[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approximately 125 million travellers visit malaria-endemic countries annually and about 10,000 cases of malaria are reported after returning home. Due to the fact that malaria is insect vector transmitted, the environment is a key determinant of the spread of infection. Geo-climatic factors (such as temperature, moisture, water quality) determine the presence of Anopheles breeding sites, vector densities, adult mosquito survival rate, longevity and vector capacity. Several studies have shown the association between environmental factors and malaria incidence in autochthonous population. The association between the incidence of clinical malaria cases among non-immune travellers and environmental factors is yet to be evaluated. The objective of the present study was to identify, at a country scale (Ivory Coast), the environmental factors that are associated with clinical malaria among non-immune travellers, opening the way for a remote sensing-based counselling for malaria risk prevention among travellers.
The study sample consisted in 87 cohorts, including 4,531 French soldiers who travelled to Ivory Coast, during approximately four months, between September 2002 and December 2006. Their daily locations were recorded during the entire trip. The association between the incidence of clinical malaria and other factors (including individual, collective and environmental factors evaluated by remote sensing methods) was analysed in a random effect mixed Poisson regression model to take into account the sampling design.
One hundred and forty clinical malaria cases were recorded during 572,363 person-days of survey, corresponding to an incidence density of 7.4 clinical malaria episodes per 1,000 person-months under survey. The risk of clinical malaria was significantly associated with the cumulative time spent in areas with NDVI > 0.35 (RR = 2,42), a mean temperature higher than 27°C (RR = 2,4), a longer period of dryness during the preceding month (RR = 0,275) and the cumulative time spent in urban areas (RR = 0,52).
The present results suggest that remotely-sensed environmental data could be used as good predictors of the risk of clinical malaria among vulnerable individuals travelling through African endemic areas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Standard entomological methods for evaluating the impact of vector control lack sensitivity in low-malaria-risk areas. The detection of human IgG specific to Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary antigen reflects a direct measure of human-vector contact. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a range of vector control measures (VCMs) in urban settings by using this biomarker approach. The study was conducted from October to December 2008 on 2,774 residents of 45 districts of urban Dakar. IgG responses to gSG6-P1 and the use of malaria VCMs highly varied between districts. At the district level, specific IgG levels significantly increased with age and decreased with season and with VCM use. The use of insecticide-treated nets, by drastically reducing specific IgG levels, was by far the most efficient VCM regardless of age, season or exposure level to mosquito bites. The use of spray bombs was also associated with a significant reduction of specific IgG levels, whereas the use of mosquito coils or electric fans/air conditioning did not show a significant effect. Human IgG response to gSG6-P1 as biomarker of vector exposure represents a reliable alternative for accurately assessing the effectiveness of malaria VCM in low-malaria-risk areas. This biomarker tool could be especially relevant for malaria control monitoring and surveillance programmes in low-exposure/low-transmission settings.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66354. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. METHODS: The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 15 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. RESULTS: The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to improve efforts toward elimination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping.
A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM), precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM), land surface temperatures (LST).
The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index) turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI) within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points.
Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines densities. This modeling approach based on remotely sensed information is potentially useful for counter measures that are putting on at the environmental side, namely vector larvae control via larviciding and water body reforming.
International Journal of Health Geographics 03/2012; 11:8. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urban malaria can be a serious public health problem in Africa. Human-landing catches of mosquitoes, a standard entomological method to assess human exposure to malaria vector bites, can lack sensitivity in areas where exposure is low. A simple and highly sensitive tool could be a complementary indicator for evaluating malaria exposure in such epidemiological contexts. The human antibody response to the specific Anopheles gSG6-P1 salivary peptide have been described as an adequate tool biomarker for a reliable assessment of human exposure level to Anopheles bites. The aim of this study was to use this biomarker to evaluate the human exposure to Anopheles mosquito bites in urban settings of Dakar (Senegal), one of the largest cities in West Africa, where Anopheles biting rates and malaria transmission are supposed to be low.
One cross-sectional study concerning 1,010 (505 households) children (n = 505) and adults (n = 505) living in 16 districts of downtown Dakar and its suburbs was performed from October to December 2008. The IgG responses to gSG6-P1 peptide have been assessed and compared to entomological data obtained in or near the same district.
Considerable individual variations in anti-gSG6-P1 IgG levels were observed between and within districts. In spite of this individual heterogeneity, the median level of specific IgG and the percentage of immune responders differed significantly between districts. A positive and significant association was observed between the exposure levels to Anopheles gambiae bites, estimated by classical entomological methods, and the median IgG levels or the percentage of immune responders measuring the contact between human populations and Anopheles mosquitoes. Interestingly, immunological parameters seemed to better discriminate the exposure level to Anopheles bites between different exposure groups of districts.
Specific human IgG responses to gSG6-P1 peptide biomarker represent, at the population and individual levels, a credible new alternative tool to assess accurately the heterogeneity of exposure level to Anopheles bites and malaria risk in low urban transmission areas. The development of such biomarker tool would be particularly relevant for mapping and monitoring malaria risk and for measuring the efficiency of vector control strategies in these specific settings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High malaria transmission heterogeneity in an urban environment is basically due to the complex distribution of Anopheles larval habitats, sources of vectors. Understanding 1) the meteorological and ecological factors associated with differential larvae spatio-temporal distribution and 2) the vectors dynamic, both may lead to improving malaria control measures with remote sensing and high resolution data as key components. In this study a robust operational methodology for entomological malaria predictive risk maps in urban settings is developed.
The Tele-epidemiology approach, i.e., 1) intensive ground measurements (Anopheles larval habitats and Human Biting Rate, or HBR), 2) selection of the most appropriate satellite data (for mapping and extracting environmental and meteorological information), and 3) use of statistical models taking into account the spatio-temporal data variability has been applied in Dakar, Senegal.
First step was to detect all water bodies in Dakar. Secondly, environmental and meteorological conditions in the vicinity of water bodies favoring the presence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were added. Then relationship between the predicted larval production and the field measured HBR was identified, in order to generate An. gambiae s.l. HBR high resolution maps (daily, 10-m pixel in space).
A robust operational methodology for dynamic entomological malaria predictive risk maps in an urban setting includes spatio-temporal variability of An. gambiae s.l. larval habitats and An. gambiae s.l. HBR. The resulting risk maps are first examples of high resolution products which can be included in an operational warning and targeting system for the implementation of vector control measures.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50674. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of anti-vectorial malaria protective measures in travellers and expatriates is hampered by incorrect compliance. The objective of the present study was to identify the determinants of compliance with anti-vectorial protective measures (AVPMs) in this population that is particularly at risk because of their lack of immunity.
Compliance with wearing long clothing, sleeping under insecticide-impregnated bed nets (IIBNs) and using insect repellent was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 2,205 French military travellers from 20 groups before and after short-term missions (approximately four months) in six tropical African countries (Senegal, Ivory Coast, Chad, Central African Republic, Gabon and Djibouti). For each AVPM, the association of "correct compliance" with individual and collective variables was investigated using random-effect mixed logistic regression models to take into account the clustered design of the study.
The correct compliance rates were 48.6%, 50.6% and 18.5% for wearing long clothing, sleeping under bed nets and using repellents, respectively. Depending on the AVPM, correct compliance was significantly associated with the following factors: country, older than 24 years of age, management responsibilities, the perception of a personal malaria risk greater than that of other travellers, the occurrence of life events, early bedtime (i.e., before midnight), the type of stay (field operation compared to training), the absence of medical history of malaria, the absence of previous travel in malaria-endemic areas and the absence of tobacco consumption.There was no competition between compliance with the different AVPMs or between compliance with any AVPM and malaria chemoprophylaxis.
Interventions aimed at improving compliance with AVPMs should target young people without management responsibilities who are scheduled for non-operational activities in countries with high risk of clinical malaria. Weak associations between compliance and history of clinical malaria or variables that pertain to threat perception suggest that cognition-based interventions referencing a "bad experience" with clinical malaria could have only a slight impact on the improvement of compliance. Further studies should focus on the cognitive and behavioural predictors of compliance with AVPMs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mapping and anticipating risk is a major issue in the fight against malaria, a disease causing an estimated one million deaths each year. Approximately half the world's population is at risk and it is of prime importance to evaluate the burden of malaria at the spatial as well as the temporal level. The role of the environment with regard to the determinants of transmission and burden of the disease are described followed by a discussion of special issues such as urban malaria, human population mapping and the detection of changes at the temporal scale. Risk maps at appropriate scales can provide valuable information for targeted control and the present review discusses the essentials of principles, methods, advantages and limitations of remote sensing along with a presentation of ecological, meteorological and climatologic data which rule the distribution of malaria. The panel of commonly used analytic methods is examined and the methodological limitations are highlighted. A review of the literature details the increasing interest in the use of remotely sensed data in the study of malaria, by mapping or modeling several malariometric indices such as prevalence, morbidity and mortality, which are discussed with reference to vector breeding, vector density and entomological inoculation rate, estimates of which constitute the foundation for understanding endemicity and epidemics.
Geospatial health 05/2011; 5(2):151-68. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies in Dakar have highlighted the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of Anopheles gambiae s.l. biting rates. In order to improve the knowledge of the determinants of malaria transmission in this city, the present study reports the results of an extensive entomological survey that was conducted in 45 areas in Dakar from 2007 to 2010.
Water collections were monitored for the presence of anopheline larvae. Adult mosquitoes were sampled by human landing collection. Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoïte (CSP) protein indexes were measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the entomological inoculation rates were calculated.
The presence of anopheline larvae were recorded in 1,015 out of 2,683 observations made from 325 water collections. A water pH of equal to or above 8.0, a water temperature that was equal to or above 30°C, the absence of larvivorous fishes, the wet season, the presence of surface vegetation, the persistence of water and location in a slightly urbanised area were significantly associated with the presence of anopheline larvae and/or with a higher density of anopheline larvae. Most of the larval habitats were observed in public areas, i.e., freely accessible. A total of 496,310 adult mosquitoes were caught during 3096 person-nights, and 44967 of these specimens were identified as An.gambiae s.l. The mean An. gambiae s.l. human-biting rate ranged from 0.1 to 248.9 bites per person per night during the rainy season. Anopheles arabiensis (93.14%), Anopheles melas (6.83%) and An. gambiae s.s. M form (0.03%) were the three members of the An. gambiae complex. Fifty-two An. arabiensis and two An. melas specimens were CSP-positive, and the annual CSP index was 0.64% in 2007, 0.09% in 2008-2009 and 0.12% in 2009-2010. In the studied areas, the average EIR ranged from 0 to 17.6 infected bites per person during the entire transmission season.
The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of An. gambiae s.l. larval density, adult human-biting rate (HBR) and malaria transmission in Dakar has been confirmed, and the environmental factors associated with this heterogeneity have been identified. These results pave the way for the creation of malaria risk maps and for a focused anti-vectorial control strategy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The United Nations forecasts that by 2050, more than 60% of the African population will live in cities. Thus, urban malaria is considered an important emerging health problem in that continent. Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS) are useful tools for addressing the challenge of assessing, understanding and spatially focusing malaria control activities. The objectives of the present study were to use high spatial resolution SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre) satellite images to identify some urban environmental factors in Dakar associated with Anopheles arabiensis densities, to assess the persistence of these associations and to describe spatial changes in at-risk environments using a decadal time scale.
Two SPOT images from the 1996 and 2007 rainy seasons in Dakar were processed to extract environmental factors, using supervised classification of land use and land cover, and a calculation of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and distance to vegetation. Linear regressions were fitted to identify the ecological factors associated with An. arabiensis aggressiveness measured in 1994-97 in the South and centre districts of Dakar. Risk maps for populated areas were computed and compared for 1996 and 2007 using the results of the statistical models.
Almost 60% of the variability in anopheline aggressiveness measured in 1994-97 was explained with only one variable: the built-up area in a 300-m radius buffer around the catching points. This association remained stable between 1996 and 2007. Risk maps were drawn by inverting the statistical association. The total increase of the built-up areas in Dakar was about 30% between 1996 and 2007. In proportion to the total population of the city, the population at high risk for malaria fell from 32% to 20%, whereas the low-risk population rose from 29 to 41%.
Environmental data retrieved from high spatial resolution SPOT satellite images were associated with An. arabiensis densities in Dakar urban setting, which allowed to generate malaria transmission risk maps. The evolution of the risk was quantified, and the results indicated there are benefits of urbanization in Dakar, since the proportion of the low risk population increased while urbanization progressed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of malaria chemoprophylaxis is limited by the lack of compliance whose determinants are not well known.
The compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis has been estimated and analysed by validated questionnaires administered before and after the short-term missions (about four months) in five tropical African countries of 2,093 French soldiers from 19 military companies involved in a prospective cohort study. "Correct compliance" was defined as "no missed doses" of daily drug intake during the entire mission and was analysed using multiple mixed-effect logistic regression model.
The averaged prevalence rate of correct compliance was 46.2%, ranging from 9.6%to 76.6% according to the companies. Incorrect compliance was significantly associated with eveningness (p = 0.028), a medical history of clinical malaria (p < 0.001) and a perceived mosquito attractiveness inferior or superior to the others (p < 0.007). Correct compliance was significantly associated with the systematic use of protective measures against mosquito bites (p < 0.001), the type of military operations (combat vs. training activities, p < 0.001) and other individual factors (p < 0.05).
The identification of circumstances and profiles of persons at higher risk of lack of compliance would pave the way to specifically targeted strategies aimed to improve compliance with malaria chemoprophylaxis and, therefore, its effectiveness.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission.
From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated.
The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324.
The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven) between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urbanization has a great impact on the composition of the vector system and malaria transmission dynamics. In Dakar, some malaria cases are autochthonous but parasite rates and incidences of clinical malaria attacks have been recorded at low levels. Ecological heterogeneity of malaria transmission was investigated in Dakar, in order to characterize the Anopheles breeding sites in the city and to study the dynamics of larval density and adult aggressiveness in ten characteristically different urban areas.
Ten study areas were sampled in Dakar and Pikine. Mosquitoes were collected by human landing collection during four nights in each area (120 person-nights). The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) index was measured by ELISA and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated. Open water collections in the study areas were monitored weekly for physico-chemical characterization and the presence of anopheline larvae. Adult mosquitoes and hatched larvae were identified morphologically and by molecular methods.
In September-October 2007, 19,451 adult mosquitoes were caught among which, 1,101 were Anopheles gambiae s.l. The Human Biting Rate ranged from 0.1 bites per person per night in Yoff Village to 43.7 in Almadies. Seven out of 1,101 An. gambiae s.l. were found to be positive for P. falciparum (CSP index = 0.64%). EIR ranged from 0 infected bites per person per year in Yoff Village to 16.8 in Almadies. The An. gambiae complex population was composed of Anopheles arabiensis (94.8%) and Anopheles melas (5.2%). None of the An. melas were infected with P. falciparum. Of the 54 water collection sites monitored, 33 (61.1%) served as anopheline breeding sites on at least one observation. No An. melas was identified among the larval samples. Some physico-chemical characteristics of water bodies were associated with the presence/absence of anopheline larvae and with larval density. A very close parallel between larval and adult densities was found in six of the ten study areas.
The results provide evidence of malaria transmission in downtown Dakar and its surrounding suburbs. Spatial heterogeneity of human biting rates was very marked and malaria transmission was highly focal. In Dakar, mean figures for transmission would not provide a comprehensive picture of the entomological situation; risk evaluation should therefore be undertaken on a small scale.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite national and international efforts, malaria remains a major public health problem and the fight to control the disease is confronted by numerous hurdles. Study of space and time dynamics of malaria is necessary as a basis for making appropriate decision and prioritizing intervention including in areas where field data are rare and sanitary information systems are inadequate. Evaluation of malarial risk should also help anticipate the risk of epidemics as a basis for early warning systems. Since 1960-70 civilian satellites launched for earth observation have been providing information for the measuring or evaluating geo-climatic and anthropogenic factors related to malaria transmission and burden. Remotely sensed data gathered for several civilian or military studies have allowed setup of entomological, parasitological, and epidemiological risk models and maps for rural and urban areas. Mapping of human populations at risk has also benefited from remotely sensing. The results of the published studies show that remote sensing is a suitable tool for optimizing planning, efficacy and efficiency of malaria control.
Médecine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial 05/2009; 69(2):151-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria control measures such as early diagnosis and treatment, intermittent treatment of pregnant women, impregnated bed nets, indoor spraying and larval control measures are difficult to target specifically because of imprecise estimates of risk at a small-scale level. Ways of estimating local risks for malaria are therefore important.
A high-resolution satellite view from the SPOT 5 satellite during 2008 was used to generate a land cover classification in the malaria endemic lowland of North-Western Burkina Faso. For the area of a complete satellite view of 60 x 60 km, a supervised land cover classification was carried out. Ten classes were built and correlated to land cover types known for acting as Anopheles mosquito breeding sites.
According to known correlations of Anopheles larvae presence and surface water-related land cover, cultivated areas in the riverine vicinity of Kossi River were shown to be one of the most favourable sites for Anopheles production. Similar conditions prevail in the South of the study region, where clayey soils and higher precipitations benefit the occurrence of surface water. Besides pools, which are often directly detectable, rice fields and occasionally flooded crops represent most appropriate habitats. On the other hand, forests, elevated regions on porous soils, grasslands and the dryer, sandy soils in the north-western part turned out to deliver fewer mosquito breeding opportunities.
Potential high and low risks for malaria at the village level can be differentiated from satellite data. While much remains to be done in terms of establishing correlations between remotely sensed risks and malaria disease patterns, this is a potentially useful approach which could lead to more focused disease control programmes.
Global Health Action 01/2009; 2. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to entomological studies conducted over the past 30 years, there was low malaria transmission in suburb of Dakar but little evidence of it in the downtown area. However; there was some evidence of local transmission based on reports of malaria among permanent residents. An entomological evaluation of malaria transmission was conducted from May 2005 to October 2006 in two areas of Dakar.
Mosquitoes were sampled by human landing collection during 34 nights in seven places in Bel-air area (238 person-nights) and during 24 nights in five places in Ouakam area (120 person-nights). Mosquitoes were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoïte indexes were measured by ELISA, and the entomological inoculation rates (EIR) were calculated for both areas. Molecular assessments of pyrethroid knock down resistance (Kdr) and of insensitive acetylcholinesterase resistance were conducted.
From May 2005 to October 2006, 4,117 and 797 Anopheles gambiae s.l. respectively were caught in Bel-air and Ouakam. Three members of the complex were present: Anopheles arabiensis (> 98%), Anopheles melas (< 1%) and An. gambiae s.s. molecular form M (< 1%). Infected mosquitoes were caught only during the wintering period between September and November in both places. In 2005 and 2006, annual EIRs were 9,5 and 4, respectively, in Bel-air and 3 and 3, respectively, in Ouakam. The proportion of host-seeking An. gambiae s.l. captured indoors were 17% and 51% in Bel air and Ouakam, respectively. Ace 1 mutations were not identified in both members of the An. gambiae complex. Kdr mutation frequency in An. arabiensis was 12% in Bel-air and 9% in Ouakam.
Malaria is transmitted in Dakar downtown area. Infected mosquitoes were caught in two subsequent years during the wintering period in two distant quarters of Dakar. These data agree with clinical data from a Senegalese military Hospital of Dakar (Hospital Principal) where most malaria cases occurred between October and December. It was the first detection of An. melas in Dakar.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nonimmune travelers in malaria-endemic areas are exposed to transmission and may experience clinical malaria attacks during or after their travel despite using antivectorial devices or chemoprophylaxis. Environment plays an essential role in the epidemiology of this disease. Remote-sensed environmental information had not yet been tested as an indicator of malaria risk among nonimmune travelers.
A total of 1,189 personnel from 10 French military companies traveling for a short-duration mission (about 4 mo) in sub-Saharan Africa from February 2004 to February 2006 were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Incidence rate of clinical malaria attacks occurring during or after the mission was analyzed according to individual characteristics, compliance with antimalaria prophylactic measures, and environmental information obtained from earth observation satellites for all the locations visited during the missions.
Age, the lack of compliance with the chemoprophylaxis, and staying in areas with an average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index higher than 0.35 were risk factors for clinical malaria.
Remotely sensed environmental data can provide important planning information on the likely level of malaria risk among nonimmune travelers who could be briefly exposed to malaria transmission and could be used to standardize for the risk of malaria transmission when evaluating the efficacy of antimalaria prophylactic measures.
Journal of Travel Medicine 07/2008; 15(4):216-20. · 1.68 Impact Factor