ABSTRACT: Quercetin, a flavonol contained in various vegetables and herbal medicines, has various biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-allergic and anti-oxidative activities. However, low oral bioavailability of quercetin due to insolubility in water has limited its use as a food additive or dietary supplement. Since the water solubility is enhanced by glycosyl conjugation, in the present study, we evaluated the bioavailability of several quercetin glycosides with different sugar moieties in rats. Quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin), and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin, IQC) in suspension, and quercetin-3-O-maltoside (Q3M), quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside (Q3G), alpha-monoglucosyl rutin (alphaMR), alpha-oligoglucosyl rutin (alphaOR), and enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (alpha-oligoglucosyl isoquercitrin, EMIQ) dissolved in water, were orally administered to rats under anesthesia. Bioavailability (F value) was calculated from the concentrations of total quercetin in plasma from 0 to 12 h after the administration. F value of quercetin was 2.0%, and those of IQC, Q3M and EMIQ were 12%, 30%, and 35%, respectively. Although Q3G, alphaMR and alphaOR have high water solubility, their F values were low (3.0%, 4.1%, 1.8%, respectively). In the in vitro study, the homogenate of rat intestinal epithelium rapidly hydrolyzed IQC, Q3M and EMIQ to quercetin, and alphaMR and alphaOR to rutin. However, it could not hydrolyze Q3G or rutin to quercetin. Elongation of alpha-linkage of glucose moiety in IQC enhances the bioavailability of quercetin, and intestinal epithelial enzymes such as lactase-phrolizin hydrolase or mucosal maltase-glucoamylase would play important roles in the hydrolysis and absorption of these flavonol glycosides.
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 12/2009; 32(12):2034-40. · 1.66 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are nutrients that exert anti-allergic effects. We investigated the preventative effect of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a flavonoid, to relieve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis.
In a parallel-group, double-blind placebo-controlled study design, 24 subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis took 100mg EMIQ or a placebo for 8 weeks, starting 4 weeks prior to the onset of pollen release. Subjective symptoms, ADL scores and the usage of drugs were recorded daily, and the QOL score was obtained every 4 weeks. Blood sampling was performed before and after the study to measure serum levels of IgE and flavonoids.
During the entire study period, ocular symptom + medication score for the EMIQ group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of the placebo group. When limited to the period, ocular symptom scores (p < 0.05, weeks 5-6), and ocular congestion scores (p < 0.05, weeks 5-6) for the EMIQ group was significantly lower than that for the placebo group while other scores for the EMIQ group, such as ocular itching scores (p = 0.09, weeks 4-5), lacrimation scores (p = 0.07, weeks 5-6), and ocular congestion scores (p = 0.06, weeks 4-5), all tended to be lower. However no significant differences were found in nasal symptoms between the two groups. Serum concentrations of IgE were not significantly downregulated but the serum concentrations of quercetin and its derivatives were elevated significantly by the intake of EMIQ. CONCLUSIONs: Intake of the quercetin glycoside EMIQ proved to be effective for the relief of ocular symptoms caused by Japanese cedar pollinosis.
Allergology International 06/2009; 58(3):373-82.
ABSTRACT: Flavonoids exert antiallergic and antioxidant effects. We investigated the efficacy of enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a flavonoid, to relieve symptoms of pollinosis.
In a parallel-group, double-blind placebo-controlled study design, 20 subjects with Japanese cedar pollinosis took two capsules daily of 100 mg EMIQ or a placebo for 8 weeks during the pollen season. Subjective symptoms and activities of daily living (ADL) scores were recorded every day, and the quality of life (QOL) score was obtained every 4 weeks. Blood sampling was performed before and after the study to measure serum cytokines, chemokines, IgE, quercetin and oxidized biomarkers.
During the entire study period, total ocular score and ocular itching score for the EMIQ group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for the placebo group. When limited to the individual periods, total symptom score for the EMIQ group was significantly lower (p < 0.05, week 4-5) than that for the placebo group while other scores for the EMIQ group, such as total nasal score (p = 0.06, week 4-5), nasal obstruction score (p = 0.08, week 4-5), lacrimation score (p = 0.06, week 5-6), ocular congestion score (p = 0.08, week 4-7) and ADL score (p = 0.08, week 4-7), all tended to be lower. The levels of serum cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-13, interferon-gamma, and eotaxin and IgE were not significantly downregulated by the intake of EMIQ but the serum concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine were reduced.
Intake of the quercetin glycoside EMIQ was safe and influenced ocular symptoms caused by pollinosis.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 03/2009; 149(4):359-68. · 2.40 Impact Factor