[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major feature that distinguishes type I from type II anti-CD20 mAb and reduces their therapeutic efficacy is the tendency to internalize from the cell surface. We have shown previously that the extent of internalization correlates with the capacity of type I mAb to simultaneously engage both CD20 and the inhibitory Fcγ receptor, FcγRIIb, in a bipolar configuration. Here we investigated whether mAb directed at other B-cell surface receptors also engaged FcγRIIb and whether this interaction promoted internalization. Most mAb engaged and activated FcγRIIb, with the strength of activation related to the level of mAb bound to the cell surface. However, engagement did not affect internalization of most mAb-ligated receptors, either in cell lines or primary chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells with the exception of CD19 and CD38. Furthermore, at high cell concentrations/density both cis and trans interactions between cell surface bound mAb and FcγRIIb were evident, but trans interactions did not inhibit type I anti-CD20 mAb-mediated internalization. These data identify that FcγRIIb is engaged by many mAb in both cis and trans configurations, triggering its activation, but that internalization via FcγRIIb occurs for only a select subset. These findings have implications when designing new antibody-based therapeutics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic deficiency of the inhibitory Fc receptor, FcγRIIB (CD32b), has been shown to augment the activity of activatory FcγR and promote mAb immunotherapy. To investigate whether mAbs capable of blocking FcγRIIB have similar capacity, we recently generated a panel of specific anti-mouse FcγRIIB mAbs that do not cross-react with other FcRs, allowing us to study the potential of FcγRIIB as a therapeutic target. Previous work revealed a number of these mAbs capable of eliciting programmed cell death of targets, and in the present study we demonstrated their ability to promote target cell phagocytosis. However, in a variety of murine tumor models, anti-FcγRIIB mAbs demonstrated limited therapeutic activity despite optimized treatment regimens. Unexpectedly, we observed that the anti-FcγRIIB mAbs are rapidly and extensively consumed in vivo, both by the tumor and host cells, including B cells, leading to a precipitous loss from the circulation. Closer analysis revealed that the anti-FcγRIIB mAbs become extensively internalized from the cell surface within 24 h in vivo, likely explaining their suboptimal efficacy. Subsequent studies revealed that anti-FcγRIIB mAb immunotherapy was effective when used against FcγRIIB(+) tumors in FcγRIIB(-/-) recipients, indicating that consumption of the mAb by nontumor cells is the primary limitation of these reagents. Importantly, similar rates of internalization were not seen on human target cells, at least in vitro. These studies further highlight the need to determine the propensity of mAb therapeutics to internalize target receptors and also identify potential key differences between human and mouse cells in this respect.
The Journal of Immunology 09/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isotype plays a crucial role in therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) function, mediated in large part through differences in Fcγ receptor (FcγR) interaction. Monoclonal Abs such as rituximab and alemtuzumab, which bind target cells directly, are designed for efficient recruitment of immune effector cells through their activatory FcγR engagement to mediate maximal target cell killing. In this setting, binding to inhibitory FcγRIIB is thought to inhibit function, making mAbs with high activatory/inhibitory (A/I) FcγR binding ratios, such as mouse IgG2a and human IgG1, the first choice for this role. In contrast, exciting new data show that agonistic mAbs directed against the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily member CD40 require interaction with FcγRIIB for in vivo function. Such ligation activates antigen-presenting cells, promotes myeloid and CTL responses and potentially stimulates effective anti-cancer immunity. It appears that the role of FcγRIIB is to mediate mAb hyper-crosslinking to allow CD40 downstream intracellular signalling. Previous work has shown that mAbs directed against other TNFR family members, Fas and death receptor 5 and probably death receptor 4, also require FcγRIIB hyper-crosslinking to promote target cell apoptosis, suggesting a common mechanism of action. In mouse models, IgG1 is optimal for these agents as it binds to FcγRIIB with tenfold higher affinity than IgG2a and hence has a relatively low A:I FcγR binding ratio. In contrast, human IgG isotypes have a universally low affinity for FcγRIIB, but in the case of human IgG1, engineering the Fc to increase its affinity for FcγRIIB can potentially overcome this problem. Thus, modifying the A/I binding ratio of human IgG Fc can be used to optimise different types of therapeutic activity by enhancing cytotoxic or hyper-crosslinking function.