Eight patients (4,2%) developed SEP. Average age 45 ± 14 years (range 29-64 years), four was male. Time in CAPD was 72 ± 29 months (range 24-120 months). All patients have peritonitis previously (mean 3 ± 1). We observe a change in peritoneum characteristics (D/P Cr 4), with an average of 0.6 ± 0.1 at one year of CAPD, versus 0.82 ± 0.08 at the end of CAPD, with statistic significance (p < 0.001). There are increases in use of hypertonic bags: 53% ± 28 at beginning versus 91% ± 27 at end, with statistic significance (p < 0.009). All patients show tendency to hyperphosphoremia (mean 6.7 ± 0.7 mg/dl), with product calcium-phosphorus 68.4 ± 8.3. Five patients (62.5%) have a previous renal transplant, one lost due to early graft thrombosis and two lost due to acute rejection. Six patients (75%) have a previous abdominal surgery, although was extra peritoneal in all cases. The diagnosis of SEP was clinic suspicion in all cases, suggestive radiological data (intestinal hand-le group) and laparoscopy showing SEP (cocoon) with histological confirmation (fi-brosis and peritoneal calcification) in four cases. The treatment was medical in six cases associated with surgery in four of them. The medical treatment was tamoxifen and/or corticosteroids, associated with total parenteral nutrition in two patients and enteral nutrition in one. Surgery in six patients: three as urgent surgery (all died) and three as programme surgery (two live still). Etiology of died was: three for sepsis, one for peritonitis after bowel perforation, one for severe problems of nutrition. The ave-rage survival of three patients alive was 38 ± 17 months, two of them had program-me surgery, and one with functioning transplant we opt for conservative treatment. The actuarial survival at 24 months was 51%. Conclusion: The SEP is a serious entity with high mortality. Although our short experience doesn't can indicate a concrete treatment, our personal impression is that early surgery associated with corticoste-roids treatment may improve the prognostic Key words: Sclerosing encapsulatin peritonitis. Peritoneal dialysis. Surgical treat-ment.
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    ABSTRACT: The sustained elevation of phosphorous among patients with end-stage renal failure is associated with elevated mortality rates. Phosphate binding agents are usually necessary to control serum phosphate levels. Phosphate removal during dialysis is limited largely due to the intracellular location of most inorganic phosphorous. The membrane surface, the frequency and the duration of therapy have proved to be very important factors in the serum phosphate control. THE AIM of our work is to investigate the influence on phosphate removal of factors that normally participate in the haemodialysis session: Plasma phosphate level (Php), treatment duration, membrane surface, high or low-flux membranes, the vascular access, dialysate flux , the volume of blood passing through the dialyzer (L) in each dialysis session and the blood flow during the first hour of dialysis. On 16 patients, we also had the possibility of comparing phosphate removal with 1.8 m(2) high-flux haemodialysis, 1.8 m(2) on-line hemodiafiltration and the on-line technique with the new Helixone dialyzer Fresenius Fx100. 108 haemodialysis patients, 62% men, 38% women aged 21-82 years (61+/-14;mean+/-sem),) were selected for the study. Mean treatment time 4.14+/-0.41 hours (range 3.5-5 hours). The vascular access was an arterio-venous fistula in eighty five (78%) and a double lumen tunnelled catheter 23 (22%). Patients were studied under their normal every day conditions. High-flux membrane was used by 31 (30%) patients and low-flux membrane by 77 (70%). Membrane surface was: 1.7 m2:17 (16%); 1.8 m2:77 (71%); 2,1 m2:14 (13%). Dialysate flux was: 500 ml/min. 55 patients; 700 ml/min: 53 patients. In 16 out of 108 patients we had the possibility of using on-line hemodiafiltration with ultrapure bicarbonate-buffered dialysate. Phosphate mass removal (MPO4) was calculated using the formula:MPO4=0.1 t-17+50 Cds 60+11Cb 60 (1), where t is treatment time in minutes, Cds60 and Cb60 are phosphate concentrations in dialysate and plasma measured at 60 min from the beginning of hemodialysis in mg/dl, and MPO4 is the estimated phosphate removed in mg/treatment. We found a good correlation between phosphate removal and serum phosphate levels (p=0.01), but not with the membrane surface or treatment duration. Phosphate removal was 640+/-180 mg/session with low-flux membrane and 700+/-170 mg/session with high-flux membrane (p=0.280). The MPO4 was 720+/-190 mg/treatment