Masatoki Sato

Fukushima Medical University, Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan

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Publications (27)118.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Because influenza virus isolates after cell culture are required to determine their susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors, the differences in normal or low-susceptibility variant population frequencies between clinical samples and isolates have not been considered. To identify variations in low-susceptibility populations in clinical samples after initiation of oseltamivir and zanamivir therapy by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We measured the populations of the low-susceptibility influenza A H3N2 variants E119V and R292K by qRT-PCR using 305 nasal aspiration samples collected over time from 13, 16, and 11 patients treated with no neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir, and zanamivir, respectively. The variant population in the isolates was also determined when the population of low-susceptibility variants in the clinical samples increased following treatment. Moreover, the susceptibility of all isolates was measured. The E119V variant was detected in only one patient during oseltamivir therapy, exhibiting decreased susceptibility to oseltamivir. Prior to treatment, R292K variants were detected in all clinical samples; however, they comprised only a small fraction of the total population. The proportion of the R292K variant in clinical samples increased for 6/27 (22.2%) patients treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir, whereas an increase in the proportion of the R292K variant in virus isolates was observed in only one patient. Discrepancies in the proportion of R292K variants between clinical samples and isolates should be suspected in clinical settings. qRT-PCR is useful for quantitative analysis of drug-resistant influenza virus and for immediate notification of the result. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Journal of Clinical Virology 05/2015; 68. DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2015.05.018 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhTM) is a promising therapeutic natural anticoagulant that is comparable to antithrombin, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and activated protein C. In order to clarify the efficacy of rhTM for the treatment of typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (t-HUS), we examined changes in renal damage in t-HUS mice treated with rhTM or vehicle alone. We used severe and moderate t-HUS mice injected with shiga toxin (Stx) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The severe t-HUS mice were divided into two subgroups [an rhTM subgroup (Group A) and a saline subgroup (Group B)] along with the moderate t-HUS mice [an rhTM subgroup (Group C) and a saline subgroup (Group D)]. Groups E and F were healthy mice treated with rhTM or saline, respectively. All mice in Group B died at 80-90 h post-administration of Stx2 and LPS whereas all mice in Group A remained alive. Loss of body weight, serum creatinine level, endothelial injury and mesangiolysis scores at 24 h after administration in the t-HUS mice treated with rhTM were lower than those in t-HUS mice treated with saline. The levels of hemoglobin at 6 h and platelet counts at 24 h after administration in Group A were higher than those in Group B. Serum interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α levels at 24 h after administration in Group A were lower than those in Group B. Serum C5b-9 levels at 24 h after the administration and serum fibrinogen degradation product (FDP) at 72 h after the administration of Stx2 and LPS were lower in Group A than in Group B. These results indicate that rhTM might afford an efficacious treatment for t-HUS model mice via the inhibition of further thrombin formation and amelioration of hypercoagulant status. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2015; 30(6). DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfv004 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We examined the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and prognosis of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan over a 35-year period.Method We collected the medical records of 37 patients diagnosed with SLE between 1977 and 2013. These children were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 19 patients who were diagnosed between 1977 and 1995, and Group 2 consisted of 18 patients diagnosed between 1996 and 2013. The epidemiology, clinical features, and prognosis were retrospectively compared between the two groups.ResultsThe mean numbers of patients per 100,000 children per year for Group 1 and Group 2 were 0.33 ± 0.25 and 0.35 ± 0.30, respectively. The duration from the onset of symptoms to treatment in Group 2 was shorter than that in Group 1; however, the clinical and laboratory findings at onset did not differ between the two groups. All patients were treated with PSL, and 17 patients in Group 1 and 18 in Group 2 were treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The frequency of administration of cyclophophamide decreased whereas the frequency of administration of cyclosporine, tacrolimus and mizoribine pulse therapy increased in Group 2. The SLEDAI scores at the latest follow-up in Group 2 were lower those in Group1. The survivor rate was 84% in Group 1 and 100% in Group 2.Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency and severity of SLE in Group 1 were similar to those in Group 2, and that the prognosis of SLE in Group 2 is better than that in Group 1.
