Hiroshi Nishioka

Kyorin University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (19)42.7 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently, the ability of polyphenols to reduce the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has attracted a great deal of interest. In the present study, we investigated the attenuating effects of oligomerised lychee fruit-derived polyphenol (OLFP, also called Oligonol) on early cognitive impairment. Male senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice (4 months old) were given OLFP (100 mg/kg per d) for 2 months, and then conditioned fear memory testing was conducted. Contextual fear memory, which is considered hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice compared with non-senescence-accelerated mice. OLFP attenuated cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice. Moreover, the results of real-time PCR analysis that followed DNA array analysis in the hippocampus revealed that, compared with SAMP8 mice, the mRNA expression of Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) was significantly higher in SAMP8 mice administered with OLFP. Wfs1 reportedly helps to protect against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which is thought to be one of the causes for AD. The expression of Wfs1 was significantly up-regulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by the treatment with OLFP, and the up-regulation was inhibited by the treatment of the cells with a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-specific inhibitor rather than with an extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor. Moreover, OLFP significantly attenuated the tunicamycin-induced expression of the ER stress marker BiP (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein) in the cells. These results suggest that OLFP has an attenuating effect on early cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice, and diminishes ER stress in neuronal cells.
    The British journal of nutrition 03/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The results obtained from our previous study showed that the addition of a lychee fruit-derived low molecular form of polyphenol, Oligonol, provoked higher levels of lipolytic activity via the degradation of perilipin 1 in primary rat adipocytes. In the current study, we investigated the possible mechanisms by which Oligonol could promote the degradation of perilipin 1 protein. The addition of Oligonol caused the degradation of GFP-tagged perilipin 1 in a time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, the co-addition of Oligonol and NH4CI, a lysosome inhibitor, failed to promote the degradation of perilipin 1, while the co-addition of Oligonol and MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, induced a reduction in the levels of perilipin 1. These results suggest that the Oligonol-induced degradation of perilipin 1 is regulated via a lysosome-dependent mechanism.
    Natural product communications 09/2012; 7(9):1193-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial in preventing the accumulation of body fat in mammals. This paper reports that adding oligonol, a lychee fruit-derived low-molecular form of polyphenol mixture, has a greater effect on lipolysis in primary adipocytes compared with tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) alone, accompanied by a significant increase in activation of extracellular signalling-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). However, neither phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), a molecule upstream of ERK1/2, nor the level of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a molecule downstream of ERK1/2 was significantly changed between oligonol and EGCG, although the addition of oligonol and EGCG significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated MEK1/2 and HO-1 compared with the non-treated control cells. These results suggest that the coordinated direct effect of mixed polyphenol, which comprises oligonol, on ERK1/2 plays a key role in a greater lipolytic response to oligonol than EGCG alone.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2011; 25(3):467-71. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonol is a lychee fruit-derived low-molecular form of polyphenol. In this study, the effect of Oligonol on the mitogen activated-protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in primary adipocytes was investigated to examine the mechanism underlying the enhanced levels of phosphorylated extracellular-signaling regulatory kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) that accompany an in vitro increase in lipolysis. Oligonol significantly elevated the levels of activated Ras and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MAPK/ERK kinase1/2 (MEK1/2) with no increase in pan-Raf-1 and -MEK1/2 proteins. The increase in phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1/2 with Oligonol was inhibited completely by pretreatment with GW5074, a selective Raf-1 inhibitor, or PD98059, a selective MEK1/2 inhibitor. IL-6 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway in adipocytes through the association with its receptor. IL-6-induced phosphorylation of Raf-1 and MEK1/2 was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the IL-6 receptor antibody. Under such a condition, however, the levels of phosphorylated Raf-1 and MEK1/2 with Oligonol still remained significantly higher, and there was a significant decrease in secretion of IL-6 from adipocytes, compared with untreated control cells. These results suggest that Oligonol activates the Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 signaling pathway, independent of the IL-6 signaling pathway, leading to activation of ERK1/2 proteins in primary adipocytes.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2010; 402(3):554-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many polyphenolic compounds are poorly digested, and have low bioavailability due to their long chain lengths and chemical composition. A processed, flavanol-rich lychee fruit extract (FRLFE) that is higher in flavanol monomers, dimer and trimers than its unprocessed counterpart, was tested in a variety of models. First, mature visceral adipocytes were treated with 0, 3, 10 or 30 microg/mL FRLFE (day 6-8). Compared with the controls, the treated cells had lower triglyceride concentrations, less lipid accumulation and a smaller lipid droplet size. Adiponectin release was significantly greater in cells receiving 3 or 10 microg/mL FRLFE than in the controls. Second, rats given a single dose of 50 or 100 mg/kg FRLFE had significant increases in plasma (-)-epicatechin, 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin, and (+)-catechin levels, peak values were at approximately 2 h and appreciable concentrations were still detected at 6 h. Rats supplemented daily for 1 week with 50 or 100 mg/kg FRLFE had significantly elevated metabolite concentrations. In response to an oxidative stress, erythrocyte membrane integrity was significantly improved in the 100 mg/kg FRLFE group. Third, 7-month-old mice fed a 200 mg/kg FRLFE diet for 10 months showed a significant decrease in glucose, triglyceride and lipid peroxide levels compared with mice fed a control diet. Collectively, these results support the concept that the flavanols present in FRLFE are well absorbed and bioactive.
    Phytotherapy Research 03/2010; 24(8):1223-8. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycaemia is known to reduce nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability by modulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity, and polyphenols are believed to have cardiovascular benefit. One possible mechanism could be through interaction with eNOS. The effects of the oligomerized polyphenol oligonol on eNOS phosphorylation status and activity were examined in porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations. Key results: Exposure to high glucose concentrations strongly inhibited eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and dephosphorylation at Thr-495 in bradykinin (BK)-stimulated cells. These inhibitory effects of high glucose were significantly prevented by treatment with oligonol. Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were activated in BK-stimulated cells. High glucose inhibited Akt activation but enhanced p38 MAPK activation, both of which were reversed by oligonol treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin blocked the reversal by oligonol of phosphorylation at Ser-1177, but not dephosphorylation at Thr-495, in BK-stimulated cells exposed to high glucose. The effect of oligonol on BK dephosphorylation under high glucose was mimicked by protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon-neutralizing peptides. These data suggest that the effects of oligonol on high glucose-induced attenuation of eNOS Ser-1177 phosphorylation and Thr-495 dephosphorylation may be regulated by Akt activation and PKCepsilon inhibition respectively. Oligonol also prevented high glucose-induced attenuation of BK-stimulated NO production. Oligonol prevented the impairment of eNOS activity induced by high glucose through reversing altered eNOS phosphorylation status. This mechanism may underlie the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of this oligomerized polyphenol.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2010; 159(4):928-38. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) (a mixture of polysaccharides, amino acids, lipids and minerals derived from cultured mycelia of a Basidiomycete mushroom, Lentinula edodes) was used to assess amelioration of alopecia (hair loss) caused by cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) and modulation of liver injury caused by single doses 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) plus methotrexate (MTX). Follicular integrity and hair growth was assessed in male and female SD neonatal rats (8 days old) treated with a single dose of Ara-C (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and AHCC (500 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days. The side effects of a single oral dose of 6-MP (2.5mg/kg body weight) plus MTX (30 mg/kg body weight) and their amelioration by treatment with AHCC (1000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 days were assessed in male ddY mice (8 weeks old). Of the Ara-C treated rats 71.4% showed severe alopecia and 28.6% showed moderate alopecia. However, the AHCC (p.o.)-treated Ara-C group was significantly protected from alopecia. Ara-C treated rats had profound loss of hair follicles but the Ara-C plus AHCC-treated group had mild losses of follicles. AHCC supplementation to the 6-MP- and MTX-treated mice significantly increased body weight, erythrocytes, leukocytes and serum albumin, improved liver hypertrophy and degeneration, normalized the activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (sGOT) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (sGPT), and enhanced liver drug-metabolizing enzymes. Co-administration of AHCC significantly reduced the side effects associated with Ara-C, 6-MP and MTX. However, the molecular mechanism for AHCC activity and its clinical integrity for use needs defining.
