[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple route for improving the potency of progesterone as a modulator of P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance was established by esterification and/or etherification of hydroxylated 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione or 5β-cholan-3-one precursors. X-ray crystallography of representative 7α-, 11α- and 17α-(2'R/S)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether diastereoisomers revealed different combinations of axial-equatorial configurations of the anomeric oxygen. Substantial stimulation of accumulation and chemosensitization was observed on K562/R7 erythroleukemia cells resistant to doxorubicin, especially using 7α,11α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5α/β-pregnane-3,20-dione, among which the 5β-H-7α-benzoyloxy-11α-(2'R)-O-tetrahydropyranyl ether 22a revealed promising properties (accumulation index: 2.9, IC50: 0.5 µM versus 1.2 and 10.6 µM for progesterone), slightly overcoming those of verapamil and cyclosporin A. Several 7α,12α-O-disubstituted derivatives of 5β-cholan-3-one proved even more active especially the 7α-O-methoxymethyl-12α-benzoate 56 (accumulation index: 3.8, IC50: 0.2 µM). The panel of modulating effects from different O-substitutions at a same position suggests a structural influence of the substituent completing a simple protection against stimulating effects of hydroxyl groups on P-gp-mediated transport.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bivalent ligands were designed on the basis of the described close proximity of the ATP-site and the putative steroid-binding site of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). The syntheses of 19 progesterone-adenine hybrids are described. Their abilities to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 human leukemic cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein were evaluated versus progesterone. The hybrid with a hexamethylene linker chain showed the best inhibitory potency. The efficiency of these progesterone-adenine hybrids depends on two main factors: (i) the nature of the linker and (ii) its attachment point on the steroid skeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used a 2D-electrophoresis (2-DE) proteomic approach to identify novel biomarkers in node-negative breast cancers. This retrospective study focused on a population of patients with ductal pN0M0 tumours. A subset of patients who developed metastases and in whose tumours were found high levels of uPA and PAI-1 (metastatic relapse, MR: n=20) were compared to another subset in whom no metastatic relapse occurred and whose tumours were found to have low levels of uPA and PAI-1 (no relapse, NR: n=21). We used a 2-DE coupled with MS approach to screen cytosol fractions using two pH-gradient scales, a broad scale (3.0-11.0) and a narrower scale focussing in on a protein rich region (5.0-8.0). This study was conducted on 41 cytosol specimens analyzed in duplicate on two platforms. The differential analysis of more than 2,000 spots in 2-DE gels, obtained on the two platforms, allowed the identification of 13 proteins which were confirmed by western blotting. Two proteins, GPDA and FABP4 were down-regulated in the MR subset whereas all the others were up-regulated. An in silico analysis revealed that GMPS (GUAA), GAPDH (G3P), CFL1 (COF1) and FTL (FRIL), the most informative genes, displayed a proliferation profile (high expression in basal-like, HER2+ and luminal B molecular subtypes). Inversely, similar to FABP4, GPD1 [GPDA] displayed a high expression in luminal A subtype, a profile characteristic of tumour suppressor genes. Despite the small size of our cohort, the 2-DE analysis gave interesting results which were confirmed by the in silico analysis showing that some of the corresponding genes had a strong prognostic impact in breast cancer, mostly because of their link with proliferation: GMPS, GAPDH, FTL and GPD1. A validation phase on a larger cohort is now needed before these biomarkers could be considered for use in clinical practice.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2012; 41(1):92-104. · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel prognostic biomarkers are imperatively needed to help direct treatment decisions by typing subgroups of node-negative breast cancer patients. Large screening of different biological compartments, such as the proteome, by means of high throughput techniques may greatly help scientists to find such markers. The present retrospective multicentric study included 268 node-negative breast cancer patients. We used a proteomic approach of SELDI-TOF-MS screening to identify differentially expressed cytosolic proteins with prognostic impact. The screening cohort was composed of 198 patients. Seventy supplementary patients were included for validation. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoassay (IA) were run to confirm the prognostic role of the marker identified by SELDI-TOF-MS screening. IHC was also used to explore links between selected marker and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like, proliferation and macrophage markers. Ferritin light chain (FTL) was identified as an independent prognostic marker (HR = 1.30-95% CI: 1.10-1.50, p = 0.001). Validation step by means of IHC and IA confirmed the prognostic value of FTL level. CD68 IHC showed that FTL was stored in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which exhibit an M2-like phenotype. We report here, first, the validation of FTL as a breast tumor prognostic biomarker in node-negative patients, and second, the fact that FTL is stored in TAM.