    Pediatrics International 01/2015; 57(4). DOI:10.1111/ped.12588 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated the efficacy of the current single administration of peramivir on the basis of peramivir pharmacokinetics in the upper respiratory tract (URT) and determined the predictive peramivir concentration-time curve to assess its efficacy against viruses with decreased susceptibility to neuraminidase inhibitors. Serum, nasal swab, or aspiration samples were collected from 28 patients treated with 10 mg/kg peramivir. Sequential influenza viral RNA load and susceptibility after peramivir administration were measured using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and neuraminidase inhibition assay. The peramivir concentration in serum and URT after a single administration at 10 mg/kg was measured and the predictive blood and URT peramivir concentration-time curve was determined to assess various administration regimens against resistant variants. The serum peramivir concentration decreased to <0.1% of Cmax at 24 h after administration. Rapid elimination of peramivir from URT by 48 h after administration may contribute to an increase in the influenza A viral load after day 3 but not to a decrease in the influenza B viral load, despite the absence of decrease in susceptibility to peramivir. A longer maintenance of high level of peramivir in URT is expected by divided administration rather than once daily administration. When no clinical improvement is observed in patients with normal-susceptibility influenza A and B, peramivir readministration should be considered. In severe cases caused by resistant variants, better inhibitory effectiveness and less frequent adverse events is expected by divided administration rather than the once daily administration with an increased dosage. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2014; 59(3). DOI:10.1128/AAC.04263-14 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimSome patients with severe IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are resistant to multi-drug combination therapy; however, there have been few reports on the risk factors for non-responsiveness to treatment for severe IgAN. We, therefore, evaluated the risk factors for non-responsiveness to treatment in cases of severe IgAN.Methods We collected data on 44 children who had been diagnosed with IgAN with diffuse mesangial proliferation and treated with multi-drug combination therapy. The children were divided into two groups based on the prognosis at the latest follow-up. Group 1 consisted of 30 children with normal urine and 9 children with minor urinary abnormalities and Group 2 consisted of 4 children with persistent nephropathy and one child with renal insufficiency. The clinical, laboratory, and pathological findings for both groups were analyzed.ResultsThe age at the onset in Group 2 was higher than that in Group1. C3 deposits and high chronicity index values at the first renal biopsy were more frequently found in Group 2 than in Group 1 patients. IgA deposits, serum IgA and MRP 8/14 levels, and glomerular and interstitial MRP8+CD68+ scores at the second biopsy were all higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 patients.Conclusions Our results, although based on only a small number of patients in a retrospective study, suggest that age, presence of C3 deposits and interstitial changes at the onset, and persistent renal inflammatory activation may be risk factors for non-responsiveness to treatment for IgAN with diffuse mesangial proliferation.
