[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used EPR spectroscopy and computational modeling of nucleotide-analog spin probes to investigate conformational changes at the nucleotide site of myosin V. We find that, in the absence of actin, the mobility of a spin-labeled diphosphate analog [spin-labeled ADP (SLADP)] bound at the active site is strongly hindered, suggesting a closed nucleotide pocket. The mobility of the analog increases when the MV·SLADP complex (MV=myosin V) binds to actin, implying an opening of the active site in the A·MV·SLADP complex (A=actin). The probe mobilities are similar to those seen with myosin II, despite the fact that myosin V has dramatically altered kinetics. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to understand the EPR spectra in terms of the X-ray database. The X-ray structure of MV·ADP·BeFx shows a closed nucleotide site and has been proposed to be the detached state. The MV·ADP structure shows an open nucleotide site and has been proposed to be the A·MV·ADP state at the end of the working powerstroke. MD simulation of SLADP docked in the closed conformation gave a probe mobility comparable to that seen in the EPR spectrum of the MV·SLADP complex. The simulation of the open conformation gave a probe mobility that was 35-40° greater than that observed experimentally for the A·MV·SLADP state. Thus, EPR, X-ray diffraction, and computational analysis support the closed conformation as a myosin V state that is detached from actin. The MD results indicate that the MV·ADP crystal structure, which may correspond to the strained actin-bound post-powerstroke conformation resulting from head-head interaction in the dimeric processive motor, is superopened.
Journal of Molecular Biology 05/2011; 411(1):16-26. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro motility assays enabled the analysis of coupling between ATP hydrolysis and movement of myosin along actin filaments or kinesin along microtubules. Single-molecule assays using laser trapping have been used to obtain more detailed information about kinesins, myosins, and processive DNA enzymes. The combination of in vitro motility assays with laser-trap measurements has revealed detailed dynamic structural changes associated with the ATPase cycle. This protocol describes a method for attaching anti-GFP (green fluorescent protein) antibodies to microspheres. GFP-motor fusion proteins can then be adsorbed to the microspheres for use in single-molecule motility studies and optical trapping experiments.
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 01/2011; 2011(11):1370-1. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro motility assays enabled the analysis of coupling between ATP hydrolysis and movement of myosin along actin filaments or kinesin along microtubules. Single-molecule assays using laser trapping have been used to obtain more detailed information about kinesins, myosins, and processive DNA enzymes. The combination of in vitro motility assays with laser-trap measurements has revealed detailed dynamic structural changes associated with the ATPase cycle. This article describes the use of optical traps to study processive and nonprocessive molecular motor proteins, focusing on the design of the instrument and the assays to characterize motility.
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 01/2011; 2011(11):1305-18. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro motility assays enabled the analysis of coupling between ATP hydrolysis and movement of myosin along actin filaments or kinesin along microtubules. Single-molecule assays using laser trapping have been used to obtain more detailed information about kinesins, myosins, and processive DNA enzymes. The combination of in vitro motility assays with laser-trap measurements has revealed detailed dynamic structural changes associated with the ATPase cycle. This protocol describes the preparation of biotin-actin filaments and coverslips coated with polystyrene beads. These are then used in optical trapping dumbbell assays to study interactions between motors and filaments.
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols 01/2011; 2011(11):1372-4. · 4.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used spin-labeled ADP to investigate the dynamics of the nucleotide-binding pocket in a series of myosins, which have a range of velocities. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that the pocket is in equilibrium between open and closed conformations. In the absence of actin, the closed conformation is favored. When myosin binds actin, the open conformation becomes more favored, facilitating nucleotide release. We found that faster myosins favor a more closed pocket in the actomyosin•ADP state, with smaller values of ΔH(0) and ΔS(0), even though these myosins release ADP at a faster rate. A model involving a partitioning of free energy between work-generating steps prior to rate-limiting ADP release explains both the unexpected correlation between velocity and opening of the pocket and the observation that fast myosins are less efficient than slow myosins.
Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2010; 407(1):79-91. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used spin-labeled nucleotide analogs and fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor conformational changes at the nucleotide-binding site of wild-type Dictyostelium discoideum (WT) myosin and a construct containing a single tryptophan at position F239 near the switch 1 loop. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and tryptophan fluorescence have been used previously to investigate changes at the myosin nucleotide site. A limitation of fluorescence spectroscopy is that it must be done on mutated myosins containing only a single tryptophan. A limitation of EPR spectroscopy is that one infers protein conformational changes from alterations in the mobility of an attached probe. These limitations have led to controversies regarding conclusions reached by the two approaches. For the first time, the data presented here allow direct correlations to be made between the results from the two spectroscopic approaches on the same proteins and extend our previous EPR studies to a nonmuscle myosin. EPR probe mobility indicates that the conformation of the nucleotide pocket of the WTSLADP (spin-labeled ADP) complex is similar to that of skeletal myosin. The pocket is closed in the absence of actin for both diphosphate and triphosphate nucleotide states. In the actin myosin diphosphate state, the pocket is in equilibrium between closed and open conformations, with the open conformation slightly more favorable than that seen for fast skeletal actomyosin. The EPR spectra for the mutant show similar conformations to skeletal myosin, with one exception: in the absence of actin, the nucleotide pocket of the mutant displays an open component that was approximately 4-5 kJ/mol more favorable than in skeletal or WT myosin. These observations resolve the controversies between the two techniques. The data from both techniques confirm that binding of myosin to actin alters the conformation of the myosin nucleotide pocket with similar but not identical energetics in both muscle and nonmuscle myosins.
Journal of Molecular Biology 03/2010; 396(4):937-48. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evenly spaced nucleosomes directly correlate with condensed chromatin and gene silencing. The ATP-dependent chromatin assembly factor (ACF) forms such structures in vitro and is required for silencing in vivo. ACF generates and maintains nucleosome spacing by constantly moving a nucleosome towards the longer flanking DNA faster than the shorter flanking DNA. How the enzyme rapidly moves back and forth between both sides of a nucleosome to accomplish bidirectional movement is unknown. Here we show that nucleosome movement depends cooperatively on two ACF molecules, indicating that ACF functions as a dimer of ATPases. Further, the nucleotide state determines whether the dimer closely engages one or both sides of the nucleosome. Three-dimensional reconstruction by single-particle electron microscopy of the ATPase-nucleosome complex in an activated ATP state reveals a dimer architecture in which the two ATPases face each other. Our results indicate a model in which the two ATPases work in a coordinated manner, taking turns to engage either side of a nucleosome, thereby allowing processive bidirectional movement. This novel dimeric motor mechanism differs from that of dimeric motors such as kinesin and dimeric helicases that processively translocate unidirectionally and reflects the unique challenges faced by motors that move nucleosomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have used electron paramagnetic probes attached to the ribose of ATP (SL-ATP) to monitor conformational changes in the nucleotide pocket of myosin. Spectra for analogs bound to myosin in the absence of actin showed a high degree of immobilization, indicating a closed nucleotide pocket. In the Actin.Myosin.SL-AMPPNP, Actin.Myosin.SL-ADP.BeF(3), and Actin.Myosin.SL-ADP.AlF(4) complexes, which mimic weakly binding states near the beginning of the power stroke, the nucleotide pocket remained closed. The spectra of the strongly bound Actin.Myosin.SL-ADP complex consisted of two components, one similar to the closed pocket and one with increased probe mobility, indicating a more open pocket, The temperature dependence of the spectra showed that the two conformations of the nucleotide pocket were in equilibrium, with the open conformation more favorable at higher temperatures. These results, which show that opening of the pocket occurs only in the strongly bound states, appear reasonable, as this would tend to keep ADP bound until the end of the power stroke. This conclusion also suggests that force is initially generated by a myosin with a closed nucleotide pocket.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin V is an efficient processive molecular motor. Recent experiments have shown how the structure and kinetics of myosin V are specialized to produce a highly processive motor capable of taking multiple 36-nm steps on an actin filament track. Here, we examine how two identical heads coordinate their activity to produce efficient hand-over-hand stepping. We have used a modified laser-trap microscope to apply a approximately 2-pN forward or backward force on a single-headed myosin V molecule, hypothesized to simulate forces experienced by the rear or lead head, respectively. We found that pulling forward produces only a small change in the kinetics, whereas pulling backward induces a large reduction in the cycling of the head. These results support a model in which the coordination of myosin V stepping is mediated by strain-generated inhibition of the lead head.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2005; 102(39):13873-8. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin V is a two-headed molecular motor that binds six light chains per heavy chain, which creates unusually long lever arms. This motor moves processively along its actin track in discrete 36-nm steps. Our model is that one head of the two-headed myosin V tightly binds to actin and swings its long lever arm through a large angle, providing a stroke. We created single-headed constructs with different-size lever arms and show that stroke size is proportional to lever arm length. In a two-headed molecule, the stroke provides the directional bias, after which the unbound head diffuses to find its binding site, 36 nm forward. Our two-headed construct with all six light chains per head reconstitutes the 36-nm processive step seen in tissue-purified myosin V. Two-headed myosin V molecules with only four light chains per head are still processive, but their step size is reduced to 24 nm. A further reduction in the length of the lever arms to one light chain per head results in a motor that is unable to walk processively. This motor produces single small approximately 6-nm strokes, and ATPase and pyrene actin quench measurements show that only one of the heads of this dimer rapidly binds to actin for a given binding event. These data show that for myosin V with its normal proximal tail domain, both heads and a long lever arm are required for large, processive steps.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2002; 99(22):14159-64. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myosin VI is a molecular motor involved in intracellular vesicle and organelle transport. To carry out its cellular functions myosin VI moves toward the pointed end of actin, backward in relation to all other characterized myosins. Myosin V, a motor that moves toward the barbed end of actin, is processive, undergoing multiple catalytic cycles and mechanical advances before it releases from actin. Here we show that myosin VI is also processive by using single molecule motility and optical trapping experiments. Remarkably, myosin VI takes much larger steps than expected, based on a simple lever-arm mechanism, for a myosin with only one light chain in the lever-arm domain. Unlike other characterized myosins, myosin VI stepping is highly irregular with a broad distribution of step sizes.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2001; 98(24):13655-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor