L Brandi

IT University of Copenhagen, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (16)85.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: (i) To examine the effect of alphacalcidol [1 alpha(OH)D3] given as an oral dose twice weekly in combination with CaCO3 and low-calcium dialysis (1.25 mmol L-1) on the secondary hyperparathyroidism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). (ii) To examine the changes in peritoneal mass transfer for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, lactate, creatinine, urea, glucose, pH and albumin after shift to low-calcium dialysis solution. An open study in patients on CAPD. Renal division, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen. Thirty-nine patients were included and completed 12 weeks of treatment. Thirty of the patients completed 52 weeks of treatment. A peritoneal equilibrium test (PET) was performed in seven patients. Following two sets of blood samples obtained as basal values the calcium concentration was reduced in the dialysis fluid from 1.75 mmol L-1 to 1.25 mmol L-1. Increasing doses of oral 1 alpha(OH)D3 were then administered under careful control of p-ionized calcium (p-Ca2+) and p-inorganic phosphate (p-P1). Blood samples were obtained every 2-4 weeks for 52 weeks. PET was performed using standard dialysis fluid and 1 week later using low-calcium dialysis fluid after a preceding overnight dwell. Two litres of glucose 22.7 mg mL-1 were used. Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), p-Ca2+, p-P1, doses of CaCO3, doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3, peritoneal mass transfer for calcium, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, lactate, creatinine, urea, glucose and albumin. Thirty nine patients with initial PTH values 144 +/- 26 pg mL-1 were followed for 12 weeks and 30 patients for 52 weeks. A negative calcium balance was induced after shifting to low-calcium dialysis fluid. After 2 weeks of treatment a significant increase of PTH by approximately 60% and a small but significant decrease of p-Ca2+ was observed. After 12 weeks of treatment with increasing doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 and CaCO3, PTH was again reduced to levels not significantly different from the initial values. After 52 weeks of treatment no deterioration of the secondary hyperparathyroidism was seen. A calcium concentration of 1.25 mmol L-1 in the CAPD dialysate made it possible to reduce the amount of aluminium-containing phosphate binder, to increase the doses of CaCO3 and to use pulse oral 1 alpha(OH)D3 without causing severe hyper-calcaemia in the patients. After a short elevation of PTH, the PTH levels remained at normal or near normal levels and the long-term results clearly demonstrated that an aggravation of the secondary hyperparathyroidism could be inhibited.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 09/1998; 244(2):121-31. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term function of autotransplanted parathyroid tissue. From the medical records of a consecutive series of 21 patients we found that during the time of follow-up (79 months) one patient developed parathyroid graft dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism (HPT) and one patient suffered from hypoparathyroidism. Nine of the patients were available for measurements of the plasma concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) at rest and during a shortlasting ischaemic blockade of the autotransplant. In eight patients, the ischaemic blockade reduced the concentration of iPTH with on average 62% as compared to baseline values. In one patient, the autotransplant had been resected and as expected, iPTH did not change during ischaemic blockade. Our results indicate that total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation provides a rational alternative to the surgical treatment of secondary HPT and that the ischaemic blockade manoeuvre seems suitable for assessment of the function of parathyroid autotransplants.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 05/1997; 159(16):2386-8.