    Nephrology 03/2014; DOI:10.1111/nep.12232 · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Most wheezing episodes in infants are caused and exacerbated by virus-induced lower respiratory tract infections. However, there are few reports of epidemiologic and clinical virus-specific research with a focus on virus-induced wheezing. The purpose of the current study was to characterize the clinical presentation of virus-induced wheezing in pediatric patients <3 years of age who were hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections. Of the 412 patients in the study, 216 were followed for 3 years. Nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from the patients at the time of admission were examined for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PIV-3), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and influenza virus (Flu) using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and rapid diagnostic tests. Clinical signs were assessed using a severity scoring system. In patients with wheezing at the time of admission, RSV, RV, RSV+RV, Flu, PIV-3, and hMPV were detected in 33, 14, 8, 8, 5, and 3 % of samples, respectively. There were no differences in age and severity scores between patients harboring more prevalent viruses (RSV and RV) and those with less common infections. Patients with wheezing and RV-positive aspirates at the time of admission were more likely to develop subsequent wheezing during the following 3 years. Conclusion: RSV and RV infections are factors in the development and exacerbation of wheezing after virus-induced lower respiratory tract infections. Moreover, RV-induced wheezing may be associated with subsequent recurrent wheezing and the development of asthma.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 02/2014; 173(7). DOI:10.1007/s00431-014-2277-7 · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the efficacy of the neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) oseltamivir and zanamivir for decreasing viral load and to investigate whether NAI treatment decreases viral susceptibility to NAIs over time in children with influenza B virus infection. Of 27 patients with influenza B virus infection, 8 and 9 were treated with oseltamivir and zanamivir, respectively, whereas 10 received no NAI. Nasal aspiration samples, collected every morning until negative antigen results in two consecutive samples were observed, were subjected to viral load measurements by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and viral susceptibility to NAI by NA inhibition assays. Viral load decreased in both the oseltamivir and zanamivir groups by day 2 but increased in the no-NAI treatment group. Viral load in the oseltamivir and zanamivir groups on day 5 was 2.6% and 9.2% of that on day 0, respectively, whereas it was 26.4% in the no-NAI treatment group. Mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of oseltamivir and zanamivir in the no-NAI treatment group were 5.0-6.6 and 1.3-1.8 nM, respectively. Mean IC50 values of oseltamivir and zanamivir in patients treated with oseltamivir and zanamivir were 3.9-8.8 and 1.3-1.8 nM, respectively. No major decrease in viral susceptibility to NAIs was observed during or after NAI treatment. NAI treatment was effective for inhibiting viral replication during the early days of illness and did not decrease viral susceptibility to NAIs in patients with influenza B virus infection.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 01/2014; 33(7). DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000266 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report the case of a 9-year-old boy with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus A. A diagnosis of ARDS caused by a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus was made on the basis of chest X-ray and computed tomography together with low oxygenation index (OI) and the detection of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus from tracheal secretion samples. Oseltamivir phosphate and prone positioning were effective in the treatment of ARDS in this case. These findings suggest that anti-viral drugs and prone positioning can play an important role in the improvement of ARDS caused by novel H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus A.
    Pediatrics International 06/2013; 55(3):e77-80. DOI:10.1111/ped.12055 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measles virus (MV) isolates from patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) differ from wild-type MV virologically. However, few animal models have reported viruses with characteristics of the SSPE virus.The MV Edmonston strain was inoculated into the subarachnoid space of nude mice. All nude mice displayed weight loss and required euthanasia, with a mean survival duration of 73.2 days. The viral load in the brain was 4-400-fold higher than the inoculated load, and brain infection was confirmed by immunostaining. Gene sequencing of the viruses revealed that amino acid mutations occurred more frequently in matrix proteins. The most common mutation was a uridine-to-cytosine transition. The virus exhibited lower free virus particle formation ability than the Edmonston strain. When nude mice were challenged with 2 × 10(2) plaque-forming units (PFU) of the brain-derived virus, the mean survival duration was 34.7 days, which was significantly shorter than that of the mice challenged with 4 × 10(4) PFU of the Edmonston strain (P < 0.01).This study indicated that MV in a nude mouse model of persistent infection exhibited characteristics of the SSPE virus. This model may prove useful in elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of SSPE and developing potential therapeutics.
    Journal of Virology 01/2013; 87(8). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03117-12 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has not been clarified if there is a correlation between rhinovirus (RV) load and disease severity in the lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized children. This study was undertaken to elucidate the contribution of the viral load to the development of disease severity in 412 children ≤3 years of age who were hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections. The RV load in nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained from the patients at the time of admission was measured by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the clinical symptoms of the patients were assessed using a severity scoring system. Of the 412 patients, 43 (10.4%) were diagnosed with RV infections only, and 15 were determined to have high severity scores. When all patients infected with RV were assessed, there was no correlation between the viral load and the disease severity. However, there was a significant negative correlation between the disease severity and age among children <11 months of age (n = 15, ρ = -0.677, P = 0.006) and a significant positive correlation between the viral load and the disease severity among children ≥11 months of age (n = 28, ρ = 0.407, P = 0.032). Among the patients infected with RV <11 months of age, the disease severity may be associated with an immature immune response and the small diameter of their airways rather than viral load. By contrast, in the patients ≥11 months of age, viral load may contribute to the development of disease severity.