International Journal of Cancer 08/2011; 131(2):426-37. · 6.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N(α)-Boc-l-Asp(OBn)-l-Lys(Z)-OtBu (reversin 121, 1), an inhibitor of the P-gp ABC transporter, was used to conceive compounds inhibiting the drug efflux occurring through the Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin transport sites of P-gp, respectively H and R sites. Replacement of the aspartyl residue by trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline (4(R)Hyp) gave compounds 11 and 15 characterized by half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 0.6 and 0.2 μM, which are 2- and 7-fold lower than that of the parent molecule. The difference in IC(50) between 11 and 15 rests on the carbonyl group of the peptidyl bond, reduced in 15. Those compounds are rather specific of P-gp, having no or limited activity on MRP1 and BCRP. 15 displayed no marked cytotoxicity up to 10-fold its IC(50). Importantly, 15 equally inhibited the Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin effluxes through a typical noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, suggesting its binding to a site different from the H and R drug-transport sites.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2010; 53(18):6720-9. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Steroidal bivalent ligands were designed on the basis of the described closer proximity of the ATP-site and the putative steroid-binding site of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). The syntheses of seven progesterone-adenine hybrids were described. Their abilities to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 human leukemic cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein were evaluated versus progesterone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testosterone (T) circulates in the blood tightly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and weakly to albumin. Measuring protein unbound T (free) or non-SHBG-bound T rather than total T has been recommended for the evaluation of androgen disorders in humans. Ammonium sulfate precipitation has been widely used to separate [SHBG-T] complex from free and albumin-bound T. To achieve more specificity in this separation, we used monoclonal anti-SHBG antibody and developed a suitable and convenient immunoassay for measuring non-SHBG-bound T. Magnetic beads were covalently coupled to a monoclonal anti-SHBG antibody to capture [SHBG-T] complex from plasma samples. Magnetic separation was then performed to allow measurement of non-SHBG-bound T in the supernatant by direct radioimmunoassay. When 300 microL of plasma samples were incubated at room temperature with 10 microL of anti-SHBG beads, residual SHBG concentration was undetectable in the supernatant. The specificity of proteins retained on anti-SHBG beads was further demonstrated by peptide mass fingerprint on a MALDI-TOF analyzer. The non-specific adsorption of T on beads was low (5%), and dissociation of T from SHBG-T complex was less than 5% after 180 min of incubation. The plasma concentrations of non-SHBG-bound T using anti-SHBG beads were highly correlated to those obtained using ammonium sulfate precipitation. We conclude that SHBG immunocapture is a highly specific and useful tool for an experimental direct measurement of plasma non-SHBG-bound T. This methodology is also convenient and appropriate for routine and automated assay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transport binding protein for sex steroid hormones in plasma and regulates their accessibility to target cells. Plasma SHBG is secreted by the liver under the control of hormones and nutritional factors. In the human hepatoma cell line (HepG2), thyroid and estrogenic hormones, and a variety of drugs including the antioestrogen tamoxifen, the phytoestrogen, genistein and mitotane (Op'DDD) increase SHBG production and SHBG gene promoter activity. In contrast, monosaccharides (glucose or fructose) effectively decrease SHBG expression by inducing lipogenesis, which reduces hepatic HNF-4alpha levels, a transcription factor that play a critical role in controlling the SHBG promoter. Interestingly, diminishing hepatic lipogenesis and free fatty acid liver biosynthesis also appear to be associated with the positive effects of thyroid hormones and PPARgamma antagonists on SHBG expression. This mechanism provides a biological explanation for why SHBG is a sensitive biomarker of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and why low plasma SHBG levels are a risk factor for developing hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes, especially in women. These important advances in our knowledge of the regulation of SHBG expression in the liver open new approaches for identifying and preventing metabolic disorder-associated diseases early in life.