    Cancer epidemiology. 09/2009; 33(3-4):293-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of Oligonol, a phenolic product from lychee fruit polyphenol (LFP) containing catechin-type monomers and lower oligomers of proanthocyanidin, on lipolysis in primary adipocytes was investigated in order to examine the possible mechanism underlying the regulation of in vivo metabolism in fat. Oligonol significantly increased lipolysis, which was accompanied by both activation of extracellular signaling-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and down-regulation of perilipin protein expression, without an increase in intracellular cAMP production. The increase in lipolysis with Oligonol was prevented completely by pretreatment with either PD98059 or U0126, selective ERK1/2 inhibitors, which also prevented the reduction in the expression of perilipin protein. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha also down-regulated the expression of perilipin protein. However, there was no significant alteration in the expression of Galphai protein with Oligonol. These findings indicate that Oligonol enhances lipolysis in primary adipocytes, independent of cAMP production, but its effect is dependent on activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, leading to down-regulation of perilipin protein expression.
    Phytotherapy Research 06/2009; 23(11):1626-33. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage infiltration of white adipose tissue (WAT) is implicated in the metabolic complications of obesity. In addition, inflammatory changes through dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in WAT are considered to be one of the causes of insulin resistance. Recently, enhanced oxidative stress in adipocytes has been reported to be implicated in dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines. Polyphenols are well known as potent natural antioxidants in the diet. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidative effects of an oligomerized grape seed polyphenol (OGSP) on inflammatory changes in coculture of adipocytes and macrophages. Coculture of HW mouse white adipocytes and RAW264 mouse macrophages markedly increased the production of TNF-alpha, MCP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 compared with control culture. Treatment of HW cells with OGSP significantly attenuated the dysregulated production of adipokines. Moreover, OGSP significantly suppressed coculture-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although enhanced release of free fatty acids (FFAs) by coculture was not altered by OGSP, FFA-induced ROS production in HW cells was significantly attenuated by OGSP. Furthermore, OGSP significantly reduced increases in the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase by coculture. Thus, these results suggest that the antioxidative properties of OGSP attenuate inflammatory changes induced by the coculture of adipocytes and macrophages.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 02/2009; 21(1):47-54. · 4.29 Impact Factor
  • Takehito MIURA, Kentaro KITADATE, Hiroshi NISHIOKA
    Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2009; 6(1):1-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of a basidiomycete mushroom that is used as a supplement by some cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy; it is thought to enhance the therapeutic effects and reduce the side effects of select anticarcinogenic agents. AHCC has been reported to strengthen the anticancer effects of cisplatin (CDDP) and ameliorate its side effects in female BALB/cA mice inoculated with Colon-26 tumor cells. In this study, the role of AHCC in alleviating the side effects induced by several other anticancer drugs was explored in non-tumor-bearing mice receiving monotherapy with paclitaxel (TAX), or multi-drug chemotherapy with TAX plus CDDP, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) plus irinotecan, CDDP plus 5FU, or doxorubicin plus cyclophosphamide. Outcomes from the drug treatment groups with and without AHCC supplementation were compared to controls that received vehicle alone. The multi-drug treatments significantly reduced bone marrow cell viability in all groups and leukocyte count in all groups except for TAX+CDDP; these myelosuppresive effects were generally alleviated by AHCC. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity caused by the treatments that included TAX and CDDP were also significantly improved by AHCC. The death rate was 20 to 30 percent in all treatment groups except TAX+CDDP, and supplementation with AHCC greatly reduced or eliminated mortality. These results support the concept that AHCC can be beneficial for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.
    Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology 01/2009; 8(1):43-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonol is a phenolic product derived from lychee fruit extract and green tea extract, containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins, produced by a manufacturing process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. The safety of Oligonol was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In a single dose acute study of Oligonol, male and female rats were administered 2000mg/kg body weight (bw) Oligonol in water by gavage. Oligonol caused no adverse effects and body weight gain and food consumption were within normal range, thus the LD(50) of Oligonol was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. A 90 day subchronic study (100, 300 and 1000mg/kgbw/day, oral gavage) in male and female rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, clinical chemistry, haematology, gross pathology and histopathology. Similarly, no adverse effects were observed in mice fed diets providing 2, 20 or 200mg/kgbw Oligonol or 200mg/kgbw lychee polyphenol for 90 days. Oligonol did not show any potential to induce gene mutations in reverse mutation tests using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA strains. Oligonol did not induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster lung cells, but it showed increased polyploidy. In a micronucleus assay in mice, Oligonol did not induce any micronuclei or suppress bone marrow, indicating it does not cause chromosome aberrations. The results from these safety studies and previous reports support the safety of Oligonol for human consumption.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 07/2008; 46(12):3553-62. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the antioxidative effects of Oligonol (Amino Up Chemical Co., Ltd., Sapporo, Japan), a new polyphenol, in adipocytes. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of adipokine genes decreased in HW mouse white adipocytes upon treatment with Oligonol as compared to control cells. The transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 were also down-regulated by Oligonol. In addition, when C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, the levels of epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and lipid peroxidation in WAT both increased, but Oligonol intake clearly inhibited such HFD-induced increases. Furthermore, dysregulated expression of genes for adipokines in WAT of mice fed solely a HFD was attenuated by Oligonol intake. These results suggest that Oligonol has antioxidative effects and that it attenuates HFD-induced dysregulated expression of genes for adipokines in adipocytes.
    Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 03/2008; 72(2):463-76. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonol is produced from the oligomerization of polyphenols (typically proanthocyanidin from a variety of fruits such as lychees, grapes, apples, persimmons, etc.) and contains catechin-type monomers and oligomers of proanthocyanidins. The ability of Oligonol to affect infection-dependent eye inflammation, locomotion and longevity in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8) (a model of senescence acceleration and geriatric disorders with increased oxidative stress and neuronal deficit) was investigated. Oligonol (60mg/kg) significantly modulated the extent of inflammation scores in the eye of SAMP8 mice. Examination of the mice indicated infection with mouse hepatitis virus and pinworm (Syphacia obvelata) in both males and females and with the intestinal protozoa (trichomonad) in males. A comparison of the two groups (using log-rank test) and the difference in the mean life span between groups (using Student's t-test) indicated significant differences in survival (p=0.043) and the mean life span (p=0.033) in male SAMP8 mice. Oligonol increased the mean life span and this was statistically significant. In the open-field locomotive test, the 7-week-old SAMP8 mice crossed more than 40 partitioned lines in 1min. At 48-week-old control untreated male SAMP8 crossed 2 lines. The Oligonol-treated 48-week-old male SAMP8 mice crossed 17 lines however. The improved locomotive activity was statistically significant even after 36weeks in the Oligonol-treated male SAMP8 but this was not the case throughout the time course of the study in the Oligonol-treated female SAMP8. Thus Oligonol treatment to SAMP8 mice modulated the severity of infection-dependent inflammation, prolonged life-span and significantly improved locomotive activity indicating potential benefit to aging-associated diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases. This presents potential for further research to define infection-dependent inflammation associated with degenerative conditions and the molecular mechanism of dietary antioxidant protection.
    Biomedecine [?] Pharmacotherapy 09/2007; 61(7):427-34. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) or CDDP) (a widely used platinum-containing anticancer drug) is nephrotoxic and has a low percentage of tolerance in patients during chemotherapy. The active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) is an extract of Basidiomycotina marketed as a supplement for cancer patients due to its nutrients and fibre content and its ability to strengthen and optimize the capacity of the immune system. The possibility that AHCC could reduce the side effects of cisplatin was assessed in the tumor-bearing BALB/cA mice on the basis of the ability to ameliorate the cisplatin-induced body weight loss, anorexia, nephrotoxicity and hematopoietic toxicity. Although cisplatin (8 mg/kg body weight) reduced the size and weight of the solid tumors, supplementation with AHCC significantly enhanced cisplatin-induced antitumor effect in both the size (p<0.05) and weight (p<0.05). Food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice were decreased following commencement of treatment and this remained low compared with the cisplatin-untreated group (control) throughout the experiment period. Supplementation with AHCC increased the food intake in the cisplatin-treated mice. The blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations, and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine were significantly increased in the cisplatin alone treated group compared to the control group. Their increased levels were mitigated by supplementation with AHCC (100 mg/kg body weight) in the cisplatin-treated group. AHCC was also able to modulate the suppression of bone marrow due to cisplatin and the improvement was statistically significant. The histopathological examination of the kidney revealed the presence of cisplatin-induced damage and this was modulated by AHCC treatment. The potential for AHCC to ameliorate the cisplatin-evoked toxicity as well as the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial economic implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with cisplatin.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 07/2007; 222(2):152-8. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligonol((R)) is an optimised phenolic product containing catechin-type monomers and lower oligomers of proanthocyanidin that emanate from a technology process which converts polyphenol polymers into oligomers. In a single dose toxicity study administration of Oligonol (2000mg/kg bw) by gavage for 4 weeks was found to be safe with no side effects (such as abnormal behavior and alopecia). Body weight gain and food consumption were within normal range. Oligonol had no observed toxicity at the dose (1/25 of LD(50)) administered for 6 months. This suggests that Oligonol is safe at repeated human intakes of Oligonol in doses lower than 200mg/day. The highest dose used in this study is equal to 12g daily for an adult man with 60kg body weight. The LD(50) was calculated to be 5.0g/kg body weight (95% confidence limit: 3.5-6.4g/kg). Studies conducted on 30 healthy volunteers consuming Oligonol at doses of 100mg/day and 200mg/day for 92 days showed good bioavailability. The biochemical parameters attesting to liver and kidney functions as well as the hematological parameters were within the normal ranges. The potential of Oligonol to induce gene mutation (a reverse mutation test) was tested using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA104, TA1535, TA153 and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. Oligonol was not mutagenic to the tester strains. The lack of toxicity supports the potential use of Oligonol as a food or dietary supplement and for use as an additive in pharmaceutical and cosmetological applications.
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 04/2007; 45(3):378-87. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Controlled acid-catalyzed degradation of proanthocyanidin polymers in grape seeds together with L-cysteine led to oligomeric proanthocyanidin-L-cysteine complexes along with monomeric flavan-3-ol derivatives being isolated, and their structures were confirmed on the basis of spectroscopic data and by chemical means. In addition, comparative studies on the antioxidative and survival effects of oligomeric proanthocyanidin-L-cysteine complexes and proanthocyanidin polymers were performed. The oligomeric proanthocyanidin-L-cysteine complexes showed higher bioavailability and antioxidant capacity and enhanced survival time in the animal test groups. In addition, it is suggested that the oligomeric complexes may help to prevent oxidative stress and may reduce free radical production.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2007; 55(4):1525-31. · 3.11 Impact Factor
  • Hajime FUJII, Hiroshi NISHIOKA, Koji WAKAME, Buxiang SUN
    Japanese Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2007; 4(1):37-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) is a by-product from ozonation of high-bromide surface water for production of drinking water and is a rodent carcinogen. Oligonol is a product emanating from the oligomerization of polyphenols, typically proanthocyanidin from a variety of fruits (grapes, apples, persimmons, etc.) and contains catechin-type monomers and proanthocyanidin oligomers. In this study, the ability of oligonol derived from grape seeds, grape seeds extracts (Product A, containing biologically active flavonoids and the oligomeric proanthocyanidin) and pine bark extracts (Product B, composed of flavan-3-ol derivatives) to modulate the KBrO(3)-induced renal toxicity was compared with (+) catechin and (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG). In the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay, the order of the antioxidant activity was EGCG>catechin>oligonol>Product A>Product B. However, oligonol elicits the strongest antioxidant capacity following in vivo supplementation to rats, with the order of efficacy of oligonol>Product A> or =Product B>EGCG>catechin. Blood levels of lipid peroxidation products (LPO), urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were elevated by KBrO(3) treatment. Oligonol significantly restored LPO to the level in the untreated rats and had the strongest potency when compared with the effects of Products A and B. The five materials lowered KBrO(3)-induced BUN level, but this was not statistically significant. Oligonol significantly reduced the increased level of the creatinine, seconded by Product A, Product B and EGCG. Catechin had the lowest effect in both the BUN and creatinine levels. That oligonol was able to modulate KBrO(3)-induced lipid peroxidation and the levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine suggests potential chemopreventive function and application in mitigating toxicity due to long-term exposure to KBrO(3) in public drinking water.
    Toxicology 09/2006; 226(2-3):181-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor