[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of acute hypoxic hypoxia on the profile of plasma amino acids in rats was studied and compared to that resulting from acute liver injury induced by giving carbon tetrachloride. In hypoxic rats exposed to 45% air in N(2) for 5 h, the concentrations of branched chain amino acids, including valine, leucine and isoleucine, and aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine were significantly increased as compared to those in normoxic rats. The ratio of branched-chain to aromatic amino acids (Fischer's ratio) was significantly decreased. The levels of arginine and citrulline, which are related to the urea cycle, were also depressed. Furthermore, plasma proline level was reduced in hypoxic rats. The activities of plasma marker enzymes for tissue damage remained unchanged during hypoxia, indicating that tissue injury was not induced by exposure to hypoxic conditions. We suggest that the characteristic profile of plasma amino acids and the Fischer ratio are valuable tools for understanding the pathology of acute hypoxia in the absence of systemic tissue damage.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 10/2011; 26(4):416-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current conventional measurement of allantoin levels in human serum uses an HPLC method. However, performing this assay is time-consuming and sample-intensive, and it requires expensive equipment. We have developed a novel enzyme cycling method for measuring allantoin concentrations in human serum. In the first step, serum allantoin is converted to allantoate by the action of allantoinase (EC 220.127.116.11), and endogenous ammonia is simultaneously removed by the action of glutamine synthetase II (EC 18.104.22.168). In the second step, l-methionine sulfoximine is used to inhibit glutamine synthetase II, and ammonia is liberated from allantoate by the activity of allantoate amidohydrolase (EC 22.214.171.124). In the final step, the ammonia is then converted to NAD by NAD synthetase (EC 126.96.36.199). Subsequent action of glucose dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) and diaphorase (EC 184.108.40.206) in the presence of glucose and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (WST-1) acts to cycle the formed NAD between its oxidized and reduced forms, resulting in the production of WST-1 formazan, which is monitored at 450 nm. The assay standard curve is linear from 0 to 70 muM allantoin. The level of allantoin in healthy subjects was measured to be 8.2+/-3.1 microM (n=30).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial respiration is inhibited in cells exposed to hypoxia, and the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is blocked. As a result, oxidation reactions requiring NAD(+) are blocked, disrupting cellular metabolism. We studied the influence of methylene blue, which oxidizes NADH, on hypoxic damage to primary cultures of rat hepatocyte monolayers. During hypoxic treatment of hepatocytes, aspartate aminotransferase leaked out of the cells into the culture medium. However, addition of methylene blue to the medium repressed the hypoxic leakage of the enzyme. The exposure of hepatocytes to hypoxia decreased the acetoacetate/beta-hydroxybutyrate ratio which reflects the redox state of the cell. The level of the acetoacetate/beta-hydroxybutyrate ratio in hypoxic cells was increased by the addition of methylene blue. These results suggest that methylene blue protects against hypoxic injury due to its oxidation of NADH.
Cell Biochemistry and Function 01/2008; 26(2):275-8. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new enzymatic assay for specifically measuring allantoin concentration in serum has been developed. The currently used methods for allantoin analysis are time consuming and nonspecific or depend on the use of expensive equipment. In our method, allantoin is converted to allantoate by the action of allantoinase (EC 220.127.116.11). The allantoate produced is hydrolyzed to ureidoglycine and ammonia by the action of allantoate amidohydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) subsequently acts on the ammonia produced, resulting in a change in absorbance at 340nm due to the consumption of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. The amount of allantoin present is related to the change in the absorbance. The standard curve is linear up to at least 1mM allantoin. The procedure is simple, rapid, and accurate. The method has been used to measure serum allantoin levels after oral administration of purine nucleotides to experimental animals, including rats that have uricase catalyzing the conversion of urate to allantoin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure of sated rats to 45% N2 in air for 5h increased serum triglyceride levels by 212% over the levels in normoxic rats. This increase in triglyceride levels was accompanied by a decrease in plasma triglyceride hydrolase activity after intravenous injection of heparin. Further fractionation of the activity by inhibition of lipoprotein lipase indicated that the low triglyceride hydrolase activity is mainly due to a reduction in hepatic triglyceride lipase, which is inversely correlated with the serum triglyceride level. The hypoxic exposure decreased the arterial blood [acetoacetate]/[beta-hydroxybutyrate] ratio in the sated rats, which is believed to reflect the oxidation-reduction state in hepatic mitochondria, but did not affect the level of serum enzymes indicative of tissue damage. On the other hand, triglyceride levels did not change during hypoxic exposure in fasted rats. Thus, hypertriglyceridemia in sated rats following exposure to hypoxia may result from impaired removal of circulating triglycerides by hepatic triglyceride lipase located in the sinusoidal surface of the liver.
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2004; 111(5):449-54.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are two isoenzymes of fumarate reductase (FRDS1 and FRDS2), encoded by the FRDS and OSM1 genes, respectively. Simultaneous disruption of these two genes results in a growth defect of the yeast under anaerobic conditions, while disruption of the OSM1 gene causes slow growth. However, the metabolic role of these isoenzymes has been unclear until now. In the present study, we found that the anaerobic growth of the strain disrupted for both the FRDS and OSM1 genes was fully restored by adding the oxidized form of methylene blue or phenazine methosulfate, which non-enzymatically oxidize cellular NADH to NAD(+). When methylene blue was added at growth-limiting concentrations, growth was completely arrested after exhaustion of oxidized methylene blue. In the double-disrupted strain, the accumulation of succinate in the supernatant was markedly decreased during anaerobic growth in the presence of methylene blue. These results suggest that fumarate reductase isoenzymes are required for the reoxidation of intracellular NADH under anaerobic conditions, but not aerobic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of serum proteins by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is difficult because albumin is abundant in serum and interferes with the resolution of other proteins, especially alpha-antitrypsin which has mobility that is very similar to that of albumin. We present here a method in which serum proteins are separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using stacking gels containing Blue Sepharose CL-6B, which has a high affinity for albumin, lipoproteins, kinases, and pyridine-nucleotide-dependent oxidoreductases. During electrophoresis, proteins that bind to Blue Sepharose CL-6B stay in the stacking gel and do not migrate into the separating gel. As a consequence, certain proteins, including alpha(1)-antitrypsin, can be detected as clear bands. This method overcomes the requirement for fractionation of serum samples prior to electrophoresis to remove albumin and allows the simultaneous analysis of many samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinate and malate are the main taste components produced by yeast during sake (Japanese alcohol beverage) fermentation. Sake yeast strains possessing various organic acid productivities were isolated by gene disruption. Sake fermented using the aconitase gene (ACO1) disruptant contained a two-fold higher concentration of malate and a two-fold lower concentration of succinate than that made using the wild-type strain K901. The fumarate reductase gene (OSM1) disruptant produced sake containing a 1.5-fold higher concentration of succinate as compared to the wild-type, whereas the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase gene (KGD1) and fumarase gene (FUMI) disruptants gave lower succinate concentrations. The Δkgd1 disruptant exhibited lower succinate productivity in the earlier part of the sake fermentation, while the Δfum1 disruptant showed lower succinate productivity later in the fermentation, indicating that succinate is mainly produced by an oxidative pathway of the TCA cycle in the early phase of sake fermentation and by a reductive pathway in the later phases. Sake yeasts with low succinate productivity and/or high malate productivity was bred by isolating mutants unable to assimilate glycerol as a carbon source. Low malate-producing yeasts were also obtained from phenyl succinate-resistant mutants. The mutation of one of these mutant strains with low succinate productivity was found to occur in the KGD1 gene. These strains possessing various succinate- and/or malate-producing abilities are promising for the production of sake with distinctive tastes.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/1999; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Succinate is the main taste component produced by yeasts during sake (Japanese rice wine) fermentation. The pathway leading to accumulation of succinate was examined in liquid culture in the presence of a high concentration (15%) of glucose under aerobic and anaerobic conditions using a series of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which various genes that encode the expression of enzymes required in TCA cycle were disrupted. When cultured in YPD medium containing 15% glucose under aerobic conditions, the KGD1 (α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase) gene disrupted mutant produced a lower level of succinate than the wild-type strain, while the SDH1 (succinate dehydrogenase) gene-disrupted mutant produced an increased level of succinate. On the other hand, the FUM1 (fumarase) gene disrupted mutant produced significantly higher levels of fumarate but did not form malate at all. These results indicate that succinate, fumarate and malate are mainly synthesized through the TCA cycle (oxidative direction) even in the presence of glucose at a concentration as high as 15%. When the growth condition was shifted from aerobic to anaerobic, the increased level of succinate in SDH1 disruptants was no longer observed, whereas the decreased level of succinate in the KGD1 diruptant was still observed. A double mutant of the two fumarate reductase isozyme genes (OSM1 and FRDS) showed a succinate productivity of 50% as compared to the parent when cells were incubated in glucose-buffered solution. These results indicate that succinate could be synthesized through two pathways, namely, α-ketoglutarate oxidation via the TCA cycle and fumarate reduction under anaerobic conditions.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 02/1999; · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cytosolic and promitochondrial isoenzymes of fumarate reductase are encoded by the FRDS and OSM1 genes, respectively. The product of the OSM1 gene is reported to be required for growth in hypertonic medium. Simultaneous disruption of the FRDS and OSM1 genes resulted in the inability of the yeasts to grow anaerobically on glucose as a carbon source, and disruption of the OSM1 gene caused poor growth under anaerobic conditions. However, the disruption of both the FRDS and/or OSM1 genes had no effect on aerobic growth or growth under hypertonic conditions. These results suggest that the fumarate reductase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are essential for anaerobic growth but not for growth under hypertonic conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soluble fumarate reductase from yeast irreversibly catalyzes the reduction of fumarate to succinate and has noncovalently bound flavin adenine dinucleotide. In yeast, there are two isoenzymes of fumarate reductase, which can be distinguished on the basis of their absorption or nonabsorption to DE-52 columns. Previously, we have purified FRDS1 and isolated its gene (FRDS) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the present study, FRDS2 was purified to homogeneity by four chromatography steps. The N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of FRDS2 were identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene (EMBL Database Accession No. L-26347), whose isolation and biochemical properties have not been studied up until now. From these results, we conclude that FRDS2 is encoded by the OSM1 gene. The deduced amino acid sequence of the OSM1 gene revealed that FRDS2 is synthesized as a precursor protein containing a presequence composed of 32 amino acid residues. The mature enzyme consists of a protein of 469 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 51,370. The N-terminal extension had the characteristics of a typical signal sequence required for targeting and sorting to a noncytosolic destination. In fact, FRDS2 was found to be located in promitochondria.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/1998; 352(2):175-81. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gene of the soluble fumarate reductase (FRDS) that binds FAD non-covalently was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate oligonucleotides designed from partial amino acid sequences of highly purified enzyme. The nucleotide sequence of a 0.99-kb amplified product was found to be nearly identical to a partial sequence of an open reading frame (ORF) previously reported (EMBL database accession number S-30830). According to the sequence in the EMBL database, we cloned 1.7-kb fragment containing entire sequence of this ORF by PCR and found that this fragment contained a perfect match to the 0.99-kb sequence amplified with the degenerate primers. From these results, we concluded that this ORF is the FRDS gene. The amino acid sequences of the regions involved in the non-covalent binding of FAD and the active site, which are conserved among the flavoprotein subunits of membrane-bound fumarate reductase and succinate dehydrogenase, were found in FRDS. However, unlike the membrane-bound enzymes, FRDS did not contain the histidine residue that covalently binds the isoalloxazine ring of FAD at or near the corresponding position. FRDS showed high homology to the product of S. cerevisiae OSM1 gene which was reported to be required for growth in hypertonic media.
DNA Research 09/1996; 3(4):263-7. · 4.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rapid and effective purification of soluble fumarate reductase from baker's yeast achieved by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. Cibacron Blue F3GA, the chromophore of Blue Sepharose, inhibited the activity of fumarate reductase. The enzyme bound to the column was selectively eluted by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), flavin mononucleotide (FMN) or riboflavin. The purified enzyme was essentially homogeneous as indicated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions and under denaturing conditions in sodium dodecylsulfate. By this procedure, the enzyme could be rapidly purified with high yield from yeast cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In anaerobically grown yeast cells which lack functional mitochondria, the presence of diethylstilbestrol (DES) depressed glycolysis. The addition of the inhibitor markedly increased the cellular concentration of glycolytic intermediates which are formed prior to the pyruvate kinase step as well as to bring about an increase in the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. Under these conditions an 18 fold decrease in the mass action ratio for pyruvate kinase [( pyruvate] [ATP]/[phosphoenolpyruvate] [ADP]) was noted, however, there was little if any effect on the other glycolytic enzymes. These results suggest that the depression of anaerobic glycolysis caused by DES results from a blockage at the level of the regulatory enzyme pyruvate kinase through a modification of its intracellular environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fumarate reductase apoenzyme having the ability to reconstitute active enzyme was obtained by dialyzing the holoenzyme against 1 M KBr. The dissociation constant of the FAD-apoenzyme complex was 2.3 X 10(-8) M. The denatured holoenzyme and apoenzyme possessed seven sulfhydryl (SH) groups as determined with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). In the native apoenzyme, five SH-groups reacted with DTNB, and four of them were completely protected by the addition of FAD, while in the native holoenzyme, one was modified without inactivation. These results indicate that one SH-group is located on the surface of the enzyme molecule, four at or near the FAD-binding site, and two deeply embedded in the molecule. The modification of the apoenzyme caused inhibition of binding of FAD, resulting in loss of the ability to reconstitute enzymatic activity. Analyses of the data by statistical and kinetic methods suggested that a reactive SH-group is involved among the four SH-groups in the binding of FAD to the apoenzyme.
Journal of Biochemistry 05/1985; 97(4):1201-9. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DEAE cellulose chromatography and agar gel electrophoresis of glucose-phosphorylating enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the existence of glucokinase and two hexokinase isoenzymes ( designated as hexokinase I and II ). The distribution of hexokinase isoenzymes was dependent on a carbon source in the medium, while that of glucokinase was not dependent. The cells grown on 3 % ethanol as carbon source showed the isoenzyme pattern with predominant hexokinase I and a little hexokinase II. The isoenzyme pattern of the cells grown on 6 % glucose, which was differnt from that of the cells grown on ethanol, showed that hexokinase I and II were minor and major parts respectively. When the cells grown on 3 % ethanol were incubated on the medium containing 6 % glucose, hexokinase I was repressed and hexokinase II inducted. These facts suggest that two hexokinase isoenzymes, but not glucokinase, are adaptive enzyme.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/1979; 86(4):1030-6. · 2.28 Impact Factor