[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The placenta-specific 1 (PLAC1) gene encodes a membrane-associated protein which is selectively expressed in the placental syncytiotrophoblast and in murine fetal tissues during embryonic development. In contrast to its transcriptional repression in all other adult normal tissues, PLAC1 is frequently activated and highly expressed in a variety of human cancers, in particular breast cancer, where it associates with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) positivity. In a previous study, we showed that ERalpha-signaling in breast cancer cells transactivates PLAC1 expression in a non-classical pathway. As the members of the p160/nuclear receptor co-activator (NCOA) family, NCOA1, NCOA2 and NCOA3 are known to be overexpressed in breast cancer and essentially involved in estrogen-mediated cancer cell proliferation we asked if these proteins are involved in the ERalpha-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in breast cancer cells.
Applying quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), Western Blot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we analyzed the involvement of NCOA1, NCOA2, NCOA3 in the ERalpha-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and SK-BR-3. RNAi-mediated silencing of NCOA3, qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and ERalpha activation assays were used to examine the role of NCOA3 in the ERalpha-mediated regulation of PLAC1 in further detail. Transcript expression of NCOA3 and PLAC1 in 48 human breast cancer samples was examined by qRT-PCR and statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test.
We detected selective recruitment of NCOA3 but not NCOA1 or NCOA2 to the PLAC1 promoter only in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ERalpha-negative SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrate that silencing of NCOA3 results in a remarkable decrease of PLAC1 expression levels in MCF-7 cells which cannot be restored by treatment with estradiol (E2). Moreover, significant higher transcript levels of PLAC1 were found only in ERalpha-positive human breast cancer samples which also show a NCOA3 overexpression.
In this study, we identified NCOA3 as a selective co-activator of ERalpha-mediated transactivation of PLAC1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Our data introduce PLAC1 as novel target gene of NCOA3 in breast cancer, supporting the important role of both factors in breast cancer biology.
BMC Cancer 12/2013; 13(1):570. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled high throughput discovery of somatic mutations. Detection depends on experimental design, lab platforms, parameters and analysis algorithms. However, NGS-based somatic mutation detection is prone to erroneous calls, with reported validation rates near 54% and congruence between algorithms less than 50%. Here, we developed an algorithm to assign a single statistic, a false discovery rate (FDR), to each somatic mutation identified by NGS. This FDR confidence value accurately discriminates true mutations from erroneous calls. Using sequencing data generated from triplicate exome profiling of C57BL/6 mice and B16-F10 melanoma cells, we used the existing algorithms GATK, SAMtools and SomaticSNiPer to identify somatic mutations. For each identified mutation, our algorithm assigned an FDR. We selected 139 mutations for validation, including 50 somatic mutations assigned a low FDR (high confidence) and 44 mutations assigned a high FDR (low confidence). All of the high confidence somatic mutations validated (50 of 50), none of the 44 low confidence somatic mutations validated, and 15 of 45 mutations with an intermediate FDR validated. Furthermore, the assignment of a single FDR to individual mutations enables statistical comparisons of lab and computation methodologies, including ROC curves and AUC metrics. Using the HiSeq 2000, single end 50 nt reads from replicates generate the highest confidence somatic mutation call set.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple genetic events and subsequent clonal evolution drive carcinogenesis, making disease elimination with single-targeted drugs difficult. The multiplicity of gene mutations derived from clonal heterogeneity therefore represents an ideal setting for multiepitope tumor vaccination. Here, we used next generation sequencing exome resequencing to identify 962 nonsynonymous somatic point mutations in B16F10 murine melanoma cells, with 563 of those mutations in expressed genes. Potential driver mutations occurred in classical tumor suppressor genes and genes involved in proto-oncogenic signaling pathways that control cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. Aim1 and Trrap mutations known to be altered in human melanoma were included among those found. The immunogenicity and specificity of 50 validated mutations was determined by immunizing mice with long peptides encoding the mutated epitopes. One-third of these peptides were found to be immunogenic, with 60% in this group eliciting immune responses directed preferentially against the mutated sequence as compared with the wild-type sequence. In tumor transplant models, peptide immunization conferred in vivo tumor control in protective and therapeutic settings, thereby qualifying mutated epitopes that include single amino acid substitutions as effective vaccines. Together, our findings provide a comprehensive picture of the mutanome of B16F10 melanoma which is used widely in immunotherapy studies. In addition, they offer insight into the extent of the immunogenicity of nonsynonymous base substitution mutations. Lastly, they argue that the use of deep sequencing to systematically analyze immunogenicity mutations may pave the way for individualized immunotherapy of cancer patients.
Cancer Research 03/2012; 72(5):1081-91. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The cytokine interleukin-17A supports tumour vascularization and growth, however, its role in lung cancer is unknown. Here we show, in the lungs of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, an increase in interleukin-17A that is inversely correlated with the expression of T-bet and correlated with the T regulatory cell transcription factor Foxp3. Local targeting of interleukin-17A in experimental lung adenocarcinoma results in a reduction in tumour load, local expansion of interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells and a reduction in lung CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. T-bet((-/-)) mice have a significantly higher tumour load compared with wild-type mice. This is associated with the local upregulation of interleukin-23 and induction of interleukin-17A/interleukin-17R-expressing T cells infiltrating the tumour. Local anti-interleukin-17A antibody treatment partially improves the survival of T-bet((-/-)) mice. These results suggest that local anti-interleukin-17A antibody therapy could be considered for the treatment of lung tumours.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intranodal immunization with antigen-encoding naked RNA may offer a simple and safe approach to induce antitumor immunity. RNA taken up by nodal dendritic cells (DC) coactivates toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling that will prime and expand antigen-specific T cells. In this study, we show that RNA vaccination can be optimized by coadministration of the DC-activating Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) ligand as an effective adjuvant. Systemic administration of FLT3 ligand prior to immunization enhanced priming and expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lymphoid organs, T-cell homing into melanoma tumors, and therapeutic activity of the intranodal RNA. Unexpectedly, plasmacytoid DCs (pDC) were found to be essential for the adjuvant effect of FLT3 ligand and they were systemically expanded together with conventional DCs after treatment. In response to FLT3 ligand, pDCs maintained an immature phenotype, internalized RNA, and presented the RNA-encoded antigen for efficient induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. Coadministration of FLT3 ligand with RNA vaccination achieved remarkable cure rates and survival of mice with advanced melanoma. Our findings show how to improve the simple and safe strategy offered by RNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.
Cancer Research 08/2011; 71(19):6132-42. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Claudin-18 isoform 2 (CLDN18.2) is one of the few members of the human claudin family of tight junction molecules with strict restriction to one cell lineage. The objective of the current study was to compare molecular structure and tissue distribution of this gastrocyte specific molecule in mammals. We show here that the CLDN18.2 protein sequence is highly conserved, in particular with regard to functionally relevant domains in mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, monkey and human and also in lizards. Moreover, promoter regions of orthologs are highly homologous, including the binding site of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which is known to regulate activation of human CLDN18.2. Employing RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we found that, analogous to the human gene, all orthologous CLDN18.2 transcripts and proteins are exclusively expressed in differentiated gastric cells. Gene structure, promoter elements and RNA expression pattern of the lung-tissue specific Claudin-18 isoform 1 (CLDN18.1) as well, are homologous across species. These findings exemplify phylogenetic conservation of lineage-specific members of a multigene family. Given that CLDN18.2 is a novel drug target candidate, our data is also relevant for drug development as it reveals all six investigated mammalian species as suitable models for testing safety of CLDN18.2 targeting regimen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although naked antigen-encoding RNA has entered clinical testing, basic knowledge on how to apply this promising novel vaccine format is still pending. By comparing different administration routes, we observed surprisingly potent antigen-specific T-cell immunity upon intranodal injection of naked antigen-encoding RNA. RNA was selectively uptaken by resident dendritic cells, propagated a T-cell attracting and stimulatory intralymphatic milieu, and led to efficient expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ as well as CD4+ T cells. By intranodal treatment of mice with repeated cycles of RNA, we achieved de novo priming of naïve T cells, which became potent cytolytic effectors capable of homing to primary and secondary lymphatic tissues as well as memory T cells. In tumor-bearing mice intralymphatic RNA vaccination elicited protective and therapeutic antitumor immune responses, resulting in a remarkable survival benefit as compared with other treatment regimens. This is the first report of strong systemic antigen-specific Th1-type immunity and cancer cure achieved with naked antigen-encoding RNA in preclinical animal models.