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    S Bro, L Brandi, K Olgaard
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of treatment with a high-normal calcium dialysate with a calcium concentration of 1.35 mmol/l in patients on CAPD. This dialysate calcium concentration is close to the high-normal plasma ionized calcium level aimed at in dialysis patients in order to suppress the parathyroid hormone secretion. The end-points of the study were (1) plasma ionized calcium (iCa) and phosphate (P) levels, (2) plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, (3) doses of calcium carbonate and alfacalcidol, (4) requirements of Al-containing phosphate binders, and (5) bone mineral density (BMD). Thirty-seven non-selected patients on CAPD treatment were followed for an average of 10 months after switching from a dialysate Ca of 1.75 to 1.35 mmol/l. After 1 week, a significant decrease of mean iCa from 1.26 +/- 0.01 to 1.23 +/- 0.01 mmol/l (P < 0.05) and an increase of median PTH from 80 to 135 pg/ml (P < 0.01) were seen. From the 2nd week and onwards, however, basal levels of iCa and PTH were restored and remained stable. mean plasma iCa was kept within 1.23-1.31 mmol/l; mean plasma P below 1.65 mmol/l and median PTH within 52-135 pg/ml. Episodes of hypercalcaemia were few (1.2 cases of plasma iCa > 1.45 mmol/l per 100 treatment weeks), and the need for Al-containing P binders low with only five patients requring this treatment for isolated and four patients for repeated episodes of hyperphosphataemia or hypercalcaemia. After switching from a dialysate Ca of 1.75 to 1.35 mmol/l, the doses of calcium carbonate and alfacalcidol could be significantly increased. Furthermore, using the dialysate Ca of 1.35 mmol/l made it possible to induce a controlled increase of PTH levels to 80-100 pg/ml by a temporarily discontinuation of alfacalcidol and/or a reduction of calcium carbonate dosage in the patients where PTH had become suppressed to levels below the upper normal limit. The intention of the treatment was to maintain PTH levels within 1.5-2.5 times the upper normal limit for non-uraemic patients. Pre-study BMD of the vertebral bodies L2-L4 and of the femoral neck were normal and not significantly different from post-study measurements. The present study demonstrated that when using a high-normal dialysate Ca concentration of 1.35 mmol/l in non-selected patients on CAPD treatment, high-normal plasma iCa and near-normal plasma P levels could be readily achieved with a minimal risk of incidental hypercalcaemia despite use of calcium carbonate as the main P binder. As a consequence of the tight Ca and P regulation, minimal doses of alfacalcidol were required to keep PTH within acceptable limits. We recommend this dialysate Ca concentration as a first-choice therapy for the majority of patients starting on CAPD treatment.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/1996; 11(8):1586-91. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether intermittent oral 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment of patients on haemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was able to maintain the marked suppression of PTH, which previously had been induced by an intermittent intravenous administration of 1 alpha(OH)D3. Simultaneously, the effect of the different routes of administration of 1 alpha(OH)D3 on the circulating levels of N- and C-terminal PTH fragments was measured. An open study of patients on chronic haemodialysis. Renal division, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 26 patients started and five patients completed the total protocol. The treatment protocol was divided into three parts: (i) 1 alpha(OH)D3 administered intravenously for > 300 days; then (ii) 1 alpha(OH)D3 administered orally for 100 days, followed by (iii) 1 alpha(OH)D3 administered intravenously again for another 100 days. 1 alpha(OH)D3 was given three times a week at the end of each dialysis. Intact PTH, N- and C-terminal PTH. Intact PTH levels were significantly (P < 0.0001) suppressed by 90.4 +/- 3.3% after 56 days of intermittent intravenous 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment. This degree of suppression remained stable during the following period of oral treatment and did not change further when intravenous treatment was reinstituted. The circulating levels of intact PTH and N- and C-terminal iPTH were not influenced by the administered route of 1 alpha(OH)D3. Intravenous 1 alpha(OH)D3 treatment of the secondary HPT in dialysis patients can safely be changed to oral treatment at the time when optimal suppression of PTH has been achieved.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 05/1996; 239(4):353-60. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the long-term function of autotransplanted parathyroid tissue in patients with chronic renal disease. We examined the medical records of a consecutive series of 21 patients with chronic renal failure, who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation. During the time of follow-up, on average 79 months, one patient developed graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism and one patient suffered from persistent hypoparathyroidism. Nine of the patients were available for a clinical study. In these patients we measured the plasma concentration of intact PTH in blood from the arm contralateral to the graft-bearing arm at rest and during a short-lasting ischaemic blockade of the graft site from the circulating blood. At rest all nine patients had parathyroid hormone (PTH) values within the normal range. The ischaemic blockade produced a marked reduction in the plasma concentration of intact PTH in eight of the patients indicating well functioning autografts. Prior to the examination the patient with recurrent hyperparathyroidism had undergone resection of the autograft. In this patient, ischaemia of the former graft site did not cause any change in the concentration of PTH indicating normally functioning residual parathyroid tissue in the neck. Thus, the ischaemic blockade manoeuvre seems suitable for the assessment of autografted parathyroid tissue. Our results indicate that total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation provides a rational alternative to the surgical treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 03/1996; 56(1):47-51. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of intravenous administration of 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol [1 alpha (OH)D3] in combination with CaCO3 and 'low-calcium dialysis' (1.25 mmol/l) on plasma (p) parathyroid hormone (PTH) and biochemical bone markers (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 c-terminal extension peptide) were examined in 54 patients on chronic hemodialysis with either normal or elevated PTH. Increasing doses of 1 alpha (OH)D3 were administered intravenously under careful control of p-Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate. Blood samples were obtained 1 week before the start of treatment and then every 2nd week. 20 patients with initially normal PTH levels (23.5 +/- 4.17 pg/ml) and 34 patients with initially elevated PTH levels (301 +/- 45 pg/ml) were followed for up to 88 weeks. The present investigation: demonstrated: (1) 'Low-calcium hemodialysis' (1.25 mmol/l) made it possible to use larger doses of CaCO3 and to reduce the doses of an aluminium-containing oral phosphate binder. A decrease in p-Ca2+ during dialysis was induced, and special care had to focus on the compliance to CaCO3, in order not to aggravate the secondary hyperparathyroidism. (2) The combination of 'low-calcium hemodialysis', CaCO3, and pulse intravenous 1 alpha (OH)D3 prevented the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with normal PTH levels and induced a long-term suppression of p-PTH (106 +/- 25 pg/ml, 88 weeks) in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. By careful monitoring, severe hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were avoided. There were no indications, clinically or biochemically, of development of adynamic bone disease. (3) Bone lesions were healed and a decrease of the bone mineral content in lumbar spine and femoral neck of patients with both normal and elevated PTH levels prevented. (4) The present results may suggest that PTH might be of influence on that regulation of procollagen type 1 c-terminal extension peptide.
    Nephron 02/1996; 74(1):89-103. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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    S Bro, L Brandi, K Olgaard
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    ABSTRACT: A comparison of (i) levels of plasma ionized calcium (Ca), phosphate (P) and iPTH, (ii) risk of hypercalcaemia and (iii) need for Al-containing P binders, in patients on CAPD treated with calcium carbonate as the main P binder and twice weekly oral doses of alfacalcidol for control of secondary hyperparathyroidism during a 1 year follow-up after switching from a dialysis fluid with a Ca concentration of 1.75 mmol/l to 1.25 mmol/l (n = 39) or 1.35 mmol/l (n = 37). In both groups, a significant initial increase of iPTH was seen. However, iPTH was again suppressed to baseline levels after 2-6 weeks of treatment. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups. In both groups median PTH levels were kept below 2.5 times the upper normal limit for non-uraemic patients; median P concentrations below 1.80 mmol/l and median iCa levels within 1.25-1.30 mmol/l. The incidence of hypercalcaemia was low and did not differ between the two groups (1.04 vs 1.20 cases of plasma iCa > 1.45 mmol/l per 100 treatment weeks). The proportion of patients requiring treatment with Al-containing P binders was unchanged from the start to the end of the study period, but significantly greater in the group dialysed with a Ca concentration of 1.25 mmol/l (an average of 21% as compared to 10% in the other group). When changing from high Ca dialysate (1.75 mmol/l) to dialysate with a Ca concentration of 1.25 or 1.35 mmol/l, close attention to PTH control has to be paid during the initial months of treatment. Adequate control of plasma levels of iCa, P and PTH could be achieved with both lower Ca dialysates without either hypercalcemia or use of Al-containing P binders in the majority of patients. The small number of patients treated with Al-containing P binders, however, would probably benefit from dialysis fluids with even lower Ca concentrations.