Nicholas S Ialongo

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (152)402.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents in disadvantaged communities have high rates of exposure to stress and trauma, which can negatively impact emotion regulation and executive functioning, increasing likelihood of school problems. This pilot study evaluated RAP Club, a 12-session school-based trauma-informed group intervention co-facilitated by a mental health counselor and young adult community member that utilizes evidence-based cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness strategies. Seventh and eighth graders at two urban public schools serving low-income communities were assigned to receive RAP Club (n = 29) or regular school programming (n = 20). RAP Club improved teacher-rated emotion regulation, social and academic competence, classroom behavior, and discipline. Higher program dose predicted improvements in several teacher-rated outcomes. Student self-report outcomes, however, did not vary by study group or dose. Even students with low baseline depression showed improvement in teacher-rated outcomes following program participation, supporting a model of universal program delivery to all students. Findings suggest RAP Club merits further study. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescence 06/2015; 43:142-147. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.05.017 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence-based interventions are being disseminated broadly in schools across the USA, but the implementation levels achieved in community settings vary considerably. The current study examined the extent to which teacher and school factors were associated with implementation dosage and quality of the PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention designed to improve student social-emotional competence and behavior. Specifically, dosage (i.e., number of games and duration of games) across the school year and quality (i.e., how well the game is delivered) of PAX GBG implementation across four time points in a school year were examined. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the association between teacher-level factors (e.g., demographics, self-reports of personal resources, attitudes toward the intervention, and workplace perceptions) and longitudinal implementation data. We also accounted for school-level factors, including demographic characteristics of the students and ratings of the schools' organizational health. Findings indicated that only a few teacher-level factors were significantly related to variation in implementation. Teacher perceptions (e.g., fit with teaching style, emotional exhaustion) were generally related to dosage, whereas demographic factors (e.g., teachers' age) were related to quality. These findings highlight the importance of school contextual and proximal teacher factors on the implementation of classroom-based programs.
    Prevention Science 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11121-015-0557-8 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Internalizing symptoms during adolescence and beyond is a major public health concern, particularly because severe symptoms can lead to the diagnosis of a number of serious psychiatric conditions. This study utilizes a unique sample with a complex statistical method in order to explore Gene × Environment interactions found in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Data for this study were drawn from a longitudinal prevention intervention study ( n = 798) of Baltimore city school children. Internalizing symptom data were collected using self-report and blood or saliva samples genotyped using Affymetrix 6.0 microarrays. A major depression polygenic score was created for each individual using information from the major depressive disorder Psychiatric Genetics Consortium and used as a predictor in a latent trait–state–occasion model. The major depressive disorder polygenic score was a significant predictor of the stable latent trait variable, which captures time-independent phenotypic variability. In addition, an early childhood stressor of death or divorce was a significant predictor of occasion-specific variables. A Gene × Environment interaction was not a significant predictor of the latent trait or occasion variables. These findings support the importance of genetics on the stable latent trait portion of internalizing symptoms across adolescence.
    Development and Psychopathology 05/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0954579415000401 · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Adolescence 03/2015; 41C:17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.02.001 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing interest in coaching to support teacher implementation of evidence-based interventions; yet, there is limited research examining the tailoring of coaching support to teachers’ needs. This paper examined coaching dosage across one school year, and the relationship between coaching contacts and teacher baseline and end-of-year data. Data came from a randomized controlled trial including 210 teachers in 18 schools implementing the Good Behavior Game (GBG), either as a stand alone or when integrated with a social-emotional learning curriculum. The overarching goal was to determine whether coaches provided varying levels of teacher contacts and how this support related to condition assignment, implementation, and teachers’ beliefs and perceptions data. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was used to examine the frequency of teacher contacts across the school year. GMM indicated three distinct patterns: about 58 % of teachers received a moderate number of contacts; 27 % received a consistently low number of contacts; and 15 % received high and increasing support. Teachers who received a high degree of support were more often implementing the integrated GBG and reported more negative beliefs and perceptions at the start of the school year than those in the low contact class. Teachers in the low contact class implemented the least number of games and minutes of GBG, but reported better perceptions of organizational health and burnout, at the end of the year. Coaching dosage was unrelated to observer ratings of implementation quality.
    School Mental Health 03/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1007/s12310-015-9145-0
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial. The polygenic score reflects the contribution of multiple genes and has been shown in prior research to be predictive of smoking cessation and tobacco use (Uhl et al., 2014). Using data from a longitudinal preventive intervention study, we examined age of first tobacco use from sixth grade to age 18. Genetic data were collected during emerging adulthood and were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. The polygenic score was computed using these data. Discrete-time survival analysis was employed to test for intervention main and interaction effects with the polygenic score. We found a main effect of the intervention, with the intervention participants reporting their first cigarette smoked at an age significantly later than controls. We also found an Intervention × Polygenic Score interaction, with participants at the higher end of the polygenic score benefitting the most from the intervention in terms of delayed age of first use. These results are consistent with Belsky and colleagues' (e.g., Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2007; Belsky & Pleuss, 2009, 2013; Ellis, Boyce, Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2011) differential susceptibility hypothesis and the concept of "for better or worse," wherein the expression of genetic variants are optimally realized in the context of an enriched environment, such as provided by a preventive intervention.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/2015; 27(1):111-22. DOI:10.1017/S0954579414001333 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Drug and Alcohol Dependence 01/2015; 146:e40-e41. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.09.482 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the perceived feasibility and pattern of implementation following an online training for teachers delivering an integrated intervention encompassing two school-based universal preventive interventions: Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum and the PAX Good Behavior Game (GBG). Forty-five teachers from three urban elementary schools completed an online training consisting of didactics and video demonstration and received in-person coaching across a 31-week implementation period. Data from 65 teachers from three schools who received in-person training and coaching provided a benchmark for comparison. Most teachers in the online training + in-person coaching (OLT + IPC) condition reported that the technology was easy to use and that the course was as effective as an in-person workshop. Teachers in the OLT + IPC group reported positive attitudes regarding PATHS and the PAX GBG that generally were not significantly different from attitudes reported by teachers who received in-person training + in-person coaching (IPT + IPC). Importantly, teachers in the OLT + IPC condition achieved a high level of implementation quality similar to that demonstrated by teachers in the IPT + IPC condition. The frequency of intervention delivery by OLT + IPC teachers was also not significantly different than that of IPT + IPC teachers. These findings provide evidence that the internet is a promising component in a training sequence designed to teach teachers to deliver evidence-based preventive interventions.
    School Mental Health 12/2014; 6(4):225-236. DOI:10.1007/s12310-014-9124-x
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  • Beth A. Reboussin, Nicholas Ialongo, Kerry Green
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    ABSTRACT: Despite recent evidence of higher rates of marijuana use among African Americans than Whites, limited research has examined the reasons for this racial disparity. The purpose of this study is to examine how contextual stressors that disproportionately affect African American adolescents are related to marijuana opportunities and use in a sample of primarily low-income urban-dwelling African Americans. Four hundred and seventy African-American children were interviewed annually beginning in first grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis was conducted to examine the influence of contextual stress as measured by neighborhood disorder, community violence exposure and racial discrimination on transitions across stages of marijuana involvement in 6th-9th grades. Three-stages of marijuana involvement emerged: no involvement, marijuana opportunities and use and problems. Youth who reported witnessing or being a victim of community violence were significantly more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to having opportunities to use marijuana (AOR=1.45; 95% CI=1.02, 2.07) and to use and problems (AOR=2.68; 95% CI=1.36, 5.27) compared to youth who did not report exposure to community violence. Higher levels of neighborhood disorder was significantly associated with transitions from no involvement to use and problems (AOR=2.38; 95% CI=1.22, 4.63). Youth who reported experiencing higher levels of racial discrimination were significantly more likely to transition from no marijuana involvement to having opportunities to use marijuana (AOR=2.04; 95% CI=1.41, 2.95). These findings highlight the need to develop interventions focused on contextual factors that disproportionately affect these youth and factors that might promote resilience in these urban environments.
    142nd APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2014; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: African American male high school students have the highest rates of marijuana use among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups, yet there is limited research examining contextual factors salient to the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine how neighborhood environment measured in 8th grade is related to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use during high school (9th to 12th grades) in a sample of urban African Americans. Four hundred and fifty-two African American children were interviewed annually beginning in 1st grade as part of a longitudinal field study in Baltimore city. Latent transition analysis indicated early in high school posed the greatest risk for initiation and progression of marijuana use. Community violence exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning from no marijuana use to infrequent use (adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.40, p < 0.001). Higher perceived neighborhood disorder (AOR = 3.20, p = 0.004), drug activity and sales in the neighborhood (AOR = 2.28, p = 0.028), and community violence exposure (AOR = 4.54, p < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of transitioning from no use to frequent/problematic marijuana use. There was evidence for partial mediation of these associations by perceptions of harm and depressed mood. Drug activity and sales was associated with progression from infrequent to frequent and problematic use (AOR = 2.87, p = 0.029). African American youth living in urban environments with exposure to drug activity, violence, and neighborhood disorder are at increased risk for both initiation and progression to more frequent and problematic marijuana use during high school. These findings highlight the need to develop interventions for African American youth that are mindful of the impact of the additional stressors of living in a high-risk urban environment during a critical developmental transition period. Reducing exposure to drug activity and violence in high-risk urban neighborhoods may be the first step to potentially halt increasing rates of marijuana use among African Americans.
    Journal of Urban Health 10/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11524-014-9909-0 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • Beth A Reboussin, Nicholas S Ialongo, Kerry M Green
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine how patterns of academic and behavior problems in the first grade relate to longitudinal transitions in marijuana use from middle school through entry into high school among African-Americans.
    Addictive Behaviors 09/2014; 41C:51-57. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.09.030 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine transitions in gambling participation from late adolescence into emerging adulthood and to identify factors (i.e., gender, race, intervention status, lunch status, conduct disorder, parental monitoring, neighborhood environment, and substance use) that might influence these transitions. Methods Markov modeling was used to describe the movement between past-year gambling states (i.e., nongambling and gambling) across 5 years. Annual data on the past-year gambling behavior and substance use were collected from 515 young men and women starting at the age of 17 years. Results Past-year gambling declined from 51% prevalence at the age of 17 years to 21% prevalence at the age of 22 years. Participants who reported no past-year gambling at a particular annual assessment had more than an 80% probability of also reporting no past-year gambling at the following assessment. Men were 1.07–2.82 times more likely than women to transition from past-year nongambling to gambling year to year, and women were 1.27–5.26 times more likely than men to transition from past-year gambling to nongambling year to year. In addition, gender and past-year tobacco use interacted such that men who used tobacco were most likely (and men who did not use tobacco least likely) to gamble at baseline. Conclusions Transition rates between gambling states appear to be relatively stable over time from late adolescence into emerging adulthood; however, men and those who engage in substance use may be at an increased risk of gambling participation.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 08/2014; 55(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.02.001 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors for marijuana use in older adolescents and young adults have focused primarily on family environment and peer affiliation. A growing body of work has examined the relationship between environmental context and young adult substance use. This study builds on previous research linking neighborhood environment to young adult marijuana use by exploring two distinct features of neighborhoods, namely the physical (e.g., broken windows) and social environment (e.g., adults watching youth). Data were obtained from a longitudinal sample of 398 predominately African American young adults living in an urban environment. The data also included observational measures of physical and social order and disorder collected on the young adult's residential block. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was utilized to test hypothesized relationships between these two features of the neighborhood environment and past year young adult marijuana use. A two-factor model of neighborhood environment with good fit indices was selected (CFI = 0.97, RMSEA = 0.037). There was a positive and significant direct effect from neighborhood physical disorder to marijuana use (0.219, p < 0.05) controlling for gender, race, and free and reduced price meal (FARPM) status. The direct effect from neighborhood social environment to marijuana use was not significant. These results converge with previous research linking vacant housing with young adult marijuana use but do not provide empirical support for the neighborhood social environment as a determinant of drug taking. Better explication of the social environment is needed to understand its relationship to drug use.
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2014; 16(2). DOI:10.1007/s11121-014-0497-8 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.
    Development and Psychopathology 06/2014; 26(4):1-17. DOI:10.1017/S0954579414000571 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Carla L Storr, Flora Or, William W Eaton, Nicholas Ialongo
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    ABSTRACT: Opposed to large nationally sponsored health initiatives or biobanks, little is known about gathering genetic samples from young adults participating in academic community-based epidemiologic studies of mental health and substance use, especially samples with a large number of minority participants. This study describes our experience of establishing a genetic arm within a longitudinal study of a cohort of young adults (mean age 29, 75 % African American, 58 % female). In total, 75 % of those interviewed in the most recent wave donated a DNA sample (31.6 % blood and 68.4 % saliva) and over 90 % provided consent for storage and sharing. Current smokers were more likely to donate a sample than nonsmokers (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.14, 2.22). The odds of obtaining a saliva sample were increased for those who were former cannabis smokers and who drank more regularly, but decreased among participants with less education and a history with drug use. Fewer minorities (aOR = 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.18, 0.75; p = 0.006) and cannabis users (aOR = 0.46, 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.77) consented to sharing their sample with other investigators. Findings also illustrate there are many study parameters that are important in planning biologic collection efforts. Building strong rapport and trust with subjects, minimizing the burden involved by the respondent to obtain a biological sample, offering a choice to provide blood or saliva, and offering an incentive will increase the likelihood of obtaining a sample and, importantly, increase the opportunity to store and share the sample for the future.