    Journal of Medical Virology 07/2012; 84(7):1135-42. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23306 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a fatal case of mumps virus-associated acute encephalopathy. In terms of the clinical course and cytokine as well as chemokine profiles, the pathogenesis in our case was different from that of mumps meningoencephalitis but was similar to that of influenza virus-associated acute encephalopathy.
    Journal of child neurology 04/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1177/0883073812441060 · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The global burden of disease attributable to seasonal influenza virus in children is unknown. We aimed to estimate the global incidence of and mortality from lower respiratory infections associated with influenza in children younger than 5 years. We estimated the incidence of influenza episodes, influenza-associated acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), and influenza-associated severe ALRI in children younger than 5 years, stratified by age, with data from a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Oct 31, 2010, and 16 unpublished population-based studies. We applied these incidence estimates to global population estimates for 2008 to calculate estimates for that year. We estimated possible bounds for influenza-associated ALRI mortality by combining incidence estimates with case fatality ratios from hospital-based reports and identifying studies with population-based data for influenza seasonality and monthly ALRI mortality. We identified 43 suitable studies, with data for around 8 million children. We estimated that, in 2008, 90 million (95% CI 49-162 million) new cases of influenza (data from nine studies), 20 million (13-32 million) cases of influenza-associated ALRI (13% of all cases of paediatric ALRI; data from six studies), and 1 million (1-2 million) cases of influenza-associated severe ALRI (7% of cases of all severe paediatric ALRI; data from 39 studies) occurred worldwide in children younger than 5 years. We estimated there were 28,000-111,500 deaths in children younger than 5 years attributable to influenza-associated ALRI in 2008, with 99% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Incidence and mortality varied substantially from year to year in any one setting. Influenza is a common pathogen identified in children with ALRI and results in a substantial burden on health services worldwide. Sufficient data to precisely estimate the role of influenza in childhood mortality from ALRI are not available. WHO; Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
    The Lancet 11/2011; 378(9807):1917-30. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61051-9 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 complex is a marker of monocyte and neutrophil activation. We evaluated whether serum MRP8/14 complex is associated with clinical manifestations and pathological findings of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). Patients were divided into two groups based on serum MRP8/14 complex levels at renal biopsy. Group 1 consisted of 18 HSPN patients with less than median (670 ng/ml) MRP8/14 complex levels, and Group 2 of 12 HSPN patients with greater than median levels. Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and serum E-selectin levels, as a marker of vascular endothelial cell dysfunction, as well as histological and immunohistochemical findings were investigated for both groups. We also measured MRP8/14 complex levels in disease control and healthy control children. Urinary protein excretions, serum MRP8/14 complex levels, and serum E-selectin levels were all higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 patients. Serum MRP8/14 complex levels were higher in HSPN patients than in controls. Serum MRP8/14 complex levels were strongly associated with serum E-selectin levels. Pathological findings revealed that the proportions of patients with ISKDC grades III, IV and V in Group 2 were higher than in Group 1. Our findings suggest that serum MRP8/14 complex levels might be associated with the severity of renal injury and endothelial cell dysfunction in HSPN patients.
    Pediatric Nephrology 07/2011; 27(1):65-71. DOI:10.1007/s00467-011-1937-3 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are several reports suggesting that genetic factors contribute to the severity of infection with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Infants hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to RSV are at a significantly increased risk for both recurrent wheezing and childhood asthma. Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretory protein expressed in the airways, and speculated to have anti-inflammatory activity. The presence of the -112G/A polymorphism in the UGRP1 promoter was found to have a significant correlation with asthma phenotype. Also plasma UGRP1 levels were shown to be associated both with this polymorphism and the severity of asthma. The study population consisted of 62 previously healthy infants, ≤12 months of age, who were hospitalized with RSV LRTI, and a control group of 99 healthy adults. Genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. UGRP1 serum levels were determined using ELISA. There were no significant differences in the overall distribution of UGRP1 -112G/A polymorphism genotypes or alleles between the hospitalized infants and healthy adults. A comparison of serum UGRP1 concentration measured at the time of admission and discharge between patients with and without the -112A allele revealed that there was no relation between the presence of the -112A allele and serum UGRP1 in hospitalized infants with RSV infection. Furthermore, there was no relationship between severity of RSV infection and genotype or serum UGRP1 concentration. These results suggest that UGRP1 does not have a major role in the development of severe RSV infection.
    Journal of Medical Virology 06/2011; 83(6):1086-92. DOI:10.1002/jmv.22073 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To estimate the effectiveness of two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) over six consecutive influenza seasons in a small community in Japan. A prospective, non-randomized, observational study of TIV effectiveness was performed involving children aged 6 months to 6 years accessing pediatric services in Soma and Shinchi, Japan. The total number of children under observation was 14,788. Each fall from 2002 to 2007 TIV was offered to all children with an average uptake of 52.9%. Influenza rapid diagnostic tests were performed to all children with respiratory symptoms and a temperature >38°C during each surveillance period. The efficacy of two doses of TIV was estimated by the relative risk of influenza illness and influenza associated hospitalizations and effectiveness by reduction in all respiratory illness in vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Influenza A occurred each year resulting in approximately one in five children in the unvaccinated group having an influenza A related clinic visit. For influenza A, two doses of TIV showed yearly efficacies that ranged from 42% to 69% with the highest efficacy during the 2002/2003 influenza season when the vaccine strains were well matched with the circulating viruses. The overall efficacy of two doses of TIV against influenza A and B associated illness was 52% and 59%, respectively. TIV also reduced the rate of the influenza associated hospitalizations attributable to both influenza A and B. Vaccination with two doses of TIV was consistently effective in preventing influenza-associated clinic visits and hospitalizations.
    Vaccine 02/2011; 29(9):1844-9. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.12.049 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether SP-D concentration is a useful biomarker of the severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, we determined SP-D concentrations in patients with RSV bronchiolitis with or without chronic heart disease. We enrolled 52 patients who had been diagnosed with RSV bronchiolitis and required admission to the hospital at the Department of Pediatrics of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine from 2004 through 2005. These patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of patients without any underlying disease and Group 2 consisted of patients with chronic heart disease. These patients were assigned to one of three categories. Stage A consisted of patients without oxygen dosage, Stage B of patients who required oxygen dosage, and Stage C of patients required artificial respiration. We evaluated baseline characteristics, clinical features, and serum SP-D concentration in Group 1, Group 2, and a control group (healthy infants without infection). Mean serum SP-D concentrations in patients with RSV bronchiolitis were higher than those in the control group (125.8 ± 49.3 and 44.2 ± 20.1 ng/ml, respectively). Mean serum SP-D concentration was also higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 patients (160.4 ± 56.4 and 112.3 ± 39.4 ng/ml, respectively). Mean serum SP-D concentrations were higher in Stage C than in Stages A or B patients, and mean serum SP-D concentrations were higher in Stage B than in Stage A. These findings suggest that serum SP-D is associated with the severity of RSV bronchiolitis and that it may be a useful biomarker for the severity of RSV bronchiolitis.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 01/2011; 46(1):18-22. DOI:10.1002/ppul.21270 · 2.70 Impact Factor
  • Masatoki Sato · Mitsuaki Hosoya · Peter F Wright
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate differences in cytokine production between influenza A and B. thirty one patients with influenza A and 16 with influenza B were enrolled in this study. We measured soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor (sTNFR) 1, interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-4 concentrations in serum obtained from all patients during the acute and convalescence phases of their illnesses. the sTNFR1 and IL-6 serum concentrations of patients with influenza A and B were equivalently elevated in the acute phase of their illness. However, the acute phase concentrations of IFN-gamma and IL-4 were significantly higher in patients with influenza A than in patients with influenza B. The concentration of all cytokines in influenza A and sTNFR1 in influenza B significantly decreased from the acute to convalescent phase. Plotted from the onset of symptoms it appeared that all of the cytokines peaked within 24h after onset. the production pattern of the inflammatory cytokines - TNF and IL-6 - were the same between influenza A and B. However, a Th2 predominant cytokine pattern was induced after natural influenza virus A infection, notably IL-4 that differed from that to influenza B.