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/1996; 11 Suppl 3:47-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Brandi L, Daugaard H, Egsmose C, Tvedegaard E, Kjærulff Nielsen P, Olgaard K (Medical Department P, Division of Nephrology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark). Intermittent intravenous followed by intermittent oral 1α(OH)D3 treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in uraemia. J Intern Med 1996; 239: 353–60.Objectives. To examine whether intermittent oral 1α(OH)D3 treatment of patients on haemodialysis with secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was able to maintain the marked suppression of PTH, which previously had been induced by an intermittent intravenous administration of 1α(OH)D3. Simultaneously, the effect of the different routes of administration of 1α(OH)D3 on the circulating levels of N-and C-terminal PTH fragments was measured.Design. An open study of patients on chronic haemodialysis.Setting. Renal division, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.Subjects. A total of 26 patients started and five patients completed the total protocol.Interventions. The treatment protocol was divided into three parts: (i) 1α(OH)D3 administered intravenously for >300 days; then (ii) 1α(OH)D3 administered orally for 100 days, followed by (iii) 1α(OH)D3 administered intravenously again for another 100 days. 1α(OH)D3 was given three times a week at the end of each dialysis.Main outcome measures. Intact PTH, N- and C-terminal PTH.Results. Intact PTH levels were significantly (P<0.0001) suppressed by 90.4±3.3% after 56 days of intermittent intravenous 1α(OH)D3 treatment. This degree of suppression remained stable during the following period of oral treatment and did not change further when intravenous treatment was reinstituted. The circulating levels of intact PTH and N- and C-terminal iPTH were not influenced by the administered route of 1α(OH)D3.Conclusions. Intravenous 1α(OH)D3 treatment of the secondary HPT in dialysis patients can safely be changed to oral treatment at the time when optimal suppression of PTH has been achieved.
    Journal of Internal Medicine 01/1996; 239(4):353-360. · 6.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of intravenous administration of 1 α-hydroxycholecalciferol [lα(OH)D3] in combination with CaCO3 and ‘low-calcium dialysis’ (1.25 mmol/l) on plasma (p) parathyroid hormone (PTH) and biochemical bone markers (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, procollagen type 1 c-terminal extension peptide) were examined in 54 patients on chronic hemodialysis with either normal or elevated PTH. Increasing doses of lα(OH)D3 were administered intravenously under careful control of p-Ca2+ and inorganic phosphate. Blood samples were obtained 1 week before the start of treatment and then every 2nd week. 20 patients with initially normal PTH levels (23.5 ± 4.17 pg/ml) and 34 patients with initially elevated PTH levels (301 ± 45 pg/ml) were followed for up to 88 weeks. The present investigation demonstrated: (1) ‘Low-calcium hemodialysis’ (1.25 mmol/l) made it possible to use larger doses of CaCCO3 and to reduce the doses of an aluminium-containing oral phosphate binder. A decrease in p-Ca2+ during dialysis was induced, and special care had to focus on the compliance to CaCCO3, in order not to aggravate the secondary hyperparathyroidism. (2) The combination of ‘low-calcium hemodialysis’, CaCCO3 and pulse intravenous lα(OH)D3 prevented the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with normal PTH levels and induced a long-term suppression of p-PTH (106 ± 25 pg/ml, 88 weeks) in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. By careful monitoring, severe hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were avoided. There were no indications, clinically or biochemically, of development of adynamic bone disease. (3) Bone lesions were healed and a decrease of the bone mineral content in lumbar spine and femoral neck of patients with both normal and elevated PTH levels prevented. (4) The present results may suggest that PTH might be of influence on the regulation of procollagen type 1 c-terminal extension peptide.Copyright © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Nephron 01/1996; 74(1):89-103. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic renal failure (CRF) is combined with an impairment of the immune system. The T cell may be a target for the action of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Rats with CRF have high blood levels of PTH. Therefore, the present investigation examined some aspects of the T cell function in both normal and CRF rats before and after parathyroidectomy and after an isogenic kidney transplantation. The T cell proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was significantly higher in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures obtained from CRF rats than from normal rats. After parathyroidectomy the T cells of normal as well as of uremic rats could still be significantly stimulated by PHA, but now no significant difference was seen. When CRF was reversed after an isogenic kidney transplantation and PTH reversed to levels in the normal range, the T cell proliferative response to PHA was normalized. Rat PTH 1-84 stimulated in vitro the PHA-induced proliferation of T cells in a dose dependent manner. This effect was significant in CRF rat lymphocytes, but not in lymphocytes obtained from normal rats. Based upon the present results it is suggested that the secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic uremia is responsible for the enhanced proliferative response to PHA of T cells from CRF rats.