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 03/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high activatory/inhibitory FcγR binding ratio is critical for the activity of mAb such as rituximab and alemtuzumab that attack cancer cells directly and eliminate them by recruiting immune effectors. Optimal FcγR binding profiles of other anti-cancer mAb, such as immunostimulatory mAb that stimulate or block immune receptors, are less clear. In this study, we analyzed the importance of isotype and FcγR interactions in controlling the agonistic activity of the anti-mouse CD40 mAb 3/23. Mouse IgG1 (m1) and IgG2a (m2a) variants of the parental 3/23 (rat IgG2a) were engineered and used to promote humoral and cellular responses against OVA. The mouse IgG1 3/23 was highly agonistic and outperformed the parental Ab when promoting Ab (10-100-fold) and T cell (OTI and OTII) responses (2- to >10-fold). In contrast, m2a was almost completely inactive. Studies in FcγR knockout mice demonstrated a critical role for the inhibitory FcγRIIB in 3/23 activity, whereas activatory FcγR (FcγRI, -III, and -IV) was dispensable. In vitro experiments established that the stimulatory effect of FcγRIIB was mediated through Ab cross-linking delivered in trans between neighboring cells and did not require intracellular signaling. Intriguingly, activatory FcγR provided effective cross-linking of 3/23 m2a in vitro, suggesting the critical role of FcγRIIB in vivo reflects its cellular distribution and bioavailability as much as its affinity for a particular Ab isotype. In conclusion, we demonstrate an essential cross-linking role for the inhibitory FcγRIIB in anti-CD40 immunostimulatory activity and suggest that isotype will be an important issue when optimizing reagents for clinical use.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2011; 187(4):1754-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-CD20 mAb rituximab is central to the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but resistance remains a significant problem. We recently reported that resistance could be explained, in part, by internalization of rituximab (type I anti-CD20) from the surface of certain B-cell malignancies, thus limiting engagement of natural effectors and increasing mAb consumption. Internalization of rituximab was most evident in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), but the extent of internalization was heterogeneous within each disease. Here, we show that the inhibitory FcγRIIb on target B cells promotes this process and is largely responsible for the observed heterogeneity across a range of B-cell malignancies. Internalization correlated strongly with FcγRIIb expression on normal and malignant B cells, and resulted in reduced macrophage phagocytosis of mAb-coated targets. Furthermore, transfection of FcγRIIb into FcγRIIb negative Ramos cells increased internalization of rituximab in a dose-dependent manner. Target-cell FcγRIIb promoted rituximab internalization in a cis fashion and was independent of FcγRIIb on neighboring cells. It became phosphorylated and internalized along with CD20:anti-CD20 complexes before lysosomal degradation. In MCL patients, high FcγRIIb expression predicted less durable responses after rituximab-containing regimens. Therefore, target-cell FcγRIIb provides a potential biomarker of response to type I anti-CD20 mAb.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-CD20 mAb rituximab has substantially improved the clinical outcome of patients with a wide range of B-cell malignancies. However, many patients relapse or fail to respond to rituximab, and thus there is intense investigation into the development of novel anti-CD20 mAbs with improved therapeutic efficacy. Although Fc-FcγR interactions appear to underlie much of the therapeutic success with rituximab, certain type II anti-CD20 mAbs efficiently induce programmed cell death (PCD), whereas rituximab-like type I anti-CD20 mAbs do not. Here, we show that the humanized, glycoengineered anti-CD20 mAb GA101 and derivatives harboring non-glycoengineered Fc regions are type II mAb that trigger nonapoptotic PCD in a range of B-lymphoma cell lines and primary B-cell malignancies. We demonstrate that GA101-induced cell death is dependent on actin reorganization, can be abrogated by inhibitors of actin polymerization, and is independent of BCL-2 overexpression and caspase activation. GA101-induced PCD is executed by lysosomes which disperse their contents into the cytoplasm and surrounding environment. Taken together, these findings reveal that GA101 is able to potently elicit actin-dependent, lysosomal cell death, which may potentially lead to improved clearance of B-cell malignancies in vivo.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The last decade has seen the monoclonal antibody (mAb), rituximab, transform clinical management of many non-Hodgkin lymphomas and more recently provide new opportunities for controlling autoimmune conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Although not yet fully determined, the explanation for this success appears to lie with the inherent properties of its target, CD20, which allow rituximab to recruit potent cytotoxic effectors with unusual efficiency. In this review we detail the properties of CD20 that make it such an effective therapeutic target and describe how different mAbs change the membrane distribution and internalization of CD20 and have distinct modes of cytotoxic activity.
Seminars in Hematology 04/2010; 47(2):107-14. · 3.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody that targets CD20 on B cells, is now central to the treatment of a variety of malignant and autoimmune disorders. Despite this success, a substantial proportion of B-cell lymphomas are unresponsive or develop resistance, hence more potent anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are continuously being sought. Here we demonstrate that type II (tositumomab-like) anti-CD20 mAbs are 5 times more potent than type I (rituximab-like) reagents in depleting human CD20 Tg B cells, despite both operating exclusively via activatory Fcgamma receptor-expressing macrophages. Much of this disparity in performance is attributable to type I mAb-mediated internalization of CD20 by B cells, leading to reduced macrophage recruitment and the degradation of CD20/mAb complexes, shortening mAb half-life. Importantly, human B cells from healthy donors and most cases of chronic lymphatic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma, showed rapid CD20 internalization that paralleled that seen in the Tg mouse B cells, whereas most follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells were far more resistant to CD20 loss. We postulate that differences in CD20 modulation may play a central role in determining the relative efficacy of rituximab in treating these diseases and strengthen the case for focusing on type II anti-CD20 mAb in the clinic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rituximab is a CD20-specific monoclonal antibody that effectively targets and depletes B lymphocytes in vivo, primarily via indirect cytotoxic mechanisms. Direct effects on B cells may also contribute to B-cell depletion but are less clearly defined. In this report, we demonstrate that monomeric rituximab, at the high concentrations found in plasma following infusion of therapeutic doses, induces prolonged low-amplitude release of calcium from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and reduces the growth of Ramos B cells in culture. Intracellular calcium release was triggered via a signaling pathway distinct from the lipid raft-dependent and src family kinase-dependent pathway that is activated by CD20 hypercrosslinking or B-cell receptor association. The response was independent of both CD20 and Fc receptor binding, and was also triggered by some, but not all, irrelevant monoclonal IgG1 antibodies. The data indicate that unique regions within IgG may contribute to direct effects of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies delivered at suprasaturating concentrations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: mAbs are becoming increasingly utilized in the treatment of lymphoid disorders. Although Fc-FcgammaR interactions are thought to account for much of their therapeutic effect, this does not explain why certain mAb specificities are more potent than others. An additional effector mechanism underlying the action of some mAbs is the direct induction of cell death. Previously, we demonstrated that certain CD20-specific mAbs (which we termed type II mAbs) evoke a nonapoptotic mode of cell death that appears to be linked with the induction of homotypic adhesion. Here, we reveal that peripheral relocalization of actin is critical for the adhesion and cell death induced by both the type II CD20-specific mAb tositumomab and an HLA-DR-specific mAb in both human lymphoma cell lines and primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. The cell death elicited was rapid, nonapoptotic, nonautophagic, and dependent on the integrity of plasma membrane cholesterol and activation of the V-type ATPase. This cytoplasmic cell death involved lysosomes, which swelled and then dispersed their contents, including cathepsin B, into the cytoplasm and surrounding environment. The resulting loss of plasma membrane integrity occurred independently of caspases and was not controlled by Bcl-2. These experiments provide what we believe to be new insights into the mechanisms by which 2 clinically relevant mAbs elicit cell death and show that this homotypic adhesion-related cell death occurs through a lysosome-dependent pathway.
The Journal of clinical investigation 09/2009; 119(8):2143-59. · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibodies to CD20 have confirmed the hypothesis that monoclonal reagents can be given in vivo to alleviate human diseases. The targeting of CD20 on normal, malignant and auto-immune B-lymphocytes by rituximab has demonstrated substantial benefits for patients with a variety of B-cell lymphomas, as well as some with autoimmune disorders. There has been a notable increase in the survival rates from B-cell lymphoma in the decade since anti-CD20 therapy was introduced.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are classified into type I (rituximab-like) or type II (tositumomab-like) based on their ability to redistribute CD20 molecules in the plasma membrane and activate various effector functions. To compare type I and II mAbs directly in vivo and maximize Fc effector function, we selected and engineered mAbs with the same mouse IgG(2)a isotype and assessed their B-cell depleting activity in human CD20 transgenic mice. Despite being the same isotype, having similar affinity, opsonizing activity for phagocytosis, and in vivo half-life, the type II mAb tositumomab (B1) provided substantially longer depletion of B cells from the peripheral blood compared with the type I mAb rituximab (Rit m2a), and 1F5. This difference was also evident within the secondary lymphoid organs, in particular, the spleen. Failure to engage complement did not explain the efficacy of the type II reagents because type I mAbs mutated in the Fc domain (K322A) to prevent C1q binding still did not display equivalent efficacy. These results give support for the use of type II CD20 mAbs in human B-cell diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) rituximab is now routinely used for the treatment of non-Hodgkins lymphoma and is being examined in a wide range of other B-cell disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Despite intensive study, the mechanism of action still remains uncertain. In the current study, anti-CD20 mAb-induced calcium signaling was investigated. Previously, we grouped anti-CD20 mAbs into Type I (rituximab-like) and Type II (B1-like) based upon various characteristics such as their ability to induce complement activation and redistribute CD20 into detergent-insoluble membrane domains. Here we show that only Type I mAbs are capable of inducing a calcium flux in B cells and that this is tightly correlated with the expression of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR). Inhibitor analysis revealed that the signaling cascade employed by CD20 was strikingly similar to that utilized by the BCR, with inhibitors of Syk, Src, and PI3K, but not EGTA, p38, or ERK1/2, completely ablating calcium flux. Furthermore, binding of Type I but not Type II mAbs caused direct association of CD20 with the BCR as measured by FRET and resulted in the phosphorylation of BCR-specific adaptor proteins BLNK and SLP-76. Crucially, variant Ramos cells lacking BCR expression but with unchanged CD20 expression were completely unable to induce calcium flux following ligation of CD20. Collectively, these data indicate that CD20 induces cytosolic calcium flux through its ability to associate with and "hijack" the signaling potential of the BCR.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2008; 283(25):16971-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously defined a panel of fully human CD20 mAb. Most of these were unexpectedly efficient in their ability to recruit C1q to the surface of CD20-positive cells and mediate tumor lysis via activation of the classical pathway of complement. This complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) potency appeared to relate to the unusually slow off-rate of these human Abs. However, we now present epitope-mapping data, which indicates that all human mAb bind a novel region of CD20 that may influence CDC potency. Epitope mapping, using both mutagenesis studies and overlapping 15-mer peptides of the extracellular loops of CD20, defined the amino acids required for binding by an extensive panel of mouse and human mAb. Binding by rituximab and mouse CD20 mAb, had an absolute requirement for alanine and proline at positions 170 and 172, respectively, within the large extracellular loop of CD20. Surprisingly, however, all of the human CD20 mAb recognize a completely novel epitope located N-terminally of this motif, also including the small extracellular loop of CD20. Thus, although off-rate may influence biological activity of mAb, another critical factor for determining CDC potency by CD20 mAb appears to be the region of the target molecule they recognize. We conclude that recognition of the novel epitope cooperates with slow off-rate in determining the activity of CD20 Ab in activation of complement and induction of tumor cell lysis.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2006; 177(1):362-71. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb), rituximab, is an established part of the management of many non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The in vivo action of rituximab remains elusive, and this partially reflects a lack of highly specific reagents to detect rituximab binding at the cell surface. Here we report a new high-affinity mAb (MB2A4) with fine specificity for the idiotype of rituximab. It is able to detect rituximab in vitro, in the presence of high levels of human immunoglobulin G (IgG), in the serum of patients receiving rituximab therapy, and, surprisingly, when rituximab is bound to CD20 on the cell surface. We propose that the anti-idiotype (Id) binds to rituximab molecules bound univalently at the cell surface, facilitated by the relatively high off-rate of rituximab. This reagent provides new insights into the binding of rituximab at the cell surface and demonstrates a mode of binding that could be exploited for the surface detection of other mAbs with clinical and biologic applications.