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 09/2009; 316(1):53-9. · 4.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A, an environmental compound with estrogenic activity, has been shown to bind human sex steroid hormone-binding globulin (hSHBG), the main plasma transport protein which regulates the metabolism of androgens and estrogens and limits their access to target organs. The present study was conducted to determine whether physiologically relevant concentrations of hSHBG can influence the blood clearance rate of bisphenol A and its accumulation in the testes. A radioactive [2-125I]iodobisphenol tracer was synthesized with an association constant (Ka) for binding to hSHBG of 0.14 +/- 0.01 x 10(6) M(-1) at 37 degrees C, a value much lower than for [2-125I]iodoestradiol, which was also synthesized. We used i.v. injection of immunopurified hSHBG in adult male mice to maintain hSHBG levels within the physiologically possible range for humans (27-267 nM) before gavage administration of [2-125I]iodobisphenol or [2-125I]iodoestradiol, for measuring the blood clearance rate of radioactive signal in blood samples taken during the following 120 min. Testicular accumulation of radioactivity was measured 24 h and 48 h after gavage of [2-125]iodobisphenol A. In mice receiving immunopurified hSHBG or vehicle, the time-dependent blood clearance of radioactivity exhibited a bi-exponential decrease which indicated alpha-diffusion and beta-elimination phases for both radioactive ligands. The presence of circulating hSHBG significantly and dose-dependently lowered the clearance rate of radioactivity. However, much higher circulating levels of hSHBG were required to retard the blood clearance of [2-125I]iodobisphenol A as compared to those required for [2-125I]iodoestradiol, in keeping with the important difference in their respective Ka value for binding to SHBG. In addition, mice treated with hSHBG exhibited significantly (P = 0.036) reduced testicular accumulation of radioactivity 24 h and 48 h after ingestion of [2-125I]iodobisphenol A. Provided that the binding properties of bisphenol A for hSHBG are not substantially different from those measured for [2-125I]iodobisphenol A, these findings suggest that, although hSHBG binds 2-mono-iodobisphenol A with a relatively low binding affinity, high enough concentrations of circulating hSHBG (range concentrations between 85 and 267 nM) are potentially able to exert a protective effect against exposure to bisphenol A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A mouse monoclonal anti-7-(O-carboxymethyl)oximinoestradiol antibody 9D3, raised against the same immunogen as that employed for generating the reported anti-estradiol antibody 15H11 [Rousselot, P., et al. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 7860-7868], was found to exhibit an opposite specificity profile with a much stronger recognition of the D-ring than of the A-ring extremity of the steroid, but a similar lack of specificity for both 6- and 7-positions of the B-ring. This antibody was photoaffinity-labeled with five (5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl)amido (ANBA) derivatives of [17alpha-(3)H]estradiol, synthesized from 3-aminoethyloxy, 3-(aminoethylamido)carboxymethyloxy, 6alpha- and 6beta-amino, and 7-[O-(aminoethylamido)carboxymethyl]oximino precursors. After tryptic digestion, the radioactive peptides on L and H chains were immunopurified with the immobilized antibody 9D3, separated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography, sequenced, and characterized by mass spectrometry, including post-source decay-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The long 3-(ANBA-ethylamido)carboxymethyl ether photoreagent was found to label TyrL-32 (on CDR L1), whereas no labeling was observed with the shorter 3-derivative, a result in agreement with a binding pocket large enough to explain the high cross-reactivity with estradiol 3-conjugates. The two 6alpha- and 6beta-ANBA-estradiol isomers, as well as the 7-[O-(ANBA-ethylamido)carboxymethyl]oximinoestradiol photoreagent derived from the steroid hapten, labeled the same TyrL-32 residue. The 6beta-ANBA epimer also labeled TyrH-50 (at the basis of CDR H2). These experiments indicate that TyrL-32 is freely accessible from the three C3, C6, and C7 positions, all presumed to be exposed to solvent, while TyrH-50 is probably located on the beta-face of estradiol. These results, obtained in solution, provide experimental data useful for molecular modeling of the steroid-antibody complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purified human SHBG was photoaffinity labeled with 17alpha-aminomethyl (M), 17alpha-aminoethyl (E), and 17alpha-aminopropyl (P) derivatives of [3alpha-(3)H]-5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol coupled to 5-azido-2-nitrobenzoylamido (ANB), 4-azido-2-nitrophenylamino (ANP), and 5-azido-2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluorophenylamino (ANTFP) chromophores. Successful labeling was achieved in all cases except for the two photoreagents with the shortest side chains, namely, ANP-M and ANTFP-M derivatives. Edman sequencing and mass spectrometry of immunopurified photolabeled tryptic fragments revealed that radioactivity was present either on the sequence of residues 73-94, uniquely at the level of Trp-84 (stable covalent labeling), or on one of the two overlapping sequences of residues 126-134 and 126-135, at the level of Pro-130 (labile labeling) and Lys-134 (either stable or partially labile labeling), respectively. The same Trp-84 was photolabeled with the three ANB derivatives of increasing lengths, and by the ANP-P photoreagent. This residue was the exclusive target for the shortest [(3)H]ANB-M photoreagent but was a minor site for the longest [(3)H]ANB-P photoreagent, essentially recovered at the level of Pro-130. The [(3)H]ANB-E photoreagent of intermediate size also labeled exclusively Trp-84, except in some experiments in which photolabeling was recovered predominantly at the level of Pro-130. The [(3)H]ANP-P photoreagent with an overall length similar to that of the ANB-P photoreagent labeled simultaneously Trp-84 (minor site) and Lys-134. The other [(3)H]ANP-E, [(3)H]ANTFP-E, and [(3)H]ANTFP-P derivatives labeled in all cases Lys-134. These findings indicate that the conserved Trp-84 and the two Pro-130 and Lys-134 residues are all located in the vicinity of the D ring of steroid ligands and remain freely accessible from the C17alpha position, thus providing biochemical data delineating the corresponding region of the steroid-binding site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photoactivable aryl azide reagents, N-(5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl)oxysuccinimide, 4-azido-1-fluoro-2-nitrobenzene, and 4-azido-1-nitro-2,4,5, 6-tetrafluorobenzene have been condensed at the extremity of three 17alpha-aminomethyl, 17alpha-aminoethyl, and 17alpha-aminopropyl side-chains introduced on (17S)-spiro-(3, 3-dimethoxy)-5alpha-androstan-17beta,2'-oxirane either directly, by ammonolysis, in the first case, or by conversion to nitrile intermediates with cyano or cyanomethyl anions and subsequent reduction to amines with lithium aluminum hydride, in the two other cases. The 3,3-dimethoxy group of these photoreagents was cleaved by acidolysis to a 3-ketone, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to a 3beta-alcohol. All of these compounds were characterized by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR as well as by (1)H, (13)C heteronuclear 2D NMR, which helped to resolve ambiguous assignments. Significant differences of substituent-induced effects on (13)C NMR signals were observed according to the 17alpha-side-chain length, the structure of the terminal aryl azide groups, and the solvent, showing a different behavior of N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl derivatives as compared with 4-azido-2-nitrophenylamino and 5-azido-2-nitro-3,4, 6-trifluorophenylamino derivatives. The N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl conjugates of the three 17alpha-aminomethyl, aminoethyl, and aminopropyl derivatives of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were tested as ligands for purified human sex hormone-binding globulin and for the cytosolic androgen receptor of rat ventral prostate by competition experiments with tritiated 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone. The increasing lengths of the aminomethyl, aminoethyl, and aminopropyl spacer arms of N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl conjugates were found to correspond to decreasing relative binding affinities for sex hormone-binding globulin (0.76, 0.47, and 0.10, respectively, versus 1.00 for 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone) while only the longer aminoethyl and aminopropyl conjugates interacted significantly with the androgen receptors (0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The photoactivable aryl azide reagents, N-(5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl)oxysuccinimide, 4-azido-1-fluoro-2-nitrobenzene, and 4-azido-1-nitro-2,4,5,6-tetrafluorobenzene have been condensed at the extremity of three 17α-aminomethyl, 17α-aminoethyl, and 17α-aminopropyl side-chains introduced on (17S)-spiro-(3,3-dimethoxy)-5α-androstan-17β,2′-oxirane either directly, by ammonolysis, in the first case, or by conversion to nitrile intermediates with cyano or cyanomethyl anions and subsequent reduction to amines with lithium aluminum hydride, in the two other cases. The 3,3-dimethoxy group of these photoreagents was cleaved by acidolysis to a 3-ketone, which was reduced with sodium borohydride to a 3β-alcohol. All of these compounds were characterized by 1H- and 13C-NMR as well as by 1H, 13C heteronuclear 2D NMR, which helped to resolve ambiguous assignments. Significant differences of substituent-induced effects on 13C NMR signals were observed according to the 17α-side-chain length, the structure of the terminal aryl azide groups, and the solvent, showing a different behavior of N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl derivatives as compared with 4-azido-2-nitrophenylamino and 5-azido-2-nitro-3,4,6-trifluorophenylamino derivatives. The N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl conjugates of the three 17α-aminomethyl, aminoethyl, and aminopropyl derivatives of 5α-dihydrotestosterone were tested as ligands for purified human sex hormone-binding globulin and for the cytosolic androgen receptor of rat ventral prostate by competition experiments with tritiated 5α-dihydrotestosterone. The increasing lengths of the aminomethyl, aminoethyl, and aminopropyl spacer arms of N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyl conjugates were found to correspond to decreasing relative binding affinities for sex hormone-binding globulin (0.76, 0.47, and 0.10, respectively, versus 1.00 for 5α-dihydrotestosterone) while only the longer aminoethyl and aminopropyl conjugates interacted significantly with the androgen receptors (0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human sex hormone-binding globulin (hSHBG) is a plasma glycoprotein that binds sex steroids with high affinity. Variations in hSHBG glycosylation contribute to its electrophoretic microheterogeneity, but the functional significance of different SHBG glycoforms is unknown. Carbohydrates may influence the biological activities and half-lives of glycoproteins and we have examined how oligosaccharides at specific sites influence the plasma clearance of hSHBG in vivo. To accomplish this, fully-glycosylated hSHBG, or hSHBG mutants lacking specific oligosaccharides chains, were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. The purified recombinant proteins were then biotinylated to study their plasma half-lives after intravenous injection into rabbits. When compared to hSHBG isolated from serum, recombinant hSHBG migrates with a slightly larger average molecular size during denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This is due to a greater proportion (33-39% vs. 3%) of more highly branched N-linked oligosaccharides on the recombinant proteins. When injected into rabbits, the disappearance of recombinant hSHBG showed two exponential components, as previously shown for natural hSHBG in the same animal model. The mean +/- S.E.M. plasma half-lives of recombinant hSHBG (t 1/2alpha 0.11+/-0.03 h and t 1/2beta 18.94+/-1.65 h) are shorter than previously measured for natural hSHBG (t 1/2alpha 3.43+/-0.72 h and t 1/2beta 38.18+/-7.22 h) and this is likely due to differences in the composition of their N-linked oligosaccharides. An O-linked chain at Thr7 does not influence the plasma clearance of hSHBG in the presence or absence of N-linked carbohydrates at Asn351 and Asn367. However, a 1.5-1.6 fold (p<0.03) increase in plasma half-life of variants lacking both N-glycosylation sites was observed and this is probably due to the fact these variants are not recognized by the asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated clearance system. Removal of either N-glycosylation consensus site also increased (p<0.0001) the plasma half-life of hSHBG by 2.3 2.4 fold. Thus, the metabolic clearance of hSHBG appears to be determined by the number of N-linked oligosaccharides rather than their location.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 09/1999; 70(4-6):115-21. · 4.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purified rabbit and sheep sex hormone-binding globulins (SHBGs) were photolabeled by Delta 6-testosterone. The maximal levels of specific incorporation were respectively 0.33 and 0.30 mol of label/mol of homodimer. Tryptic cleavage of photolabeled SHBGs gave a single radioactive peptide for rabbit SHBG and two major radioactive peptides S1 and S2 for sheep SHBG. Edman sequencing of the photolabeled peptide of rabbit SHBG revealed a single sequence corresponding to peptidic fragment Leu-118-Lys-134. Subcleavage of this peptide with elastase led to a single radioactive peptidic fragment corresponding to dipeptide Met-133-Lys-134, identified by mass spectrometry, while deletion of the C-terminal residue with carboxypeptidase B showed that all the radioactivity remained on peptide Leu-118-Met-133, thus demonstrating that photolabeling occurred exclusively on Met-133, the only residue common to the two radioactive subcleaved peptides. Edman sequencing of peptides S1 and S2 of sheep SHBG showed a same single sequence corresponding to residues Gln-126-Arg-140 which contained no identifiable phenylthiohydantoin derivative at cycle 14, thus indicating that in both cases the corresponding Met-139 residue is the main site of photolabeling, as confirmed for peptide S1 by the presence at this cycle of a major peak of radioactivity while in peptide S2 the photoattachment of Delta 6-testosterone was found labile in the conditions of sequencing. The photolabeled peptide S1 was characterized by mass spectrometry which showed the covalent fixation of one mole of Delta 6-testosterone and the presence of a biantennary oligosaccharide attached at Asn-133, which suggests that the steroid-binding site is probably not deeply buried in the SHBG homodimer.