    Journal of community genetics 06/2014; 5(4). DOI:10.1007/s12687-014-0191-3
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: With implementation of evidence-based interventions typically being poorer in real-world settings than in efficacy trials (Dusenbury et al., 2003; Ringwalt et al., 2003), there is increasing interest among federal agencies, researchers, and policy makers in translational research (SPR, 2008). Although research shows that on-going, rather than one-time or occasional, training is needed in order to promote implementation and sustainability (Fixsen et al., 2003), it is currently unknown how much or how often “on-going” supports are needed in order to promote teacher implementation and thus student outcomes. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by determining specific patterns of coaching support to enhance teachers’ implementation of the Good Behavior Game (GBG; Barrish et al., 1969; Embry et al., 2003). Specifically, data from a one-year randomized controlled trial of the GBG will be used to determine whether coaches provide varying levels support in terms of time spent with teachers. We also examine the specific coaching activities engaged in and determine whether these activities are associated with teacher characteristics or GBG implementation. Method: Coaching supports were provided to 220 teachers in 18 schools. After each contact with a teacher, coaches recorded the number of minutes spent on activities (e.g., checking in, modeling skills, providing technical assistance and feedback, delivering GBG, and collecting additional data). Coaches began the school year by providing consistent support for all teachers, but then provided more tailored coaching supports based on implementation observations. Results: Teachers received an average of 9 hours of coaching supports over the course of the school year. The largest proportion of time was spent doing check-ins with teachers followed closely by needs assessments; however, there were differences in the time spent on activities between the initial and tailored phases of the coaching process. For example, during the universal coaching period, coaches spent the most time conducting needs assessments. It is anticipated that distinct coaching patterns will emerge with more intensive coaching, including a greater amount of modeling and feedback, being provided to teachers with lower initial implementation of the GBG. Latent variable modeling will be used to derive distinct patterns of coaching support and examine whether these patterns vary over time. Teacher implementation and perceptions will be modeled as predictors of coaching trajectories. Discussion: Implications for the dissemination of prevention interventions will be discussed.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to clarify developmental trajectories of suicidal ideation during adolescence and their association with later suicide attempts, Major Depression, diagnoses and additional risk behaviors in an urban sample of African American participants. Suicidal ideation is a primary precursor on the pathway to suicide attempt and death by suicide. Additionally, persistent ideation independently carries with it a substantial burden to the individual and society and is associated with deleterious outcomes and psychopathology. Few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of suicidal ideation. Ethnic minorities are rarely included in these studies. Suicide prevention efforts occur in schools nationwide, yet we do not have guidance regarding the most beneficial timing during the course of early development for the implementation of suicide prevention programs. Therefore, in order to most appropriately target suicide prevention efforts, further understanding regarding the developmental trajectories of ideation is needed, particularly among ethnic minorities. This will be accomplished using a community-based longitudinal prevention intervention trial, which began data collection in the Baltimore City public schools in 1993. Participants, currently in their mid 20’s, were assessed annually using a variety of methods and measures. Results of these analyses aim to 1) longitudinally follow community-residing African American young people through the peak period of risk for a first suicide attempt to highlight the demographic, behavioral and clinical features that distinguish adolescent suicide ideators who make a suicide attempt from those who do not; 2) elucidate a critical window of opportunity for school–based suicide prevention. Subtypes of the developmental course of suicidal ideation across adolescence were identified using longitudinal latent class analyses with 678 African-American adolescents (54.4% male; 75% free or reduced lunch). Two subtypes (i.e., ideators and non-ideators) were identified, and 37% of ideators reported a future suicide attempt. Ideators were also more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) as compared to non-ideators and were more likely to report high-risk sexual behaviors than the non-ideator subtype. Importantly, the peak onset of suicidal ideation occurred in 7th grade. Results of these analyses emphasize the critical clinical and behavioral correlates of suicidal ideation and highlight the importance of earlier intervention.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
  • Devin English, Sharon F. Lambert, Nicholas Salvatore Ialongo
