[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is an age-related disease. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in human blood, and that serum C1q and C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) concentrations can be measured. We investigated circulating C1q and C1q-APN levels in Japanese men including elderly men. FINDINGS: The study subjects were 509 Japanese men including elderly men. Serum levels of total adiponectin (Total-APN), high-molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN), C1q-APN and C1q were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total-APN, HMW-APN and C1q-APN, but not C1q, correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.26, r=0.24, r=0.17, p<0.01, respectively). The HMW-APN/Total-APN ratio correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.14, p<0.01). The C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio and C1q-APN/HMW-APN ratio correlated significantly and negatively with aging (r=-0.17, p<0.01, r=-0.12, p=0.01). C1q-APN/C1q correlated significantly and positively with aging (r=0.09, p=0.03). Multiple regression analysis identified age and body mass index as significant determinants of C1q-APN. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrates that serum HMW-APN, C1q-APN, and Total-APN, but not C1q, correlated positively with aging. These preliminary results could form the basis for future research.Trial registration: Clinical Trial Registration Number: UMIN000004318.
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 03/2013; 5(1):17. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Visceral fat accumulation is caused by over-nutrition and physical inactivity. Excess accumulation of visceral fat associates with atherosclerosis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have an important role in human nutrition, but imbalance of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially low eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) / arachidonic acid (AA) ratio, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the correlation between EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), AA parameters and clinical features in male subjects. FINDINGS: The study subjects were 134 Japanese with diabetes, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia who underwent measurement of visceral fat area (eVFA) by the bioelectrical impedance method and serum levels of EPA, DHA and AA. EPA/AA ratio correlated positively with age, and negatively with waist circumference and eVFA. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that age and eVFA correlated significantly and independently with serum EPA/AA ratio. Serum EPA/AA ratio, but not serum DHA/AA and (EPA+DHA)/AA ratios, was significantly lower in subjects with eVFA >=100 cm2, compared to those with eVFA <100 cm2 (p=0.049). Subjects with eVFA >=100 cm2 were significantly more likely to have the metabolic syndrome and history of cardiovascular diseases, compared to those with eVFA <100 cm2 (p<0.001, p=0.028, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Imbalance of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (low serum EPA/AA ratio) correlated with visceral fat accumulation in male subjects.Clinical trial registration number: UMIN 000002271 - https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000002777&language=E.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) have much higher levels of adiponectin (Total-APN). Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in human blood, and serum C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We recently reported that C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio rather than Total-APN correlated with atherosclerosis in diabetics. However, the characteristics of C1q-APN in HD patients remain unclear. The preset study investigated the characteristics of the adiponectin parameters including C1q-APN and also to clarify the relationship between various serum adiponectin parameters and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ACVD) in HD patients. METHODS: The single cross-sectional study subjects were 117 Japanese patients (males/females = 61/56) on regular HD. Blood Total-APN, high molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN), C1q-APN and C1q concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. ACVD were defined as stroke, coronary and peripheral artery diseases, thoracic and abdominal aneurysms. RESULTS: Stepwise regression analysis identified high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) as the only significant and independent determinant of C1q-APN in males, and duration of HD as the only significant and independent determinant of C1q-APN in females. Stepwise regression analysis identified uric acid, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride as significant and independent determinants of C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio in males, and leukocyte count and HDL-C as significant and independent determinants of C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio in females. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified inorganic phosphorus and C1q-APN or C1q-APN/C1q ratio as significant determinants of ACVD. CONCLUSIONS: Low serum C1q-APN and C1q-APN/C1q ratio, but not C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio, correlated with ACVD in HD patients.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: UMIN 000004318https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000005173&language=E.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein, has potential antiatherogenic properties. Low levels of serum total-adiponectin (Total-APN) correlate with diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in blood, and serum C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the correlation between C1q-APN and CAD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The study subjects were 107 outpatients with T2DM who underwent evaluation for CAD. Blood C1q, Total-APN, high-molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN) and C1q-APN were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Serum levels of C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio were higher in patients diagnosed with CAD (10.47±0.59, mean±SEM, n=54) than those without CAD (8.88±0.60, n=53, p=0.0482). Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analysis identified serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio and hypertension as significant and independent determinants of CAD. A high serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio was associated with 3.965-fold increase in CAD prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: High serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio correlates with CAD in T2DM.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 11/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured circulating C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) levels before and after 3-month treatment with pioglitazone in people with type 2 diabetes. The results indicate 3-month treatment with pioglitazone reduces circulating levels of C1q-APN/total-adiponectin ratio without changes in body mass index.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 11/2012; · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerosis is a disease of blood vessels. Adiponectin is a biomarker of atherosclerosis. Adiponectin and C1q form a protein complex in human blood, and serum C1q-binding adiponectin (C1q-APN) can be measured. We investigated the relationship between various serum adiponectin parameters and polyvascular atherosclerosis score assessed by vascular ultrasonography, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: The study subjects were 108 outpatients with T2DM who underwent evaluation for atherosclerosis by vascular ultrasonography. Polyvascular atherosclerosis score represented the sum of atherosclerotic abnormalities in the aorta, carotid, renal and common iliac arteries. Blood C1q, total-adiponectin (Total-APN), high molecular weight-adiponectin (HMW-APN) and C1q-APN were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The estimated visceral fat area (eVFA) was measured by bioelectrical impedance. RESULTS: Polyvascular atherosclerosis score correlated only with the C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio (p=0.018 for trend). There were no significant relationships between various adiponectin parameters and carotid maximum intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index. Age-, sex-, eVFA-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis that included the above variables identified serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio as the only significant and independent determinant of polyvascular atherosclerosis score. CONCLUSIONS: Serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio correlates with atherosclerosis detected by polyvascular vascular ultrasonography, independent of gender and visceral adiposity, in T2DM.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 10/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate circulating adiponectin levels and their associated factors in young lean healthy Japanese women.Methods: We recruited 82 healthy Japanese women in their twenties and thirties with their body mass index <25 kg/m(2), and performed anthropometric, sphygmomanometric, and laboratory examinations. Laboratory examinations included adiponectin levels, as well as lipid profiles, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, transaminase, and creatinine levels, from which the glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR).Results: The median and interquartile range of circulating adiponectin levels were 8.1 (6.2-10.0) µg/ mL. HDL cholesterol levels and eGFR, but not the other examined clinical parameters, were significantly correlated with log-transformed adiponectin levels; their correlation coefficients were 0.323 (p<0.01) and .0.311 (p<0.01), respectively. Statistical significance was still observed even after adjustment for each other (both p= 0.02). In adjusted models, subjects with HDL cholesterol levels ≥80 mg/dL had 1.3 times higher adiponectin levels than those with 40-60 mg/dL, whereas eGFR ≥110 mL/min/1.73m(2) and 60-90 mL/min/1.73m(2) showed a 1.5-fold difference in adiponectin levels.Conclusions: Adiponectin levels of young lean healthy Japanese women had significant associations with HDL cholesterol levels and eGFR, even though their HDL cholesterol levels and eGFR were distributed within normal ranges. It seems important to take into account these two variables in evaluating adiponectin levels of these subjects, even if the two variables are within normal ranges.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 09/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Adiponectin and C1q have similar sequences, exist abundantly in blood, and are produced by adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to examine whether adiponectin and C1q form protein-complex in blood and to know the clinical significance of the C1q-adiponectin (C1q-APN) complex in serum. METHODS: The direct interaction between adiponectin and C1q was investigated by far western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. The relationship between serum C1q-APN and various clinical features was analyzed in 329 Japanese men who underwent health check-up, including measurements of visceral (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) by computed tomography (Victor-J study). RESULTS: Adiponectin bound to C1q in vitro and C1q-APN complex existed in human blood. C1q-APN complexes were identified in high- and middle-molecular weight forms of adiponectin in human serum by gel-filtration chromatography. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified body mass index, VFA and SFA as significant determinants of serum C1q-APN level. Serum C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio correlated positively with cardiovascular risk factor accumulation in subjects with VFA ≥100 cm(2). CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that high- and middle-molecular forms of adiponectin partly consist of adiponectin-complex with other proteins including C1q and that the blood C1q-APN/Total-APN ratio may serve as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome in general male subjects.
