[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A platform for in situ and real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes in dsDNA is presented. We combine electrical orientation of surface-bound dsDNA probes with an optical technique to measure the kinetics of DNA conformational changes. The sequence-specific Escherichia coli integration host factor is utilized to demonstrate protein-induced bending upon binding of integration host factor to dsDNA probes. The effects of probe surface density on binding/bending kinetics are investigated. The platform can accommodate individual spots of microarrayed dsDNA on individually controlled, lithographically designed electrodes, making it amenable for use as a high throughput assay.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(4):1397-401. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We introduce a chip-compatible scheme for the label-free detection of proteins in real-time that is based on the electrically driven conformation switching of DNA oligonucleotides on metal surfaces. The switching behavior is a sensitive indicator for the specific recognition of IgG antibodies and antibody fragments, which can be detected in quantities of less than 10(-18) mol on the sensor surface. Moreover, we show how the dynamics of the induced molecular motion can be monitored by measuring the high-frequency switching response. When proteins bind to the layer, the increase in hydrodynamic drag slows the switching dynamics, which allows us to determine the size of the captured proteins. We demonstrate the identification of different antibody fragments by means of their kinetic fingerprint. The switchDNA method represents a generic approach to simultaneously detect and size target molecules using a single analytical platform.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a method to control the packing density of sulfur-bound oligonucleotide layers on metal electrodes by electrical means. In a first step, a dense nucleic acid layer is deposited by self-assembly from solution; in a second step, defined fractions of DNA molecules are released from the surface by applying a series of negative voltage cycles. Systematic investigations of the influence of the applied electrode potentials and oligonucleotide length allow us to identify a sharp desorption onset at -0.65 V versus Ag/AgCl, which is independent of the DNA length. Moreover, our results clearly show the pronounced influence of competitive adsorbents in solution on the desorption behavior, which can prevent the re-adsorption of released DNA molecules, thereby enhancing the desorption efficiency. The method is fully bio-compatible and can be employed to improve the functionality of DNA layers. This is demonstrated in hybridization experiments revealing almost perfect yields for electrically "diluted" DNA layers. The proposed control method is extremely beneficial to the field of DNA-based sensors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics 11/2007; 23(3):326-31. · 5.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a method to detect label-free oligonucleotide targets. The conformation of surface-tethered probe nucleic acids is modulated by alternating electric fields, which cause the molecules to extend away from or fold onto the biased surface. Binding (hybridization) of targets to the single-stranded probes results in a pronounced enhancement of the layer-height modulation amplitude, monitored optically in real time. The method features an exceptional detection limit of <3 x 10(8) bound targets per cm(2) sensor area. Single base-pair mismatches in the sequences of DNA complements may readily be identified; moreover, binding kinetics and binding affinities can be determined with high accuracy. When driving the DNA to oscillate at frequencies in the kHz regime, distinct switching kinetics are revealed for single- and double-stranded DNA. Molecular dynamics are used to identify the binding state of molecules according to their characteristic kinetic fingerprints by using a chip-compatible detection format.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2007; 104(44):17364-9. · 9.81 Impact Factor