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Prior studies indicate that racial discrimination contributes to the persistence of race-based disparities in income, education, incarceration, and an array of mental and physical health outcomes affecting African Americans. Recent research with African American children and adolescents suggests that racial discrimination becomes salient and etiologically-meaningful early in their lives. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has investigated the timing of exposure to racial discrimination among African American youth. In addition, no research to date has examined contextual factors associated with youths’ first experience of racial discrimination. These omissions in the literature narrow our understanding of the developmental timing of racial discrimination in the lives of African American youth and limit our ability to design effective preventive interventions to combat the insidious effects of the stressor. Thus, this study investigated the timing and predictors of African American adolescents’ initial racial discrimination exposure. It was hypothesized that contextual factors would be associated with the time to initial exposure to racial discrimination during middle and high school. Methods: Participants were a community sample of 452 urban African American adolescents. In each of grades 7 through 12 and yearly for 6 years afterward, participants reported about their experiences with racial discrimination. Information was also obtained on participants’ SES, neighborhood environment, and justice system involvement. Survival analyses were used to examine the timing of initial racial discrimination experience and whether contextual factors were associated with the hazard of racial discrimination exposure. Results: By the spring of grade 7, 61.5% of participants reported experiencing racial discrimination. Less than 1% of respondents “survived” until the end of high school without experiencing racial discrimination. SES, neighborhood disorder and justice system contact predicted the timing of initial exposure to racial discrimination. Conclusions: This study provides valuable information on the timing of racial discrimination experiences for African American adolescents. Results indicate that experienced racial discrimination affects the lives of the majority of African American adolescents as early as 7th grade and affects virtually all adolescents before the end of high school, with SES, neighborhood disorder and justice system contact predicting earlier experiences of racial discrimination. These findings suggest that preventive interventions targeting the negative effects associated with racial discrimination should start prior to 7th grade for African American adolescents and consider environmental factors affecting these youth.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Although research has shown positive associations between implementation of school-based interventions, as measured by dosage, adherence, and fidelity, and student outcomes (Durlak & DuPre, 2008), less is known about how level of implementation relates to implementers’ outcomes. Given the competing demands for time and money in schools, as well as concerns regarding staff turnover and job satisfaction (Marvel et al., 2006), it is important to determine whether additional time and effort devoted to implementing evidence-based interventions is positively or negatively related to teachers’ personal resources. This study aimed to examine the relationship between Good Behavior Game (Embry et al., 2003) dosage (i.e., amount of time spent playing the games) and fidelity (i.e., measured by external observers) and teacher-reported burnout and efficacy across a school year. Method: Data come from 199 teachers in 18 schools involved in an RCT testing GBG versus an integration of GBG with the PATHS (Greenberg & Kusch, 2011) social emotional curriculum. Teacher-reported efficacy was measured on two scales: behavioral management (Main & Hammond, 2008) and social emotional learning (SEL; Domitrovitch & Poduska, 2008). Burnout was measured using the three scales (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach et al., 1997). The targeted predictor variables were observational ratings of implementation fidelity and the number of minutes played per game across the school year. Teacher and school characteristics were included as controls. Hierarchical linear modeling accounted for the repeated nature of the outcome variables (i.e., measured at four time points across the year) and nesting of teachers within schools (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002). Results: Preliminary analyses demonstrated that the average implementation score across four observations was significantly related to change in depersonalization over time, such that teachers who demonstrated a high level of fidelity showed increasing levels of burnout across the school year (b = .13, SE = .06, p < .05). More time spent playing GBG was also related to intercept, but not slope, of efficacy for behavioral management (b = .02, SE = .01, p < .05) and SEL (b = .02, SE = .01, p < .05). Discussion: These results suggest that teachers who spent more time implementing this evidence-based intervention reported feeling more efficacious, but that better fidelity was associated with increased burnout over time. Implications for prevention and implementation science will be discussed.
    Society for Prevention Research 22nd Annual Meeting 2013; 05/2014

Publication Stats

3k Citations
402.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1994–2015
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • Department of Mental Health
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • George Washington University
      • Department of Psychology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York, New York, United States
  • 2008
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2006
    • The National Bureau of Economic Research
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Iowa
      • Department of Psychology
      Iowa City, IA, United States
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice
      CGS, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • The Ohio State University
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 1986
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Psychology
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States