in patients with a AV fistula and 620+/-180 in patients with a tunnelled catheter (p=0.023). We found a good correlation between phosphate removal and the volume of blood (L) that passed the dialyzer in each session (r=0.001) but we did not find a correlation between phosphate removal and KT/Vurea, the dialysate flux or the ultra filtration. On-line technique did not increased the MPO4(733+/-280 mg, p=0.383). The on-line technique with the new dialyzer (Fresenius Fx100), increased the phosphate removal to 759+/-199 mg/session (p=0.057). Phosphate removal during dialysis is influenced by Plasma phosphate levels, the volume of blood that passed the dialyzer and the vascular access. Uniformity on time and membrane surface could explain the abs cense of influence in our case. The ultra filtration, dialysate flux, membrane permeability or on-line hemodiafiltration does not influence the phosphate removal. The new membrane helixone with 2,1 m2 (Fresenius Fx100) increases phosphate removal probably because the membrane surface is higher.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2007; 27(1):46-52. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis (SEP) is a rare but serious complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with a high morbi-mortality. We describe our experience with patients was diagnostic of SEP, their characteristics in CAPD and their clinic evolution after diagnosis. 190 CAPD patients were follow-up during 17 years. Eight patients (4.2%) developed SEP. Average age 45+/-14 years (range 29-64 years), four was male. Time in CAPD was 72+/-29 months (range 24-120 months). All patients have peritonitis previously (mean 3+/-1). We observe a change in peritoneum characteristics (D/P Cr 4), with an average of 0.6+/-0.1 at one year of CAPD, versus 0.82+/-0.08 at the end of CAPD, with statistic significance (p<0.001). There are increases in use of hypertonic bags: 53%+/-28 at beginning versus 91%+/-27 at end, with statistic significance (p<0.009). All patients show tendency to hyperphosphoremia (mean 6.7+/-0.7 mg/dl), with product calcium-phosphorus 68.4+/-8.3. Five patients (62.5%) have a previous renal transplant, one lost due to early graft thrombosis and two lost due to acute rejection. Six patients (75%) have a previous abdominal surgery, although was extra peritoneal in all cases. The diagnosis of SEP was clinic suspicion in all cases, suggestive radiological data (intestinal handle group) and laparoscopy showing SEP (cocoon) with histological confirmation (fibrosis and peritoneal calcification) in four cases. The treatment was medical in six cases associated with surgery in four of them. The medical treatment was tamoxifen and/or corticosteroids, associated with total parenteral nutrition in two patients and enteral nutrition in one. Surgery in six patients: three as urgent surgery (all died) and three as programme surgery (two live still). Etiology of died was: three for sepsis, one for peritonitis after bowel perforation, one for severe problems of nutrition. The average survival of three patients alive was 38+/-17 months, two of them had programme surgery, and one with functioning transplant we opt for conservative treatment. The actuarial survival at 24 months was 51%. CONCLUSION: The SEP is a serious entity with high mortality. Although our short experience doesn't can indicate a concrete treatment, our personal impression is that early surgery associated with corticosteroids treatment may improve the prognostic.
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 01/2007; 27(6):729-36. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a patient who developed type II heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and accidentally received a recombinant hirudin (r-hirudin) overdosage. Treatment with hemodialysis (HD) using high-flux polysulfone dialyzer and hemofiltration was performed. Length of treatment was adjusted, monitoring activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) to 1.5-2.5 times the mean of the normal range. She developed deep venous thrombosis and occlusion of vascular access. Only after cessation of heparin lock catheter, platelet count began to increase. After one year of treatment with acenocoumarol and additional low-dose r-hirudin, neither bleeding nor thrombotic episodes have been reported.
    Clinical nephrology 11/2006; 66(4):302-5. DOI:10.5414/CNP66302 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • A Molina · A Oliet · A Carreño · L Lozano
    Nefrologia: publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola Nefrologia 02/2006; 26(3):399-400. · 1.44 Impact Factor