Cancer Research 11/2010; 70(22):9031-40. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and controls the expression of several genes that have been implicated in tumor growth and progression. Activity of HIF-1α in cancer cells is regulated at the transcriptional, translational and posttranslational level by multiple inter- and coacting molecular pathways. In this report, we reveal for the first time that tumor-associated CpG demethylation facilitates positive autoregulation of HIF-1α, resulting in amplification of hypoxia-induced transactivation of HIF-1α target genes. The HIF-1α promoter harbors a hypoxia response element that is normally repressed by methylation of a CpG dinucleotide located in the core element. In colon cancer cell lines and in primary colon cancer specimens, however, we found frequent aberrant demethylation of this element, enabling binding of HIF-1α to its own promoter resulting in autotransactivation of HIF-1α expression. Our results provide novel and highly unexpected insights into the complexity of HIF-1α regulation in cancer cells and implicate that tumor-associated CpG demethylation augments HIF-1α-mediated effects on malignant cell growth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Htid encoded proteins are physiological partners of a wide spectrum of molecules relevant to neoplastic transformation. One of the molecular ligands of the cytosolic hTid-L and hTid-I forms is the ErbB-2 receptor variably over expressed in diverse solid tumors. Altered ErbB-2 signalling is associated with an unfavourable prognosis in about 30% of human breast malignancies.
We evaluated htid and HER-2 expression by quantitative real time PCR in tumors of different TNMG status and by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of breast tumors of the Luminal A, B, HER-2 and triple negative subtype.
The RT-PCR analysis revealed that aberrant expression of all three htid forms correlates with malignant transformation. Furthermore, elevated hTid-L expression can be associated with less aggressive tumors. The immunohistochemical testing revealed that tumors of the luminal A subtype are characterized by a high level of htid (81%). In contrast htid expression is significantly lower in tumors of the Luminal B (20%) and HER-2 (18%) subtype over expressing the receptor and in the triple negative (40%) more aggressive malignancies. A statistically significant inverse correlation between htid and ErbB-2 expression was found in human breast (p < 0,0001) and non-mammary tumors (p < 0,007), and in transgenic mice carrying the rat HER-2/neu oncogene.
Our findings provide in vivo evidence that htid is a tissue independent and evolutionarily conserved suppressor of ErbB-2.
Journal of Translational Medicine 01/2010; 8:58. · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trophoblast-specific gene PLAC1 (placenta-specific 1) is ectopically expressed in a wide range of human malignancies, most frequently in breast cancer, and is essentially involved in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here we show that basal activity of the PLAC1 promoter is selectively controlled by ubiquitous transcription factor SP1 and isoform 2 of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta that we found to be selectively expressed in placental tissue and cancer cells. Binding of both factors to their respective elements within the PLAC1 promoter was essential to attain full promoter activity. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) signaling further augmented transcription and translation of PLAC1 and most likely accounts for the positive correlation between PLAC1 expression levels and the ERalpha status we observed in primary breast cancer specimens. DNA affinity precipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that transactivation of the PLAC1 promoter by ligand-activated ERalpha is based on a nonclassical pathway independent of estrogen-response elements, by tethering of ERalpha to DNA-bound CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta-2, and SP1. Our findings provide first insight into a novel and hitherto unknown regulatory mechanism governing selective activation of trophoblast-specific gene expression in breast cancer.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(42):28607-15. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon cancer-associated MS4A12 is a novel colon-specific component of store-operated Ca2+ (SOC) entry sensitizing cells for epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated effects on proliferation and chemotaxis. In the present study, we investigated regulation of the MS4A12 promoter to understand the mechanisms responsible for strict transcriptional restriction of this gene to the colonic epithelial cell lineage. DNA-binding assays and luciferase reporter assays showed that MS4A12 promoter activity is governed by a single CDX homeobox transcription factor binding element. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of intestine-specific transcription factors CDX1 and CDX2 and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) in LoVo and SW48 colon cancer cells revealed that MS4A12 transcript and protein expression is essentially dependent on the presence of endogenous CDX2. In summary, our findings provide a rationale for colon-specific expression of MS4A12. Moreover, this is the first report establishing CDX2 as transactivator of tumor growth-promoting gene expression in colon cancer, adding to untangle the complex and conflicting biological functions of CDX2 in colon cancer and supporting MS4A12 as important factor for normal colonic development as well as for the biology and treatment of colon cancer.
Molecular Cancer 09/2009; 8:77. · 5.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ca(2+)-regulated calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) cascade controls alternative pathways of T-cell activation and peripheral tolerance. Here, we describe reduction of NFATc2 mRNA expression in the lungs of patients with bronchial adenocarcinoma. In a murine model of bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma, mice lacking NFATc2 developed more and larger solid tumors than wild-type littermates. The extent of central tumor necrosis was decreased in the tumors in NFATc2((-/-)) mice, and this finding was associated with reduced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by CD8(+) T cells. Adoptive transfer of CD8(+) T cells of NFATc2((-/-)) mice induced transforming growth factor-beta(1) in the airways of recipient mice, thus supporting CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp-3(+)glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR)(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cell survival. Finally, engagement of GITR in NFATc2((-/-)) mice induced IFN-gamma levels in the airways, reversed the suppression by T(reg) cells, and costimulated effector CD4(+)CD25(+) (IL-2Ralpha) and memory CD4(+)CD127(+) (IL-7Ralpha) T cells, resulting in abrogation of carcinoma progression. Agonistic signaling through GITR, in the absence of NFATc2, thus emerges as a novel possible strategy for the treatment of human bronchial adenocarcinoma in the absence of NFATc2 by enhancing IL-2Ralpha(+) effector and IL-7Ralpha(+) memory-expressing T cells.
Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(7):3069-76. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antibody-based cancer therapies have emerged as the most promising therapeutics in oncology. The purpose of this study was to discover novel targets for therapeutic antibodies in solid cancer.
We combined data mining and wet-bench experiments to identify strictly gastrocyte lineage-specific cell surface molecules and to validate them as therapeutic antibody targets.
We identified isoform 2 of the tight junction molecule claudin-18 (CLDN18.2) as a highly selective cell lineage marker. Its expression in normal tissues is strictly confined to differentiated epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa, but it is absent from the gastric stem cell zone. CLDN18.2 is retained on malignant transformation and is expressed in a significant proportion of primary gastric cancers and the metastases thereof. In addition to its orthotopic expression, we found frequent ectopic activation of CLDN18.2 in pancreatic, esophageal, ovarian, and lung tumors, correlating with distinct histologic subtypes. The activation of CLDN18.2 depends on the binding of the transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein to its unmethylated consensus site. Most importantly, we were able to raise monoclonal antibodies that bind to CLDN18.2 but not to its lung-specific splice variant and recognize the antigen on the surface of cancer cells.
Its highly restricted expression pattern in normal tissues, its frequent ectopic activation in a diversity of human cancers, and the ability to specifically target this molecule at the cell surface of tumor cells qualify CLDN18.2 as a novel, highly attractive pan-cancer target for the antibody therapy of epithelial tumors.
Clinical Cancer Research 01/2009; 14(23):7624-34. · 8.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to earlier attempts for the identification of target candidates suitable for monoclonal antibody (mAb) based cancer therapies we concentrated on highly selective lineage-specific genes additionally preserved or even overexpressed in orthotopic cancers. In a script aided workflow we reduced all human entries of the RefSeq mRNA database to those encoding transmembrane domain bearing gene products and subjected them to BLAST analysis against the human EST database. All BLAST results were validated in a gene centric way allowing two types of data curation prior to expression profiling of matching ESTs in selected healthy tissues: (i) exclusion of questionable ESTs arising e.g. from genomic contamination and (ii) elimination of erroneously predicted mRNAs as well as transcripts with only weak EST coverage. The impact of such stringent input control on accuracy of prediction is underlined by RT-PCR confirmation of predicted tissue distribution patterns for a number of selected candidates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using a data mining approach for the discovery of new targets for antibody therapy of colon cancer, we identified MS4A12, a sequence homologue of CD20. We show that MS4A12 is a cell surface protein. Expression analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed MS4A12 to be a colonic epithelial cell lineage gene confined to the apical membrane of colonocytes with strict transcriptional repression in all other normal tissue types. Expression is maintained upon malignant transformation in 63% of colon cancers. Ca(2+) flux analyses disclosed that MS4A12 is a novel component of store-operated Ca(2+) entry in intestinal cells. Using RNAi-mediated gene silencing, we show that loss of MS4A12 in LoVo colon cancer cells attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated effects. In particular, proliferation, cell motility, and chemotactic invasion of cells are significantly impaired. Cancer cells expressing MS4A12, in contrast, are sensitized and respond to lower concentrations of epidermal growth factor. In summary, these findings have implications for both the physiology of colonic epithelium as well as for the biology and treatment of colon cancer.