    Kidney International 09/1993; 44(2):379-84. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term effects of high dose steroid treatment with either prednisone (PDN) or deflazacort (DFZ) were examined on various parts of the skeleton in 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All had normal skeleton at the start of the steroid treatment. At the beginning, PDN was given as 80 mg/day and tapered down to 20 mg/day for 1 year and DFZ was given in an equipotent dosage. Twenty-three patients completed 6 months of treatment, and 18 patients completed 12 months of treatment. Beside laboratory parameters to ensure the effect of treatment on the nephrotic syndrome, all had measurements of the bone mineral content (BMC) at 0, 6, and 12 months of treatment. BMC was measured by single photon absorptiometry of both forearms and by dual photon absorptiometry of the mandible, forearms, and lumbar spine. The effect of DFZ was compared to that of PDN due to a potential "calcium sparing" effect of DFZ. The therapeutical effects on the nephrotic syndrome were not different between the two drugs. Urinary 24-hour protein decreased from 9.9 to 1.1 g in the DFZ-treated patients and from 8.0 to 1.4 g in the PDN-treated patients. Plasma albumin concentration normalized in both groups. Both groups of steroid-treated patients had a significant reduction of the BMC levels in all parts of the skeleton. However, the bone decay rates per month were significantly different between different bone regions and between different drug regimes. In the forearm, the bone decay rate was 5.3%/year in the PDN group and 2.0%/year in the DFZ group (P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Calcified Tissue International 07/1992; 50(6):490-7. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of intravenous 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1 alpha(OH)D3] on circulating levels of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH 1-84) and COOH-terminal immunoreactive PTH(PTH 53-84) was examined in 13 patients on chronic hemodialysis. Thirteen patients were treated for 300 days (10 months), 9 patients for 520 days (14 months) and 6 patients for 720 days (2 years) with increasing doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 intravenously under careful control of plasma Ca2+. Blood samples were obtained 1 week before start of treatment and then at every 2nd week. None of the patients had previously been treated with oral vitamin D metabolites. Intact PTH levels were maximally suppressed after 27-33 weeks of treatment by approximately 73%. At the end of the study periods, PTH 1-84 was still suppressed by 78 +/- 4.3% after 300 days, 78 +/- 8.8% after 520 days and 85 +/- 6.5% after 720 days. Plasma Ca2+ was kept within normal levels, but showed an initial increase from 1.14 +/- 0.03 to 1.27 +/- 0.15 mmol/l, and an adjustment of the doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 was necessary. The present investigation demonstrated (1) that intravenous administration of the 1-hydroxylated vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha(OH)D3 induced a significant decrease in circulating levels of biologically active intact PTH, and (2) that it was possible to maintain the marked suppression of PTH secretion by intravenous treatment of 1 alpha (OH)D3 for up to 2 years. Hypercalcemia could be avoided by careful monitoring of plasma Ca2+ and adjustment of the doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3.