    Cytokine 08/2009; 47(1):65-8. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2009.05.003 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human RSV causes an annual epidemic of respiratory tract illness in infants and in elderly. Mechanisms by which RSV antagonizes IFN-mediated antiviral responses include inhibition of type I IFN mRNA transcription and blocking signal transduction of JAK/STAT family members. The suppressor of cytokines signaling (SOCS) gene family utilizes a feedback loop to inhibit cytokine responses and block the activation of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the potential of SOCS molecules to subvert the innate immune response to RSV infection, eight SOCS family genes were examined. RSV infection up-regulated SOCS1, SOCS3, and CIS mRNA expression in HEp-2 cells. Suppression of SOCS1, SOCS3 and CIS by short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) inhibited viral replication. Furthermore, inhibition of SOCS1, SOCS3, or CIS activated type I IFN signaling by inducing STAT1/2 phosphorylation. These results suggest that RSV infection escapes the innate antiviral response by inducing SOCS1, SOCS3 or CIS expression in epithelial cells.
    Virology 08/2009; 391(2):162-70. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2009.06.026 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By PCR, we detected a high frequency of viruses in adenoids obtained from children without acute respiratory symptoms. Our results suggest that persistent/latent viral infection in the respiratory tract confounds interpretation of the association of pathogen detection by PCR with acute respiratory infection in these sources.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 03/2009; 47(3):771-3. DOI:10.1128/JCM.02331-08 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Masatoki Sato · Peter F Wright
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    ABSTRACT: Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) have been generally disregarded as pathogens in spite of their importance in pediatric lower respiratory illness. Because PIVs account for 17% of hospitalized illness associated virus isolation, the development of PIV vaccine would be a major advance in preventing lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. We will review in detail several PIV vaccine candidates and recent newer approaches to PIV vaccine development. Intranasally administered bovine PIV3 (bPIV3) vaccine and cold-adapted PIV3 vaccine have been evaluated throughout the pediatric age spectrum. BPIV3 does not give a robust response to the heterotypic human strain although seroconversion rate to bPIV3 is 57-65%. However, bPIV3 vaccine is being used as an attenuated backbone for insertion of human PIV3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion (F) proteins and a surface protein, F, of respiratory syncytial virus. The effectiveness of this vaccine against both PIV3 and RSV challenge has been demonstrated in African green monkeys. The cold-adapted PIV3 vaccine has been extensively evaluated and is safe and immunogenic in seronegative children with a seroconversion rate of 79%. These promising candidates deserve to enter into efficacy trials both for their ability to prevent PIV3 disease and as a model of protection against respiratory illness by mucosal vaccination.
    The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10/2008; 27(10 Suppl):S123-5. DOI:10.1097/INF.0b013e318168b76f · 2.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

479 Citations
118.12 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2015
    • Fukushima Medical University
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of Medicine
      Hukusima, Fukushima, Japan
  • 2009
    • Dartmouth Medical School
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
  • 2008
    • Vanderbilt University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Нашвилл, Michigan, United States