Cancer Research 06/2008; 68(9):3458-66. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we identified htid-1, the human counterpart of the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene lethal(2)tumorous imaginal discs [l(2)tid], as a direct molecular ligand of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor. The gene encodes three cytosolic (Tid50, Tid48 and Tid46) and three mitochondrial (Tid43, Tid40 and Tid38) proteins. In the colorectal epithelium the cytosolic forms hTid50/hTid48 interact under physiological conditions with the N-terminal region of APC. This complex which associates with additional proteins such as Hsp70, Hsc70, Actin, Dvl and Axin defines a novel physiological state of APC unrelated to beta-catenin degradation. Here we show that the expression of the genes htid-1 and APC was altered in colorectal tumors. These changes concerned both the localization and the expression level of all three htid-1 splice variants and of APC. Furthermore, we showed that the protein products of the two tumor suppressors co-localized in the basal and apical region of normal colon epithelia and that loss of differentiation capacity of colorectal cancers correlated with a shift in their expression patterns from compartmentalized to diffuse cytoplasmic. These findings support our hypothesis that the building of the multi-component complex mentioned above is associated with the maintenance of the polarity of cells and tissues. In addition, we provide evidence that colon cancer progression correlates with up-regulation of htid-1 and its ligand Hsp70. Since the Tid proteins are members of the DnaJ-like protein family, an essential component of the Hsp70/Hsc70 chaperone machinery, our findings describe a novel, causal link between the function of chaperone machines, APC-mediated Wg/Wnt signaling and tumor development.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 02/2008; 21(1):19-31. · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The identification and functional characterization of tumor-specific genes is a prerequisite for the development of targeted cancer therapies. Using an integrated data mining and experimental validation approach for the discovery of new targets for antibody therapy of cancer, we identified PLAC1. PLAC1 is a placenta-specific gene with no detectable expression in any other normal human tissue. However, it is frequently aberrantly activated and highly expressed in a variety of tumor types, in particular breast cancer. RNAi-mediated silencing of PLAC1 in MCF-7 and BT-549 breast cancer cells profoundly impairs motility, migration, and invasion and induces a G1-S cell cycle block with nearly complete abrogation of proliferation. Knockdown of PLAC1 is associated with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and reduced phosphorylation of AKT kinase. Moreover, PLAC1 is localized on the surface of cancer cells and is accessible for antibodies which antagonize biological functions of this molecule. These features, in summary, make PLAC1 an attractive candidate for targeted immunotherapeutic approaches.
Cancer Research 11/2007; 67(19):9528-34. · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been a long-standing vision of scientists studying tumor immunology to use the immune system’s effectors for the therapy
of cancer by directing them against target molecules expressed selectively on tumor cells. Different genetic approaches for
discovery of such target candidates have been developed over the last 15 yr and are being pursued. The classical approaches
apply expression cloning using either cancer-reactive T-lymphocytes or autoantibodies in crude patient sera as probes to identify
target molecules of spontaneous immune responses. Recent concepts utilizing high-density microarray analysis, subtractive
library approaches, or in silico cloning aim at the identification of genes with cancer cell-associated expression and subsequently address the immunogenicity
of such molecules with reverse immunology. This chapter summarizes the peculiarities of these approaches, reflects on rationale
criteria for selection of vaccine candidates, and discusses how integrated discovery and validation strategies may assist
in the delivery of suitable targets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) transfected with in vitro-transcribed, RNA-encoding, tumor-associated antigens has recently entered clinical testing as a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy. However, pharmacokinetic exploration of RNA as a potential drug compound and a key aspect of clinical development is still pending. While investigating the impact of different structural modifications of RNA molecules on the kinetics of the encoded protein in DCs, we identified components located 3' of the coding region that contributed to a higher transcript stability and translational efficiency. With the use of quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and eGFP variants to measure transcript amounts and protein yield, we showed that a poly(A) tail measuring 120 nucleotides compared with a shorter one, an unmasked poly(A) tail with a free 3' end rather than one extended with unrelated nucleotides, and 2 sequential beta-globin 3' untranslated regions cloned head to tail between the coding region and the poly(A) tail each independently enhanced RNA stability and translational efficiency. Consecutively, the density of antigen-specific peptide/MHC complexes on the transfected cells and their potency to stimulate and expand antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were also increased. In summary, our data provide a strategy for optimizing RNA-transfected DC vaccines and a basis for defining release criteria for such vaccine preparations.