    American Journal of Nephrology 02/1992; 12(5):311-8. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A randomized trial was conducted to examine the influence of initial lavage on treatment of CAPD peritonitis. Patients with hypotension and shock were excluded from the trial. Thirty-six CAPD patients with acute peritonitis were randomized to treatment with intraperitoneal antibiotics including either initial 24 hours lavage before resumption of routine CAPD schedule (prior standard approach) or continued prolonged exchanges as in routine CAPD schedule. Median time to solved infection (normalization of white cell count in dialysis effluent) was identical (3 days) in the two groups. Treatment success rate was found to be 72% in the group with initial lavage and 89% in the group with prolonged exchanges. The difference in treatment success (17%) in favour of continued CAPD schedule was not found significant (95% confidence limits--1% to 35%). The results suggest lavage to be of no clinical benefit in treatment of CAPD peritonitis in patients without profound hypotension and shock.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 02/1991; 11(1):38-42. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of intravenous 1 alpha(OH)D3 on circulating intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and COOH-terminal immunoreactive PTH was examined in 21 patients on chronic hemodialysis. The patients were treated for 3 months with increasing doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 under careful control of serum Ca2+. 1 alpha(OH)D3 was given intravenously at doses of up to 4 micrograms three times a week, and blood samples were obtained every week, including 1 week before treatment (basal control). No patients were treated with oral vitamin D metabolites. At the end of the study intact PTH levels were reduced by an average of 67 +/- 6%, and COOH-terminal immunoreactive PTH levels were reduced by 35 +/- 6%. Serum Ca2+ was kept within normal levels, but showed a slight increase from 1.17 to 1.30 mmol/l. An effect of calcium on PTH secretion could not be excluded, but an effect of 1 alpha(OH)D3, independent of serum Ca2+ was also found. This effect may be mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3, assuming a large capacity of the 25-hydroxylase in the liver to convert 1 alpha(OH)D3 to 1,25(OH)2D3. Also, the parathyroid glands may possess receptors for 1 alpha(OH)D3 with an effect similar to that established for the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptors. Thus, although the exact mechanisms of the action of 1 alpha(OH)D3 have not yet been completely clarified, it is concluded that intravenous administration of 1 alpha(OH)D3 may be of benefit in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism of uremia.
    Nephron 02/1989; 53(3):194-200. · 13.26 Impact Factor
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    S Bro, L Brandi, H Daugaard, K Olgaard
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate risk/benefit of various continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) dialysate calcium concentrations. A review of the literature on the effects of various CAPD dialysate Ca concentrations on plasma Ca, plasma phosphate, plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH), doses of calcium carbonate, doses of vitamin D analogs, and requirements of aluminum-containing phosphate binders. Eleven studies of nonselected CAPD patients, and 13 studies of CAPD patients with hypercalcemia were reviewed. In nonselected CAPD patients, treatment with a reduced dialysate Ca concentration (1.00, 1.25, or 1.35 mmol/L) improved the tolerance to calcium carbonate and/or vitamin D metabolites and reduced the need for Al-containing phosphate binders. When using dialysate Ca 1.25 or 1.35 mmol/L, the initial decrease of plasma Ca and increase of PTH could easily be reversed with an immediate adjustment of the treatment. After 3 months, stable plasma Ca and PTH levels could be maintained using only monthly investigations. In patients with hypercalcemia and elevated PTH levels, treatment with dialysate Ca concentrations below 1.25 mmol/L implied a considerable risk for the progression of secondary hyperparathyroidism. When hypercalcemia was present in combination with suppressed PTH levels, a controlled increase of PTH could be obtained with a temporary discontinuation of vitamin D and/or a reduction of calcium carbonate treatment in combination with a dialysate Ca concentration of 1.25 or 1.35 mmol/L. Most CAPD patients can be treated effectively and safely with a reduced dialysate Ca concentration of 1.35 or 1.25 mmol/L. Treatment with dialysate Ca concentrations below 1.25 mmol/L should not be used. A small fraction of patients with persistent hypocalcemia need treatment with high dialysate Ca, such as 1.75 mmol/L.
    Peritoneal dialysis international: journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 17(6):554-9. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    Lisbet Brandi