Metabolism: clinical and experimental 07/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Visceral fat accumulation is associated with obesity-related cardiovascular risk factor accumulation and atherosclerosis. The present study investigated whether one-year reduction of the visceral fat area (VFA) correlates with a decrease in the number of such factors in Japanese with or without visceral fat accumulation.Methods: The study subjects comprised 5,347 Japanese, who underwent health check-ups in 2007 and 2008, including measurements of VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) by computed tomography at 9 centers in Japan. Subjects with one or more such factor(s) were categorized into tertiles based on the one-year change in VFA. We investigated the multivariate age, sex, and one-year change in SFA-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reductions in the number of risk factors in each of the three categories based on the one-year change in VFA, in subjects with one or more such factors (n= 3,648).Results: In the entire group (n=3,648), the OR and 95%CI for reductions in the number of risk factors in the first tertile were 0.804 (0.673-0.962, p=0.0172), compared with the second tertile set at 1.0. Subjects with VFA <100cm(2) showed no reduction in the number of risk factors. In subjects with VFA .100 cm(2), OR in the first tertile was 0.788 (0.639-0.972, p=0.0257) relative to the second tertile set at 1.0.Conclusions: In subjects with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, visceral fat reduction correlated with a decrease in the number of such factors in subjects with VFA≥100cm(2), but not in those with VFA<100cm(2).
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 07/2012; · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been increasing in recent years. Sleep loss and circadian rhythm abnormalities are thought to be one of the underlying causes of adverse metabolic health. However, little is known about sleep-wake cycle irregularities in T2DM. The present study compared the bedtime, waking time, and estimated sleep duration between T2DM and non-T2DM subjects.
The study subjects were 106 consecutive outpatients with lifestyle-related diseases (males/females = 56/50), who answered a questionnaire on sleep status. Subjects were divided into two groups; non-T2DM (n = 32) and T2DM (n = 74) subjects.
T2DM subjects retired to bed on weekdays and holidays significantly later than non-T2DM subjects (23:43 versus 22:52, p = 0.0032; 23:45 versus 22:53, p = 0.0038, respectively), and woke up significantly later on weekdays and holidays, compared with non-T2DM subjects (06:39 versus 06:08, p = 0.0325; 06:58 versus 06:24, p = 0.0450, respectively). There was no significant difference in the estimated sleep duration between the two groups. Daytime sleepiness was reported significantly more commonly by T2DM subjects than non-T2DM subjects (p = 0.0195).
Sleep-wake cycle irregularities are more common in T2DM subjects than non-T2DM. Confirmation that such irregularity plays a role in the metabolic abnormalities of T2DM requires further investigation in the future.
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 05/2012; 4(1):18. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Visceral adiposity is linked with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) (called Syndrome Z), and both correlate with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of the present study was to determine the significance of excess visceral fat, SDB and circulating levels of biomarkers in CAD in Japanese men.Methods: SDB, visceral fat area (VFA), and circulating levels of biomarkers were assessed in 60 Japanese male patients who underwent coronary angiography and overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring.Results: Age-adjusted logistic analysis showed a significant relationship between CAD and diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, SDB (AHI ≥5 events/hour), visceral fat accumulation (VFA ≥100 cm(2)), the combination of visceral fat accumulation and hypertension or dyslipidemia, as well as the combination of visceral fat accumulation and SDB. Patients with VFA ≥100 cm(2) and SDB had significantly lower serum adiponectin levels and higher serum soluble CD40 ligand levels than those with VFA<100 cm(2) and SDB. The prevalence of CAD was significantly higher in patients with VFA ≥100 cm(2) and SDB than in patients with VFA <100 cm(2) and AHI <5 events/hour, patients with VFA<100 cm(2) and AHI ≥5 events/hour or patients with VFA ≥100 cm(2) and AHI <5 events/hour (93% versus 14%, p <0.001, 53%, p <0.01 or 63%, p <0.01, respectively).Conclusions: The present study indicates that patients with both visceral fat accumulation and SDB develop CAD in association with hypoadiponectinemia and inflammatory activity.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 04/2012; 19(8):728-35. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple risk factor syndrome is a target for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). A cluster of multiple risk factors, such as hypertension, glucose intolerance, and/or dyslipidemia, is encountered in Japanese without and with excess visceral fat. The present study investigated the relationship between multiple risk factor accumulation and CAD in Japanese without and with visceral fat accumulation.
The study subjects comprised 257 Japanese with suspected CAD (males/females= 153/ 104), who underwent 64-row multislice computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography and visceral fat area (VFA) measurement by CT. Based on the Japanese criteria for visceral fat accumulation, they were divided into those with VFA <100 and ≥10 cm(2).
In subjects with VFA <100 cm(2), the age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for 2 and 3 risk factors were 5.33 (95% confidence intervals; 1.04-27.38, p=0.0449) and 4.07 (0.72-23.15, p=0.1138), respectively, compared with VFA <100 cm(2) and 0 risk factor set at 1.0 (p=0.0569 for trend). In contrast, the respective ORs for subjects with VFA ≥100 cm(2) were much higher [6.46 (1.25-33.44, p=0.0261) and 20.42 (3.60-115.73, p=0.0007)] (p<0.0001 for trend). The multivariate adjusted model demonstrated a significant relative excess CAD risk of 1.08 (p=0.0484) and 5.01 (p<0.0001) for the interactions of 2 risk factors and VFA ≥100 cm(2), and 3 risk factors and VFA ≥100 cm(2), whereas multiple risk factor accumulation was not related with the increase of CAD risk in subjects with VFA <100 cm(2).
Coexistence of visceral fat and risk factor accumulations is strongly associated with CAD in Japanese.
Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 04/2012; 19(7):657-63. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, is a cardiac-derived secretory hormone with natriuretic, diuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. Intraabdominal fat accumulation is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and cardiac dysfunction. Circulating BNP levels are relatively low (within the normal limits) in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, the relationship between plasma BNP levels and visceral fat accumulation in general population has not been reported. The present study analyzed the relationships between plasma BNP levels and various clinical variables, including insulin, visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA, respectively), in normal Japanese men.
The study (Victor-J study) subjects were consecutive 500 Japanese male workers, who underwent a health checkup and were measured VFA and SFA by computed tomography.
Age-adjusted simple linear regression analysis showed that log-BNP correlated positively with HDL-cholesterol, and negatively with VFA, log-immunoreactive insulin (IRI), log-triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol, but not body mass index or SFA. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified log-IRI and HDL-cholesterol as significant determinants of log-BNP. Subjects with IRI ≥5.5 μIU/mL had lower plasma BNP levels than those with IRI < 5.5 μIU/mL, irrespective of obesity (body mass index, cutoff value 25 kg/m2), visceral fat accumulation (VFA, cutoff value 100 cm2) and subcutaneous fat accumulation (SFA, cutoff value 128 cm2).
Our study showed that hyperinsulinemia correlated with low levels of plasma BNP in general men, irrespective of fat distribution.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), especially obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), has frequent complications include hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance based on abdominal obesity or excess visceral fat (called Syndrome Z). OSA is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The clinical characteristics of Japanese OSA subjects with OSA remain unclear. The present study investigated prevalence and predictive factors of intracoronary stenosis detected by multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in Japanese male subjects with SDB/OSA.
The study (O-VFStudy) subjects were 39 Japanese men with SDB/OSA who underwent all-night cardiorespiratory monitoring with fully attended polysomnography, and moreover both fat computed tomography (CT) scan and 64-row MSCT coronary angiography. The prevalence of coronary stenosis in this selected population with SDB/OSA was 15%. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between age-adjusted CAD and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05), but not serum adiponectin levels and nocturnal fall in adiponectin. Subjects with the metabolic syndrome had significantly higher prevalence of CAD (31.3 versus 4.3%, p = 0.033), and lower levels of serum adiponectin (4.5 ± 0.6 versus 6.4 ± 0.6 μg/mL, p = 0.014), compared with groups without the metabolic syndrome.
The present study describes that the prevalence of greater than 50% intracoronary stenotic lesions detected by MSCT was 15% and the metabolic syndrome was correlated with intracoronary stenosis detected by MSCT in Japanese SDB/OSA subjects.
Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 03/2012; 4:6. · 1.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A8/A9 complex, calprotectin, which serves as an endogenous ligand for immune pathways, is associated with atherosclerosis. These proteins are reported to have several functions such as activating NADPH oxidase, binding toll-like receptor 4 and associated with the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. We recently reported S100A8 mRNA was highly expressed in mouse white adipose tissues and differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. However, regulation of S100A9 expression in murine adipose tissue remains to be elucidated. The results of our studies in male Japanese, obese and control mice and cultured cells showed: (1) serum levels of S100A8/A9 complex, calprotectin, correlated with visceral fat area, body mass index, subcutaneous fat area, and leukocyte count in 500 Japanese men, and (2) higher mRNA expression levels of S100A8 in mature adipocyte fraction and S100A9 in stromal vascular cell fraction of obese mice, compared with those of lean mice. Overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 in obese adipose tissue may be involved, at least partly, in not only high circulating levels of S100A8/A9 complex in abdominal obesity but also adipose and systemic tissue inflammation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2012; 419(4):782-9. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S100A8/A9 complex is an inflammation-associated biomarker, which binds toll-like receptor 4 and was associated with the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. S100A8 and S100A9 were accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions. High serum levels of S100A8/A9 are associated with acute coronary syndrome and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, association between serum S100A8/A9 levels and vulnerable plaque remains unclear. The present study investigated the relation between serum S100A8/A9 levels and relative plaque density (RPD) of the carotid artery determined by ultrasonography in T2DM.
The study subjects were 72 consecutive T2DM outpatients (males/females=42/30), who underwent the carotid artery ultrasonography. RPD in the carotid artery was calculated by the formula; RPD=[density of the carotid plaque/density of vessel lumen]. Serum levels of adiponectin and S100A8/A9 were measured.
The median RPD was 2.1. Patients with low RPD (≤2.1) were significantly more likely to have metabolic syndrome, nephropathy, coronary artery disease, and peripheral artery disease, and higher levels of S100A8/A9, S100A8/A9-to-adiponectin ratio, and uric acid, compared to those with high RPD (>2.1).
T2DM patients with low RPD had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases and higher serum S100A8/A9 levels, compared to those with high RPD.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 02/2012; 97(1):82-90. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a systemic disease of blood vessels. We investigated clinical characteristics of Japanese type 2 diabetic patients with polyvascular lesions detected by systemic vascular ultrasonography. The results showed that the metabolic syndrome correlated with polyvascular lesions detected by systemic vascular ultrasonography in Japanese type 2 diabetics.
Diabetes research and clinical practice 02/2012; 96(2):e26-9. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and impaired insulin action and/or insulin secretion. Obesity T2DM has become a serious problem in Japan as in Western countries, with over-eating and physical inactivity. Obese Asians have mild degree of adiposity, compared with Western subjects. Unlike total body fat, body fat distribution, especially excess accumulation of visceral fat, correlates with various diabetogenic, atherogenic, prothrombotic and proinflammatory metabolic abnormalities, which increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Obese patients with T2DM have poor glycemic control with disordered eating behaviors, and complications of hypertension and dyslipidemia, leading to ACVD. The major therapies in obese T2DM, hyperinsulinemia and low insulin sensitivity, available for weight loss, especially visceral fat reduction, include caloric restriction, physical activity and behavior modification. On the other hand, the major therapies in non-obese T2DM with insufficient insulin secretion, are insulin-secretory agents and injectable insulin. For clinically meaningful prevention/reduction in the rate of future ACVD in T2DM, it may be important to stratify T2DM subjects into those with and without visceral obesity and design specific management protocols for each group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), especially sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAS), is often observed in patients with active acromegaly. This complication is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with increased morbidity and mortality in acromegaly. However there is little information on SDB in Japanese patients with acromegaly. We investigated the prevalence of SDB and association between the severity of SDB and various features and biomarkers in Japanese patients with acromegaly. Twenty-four Japanese patients with active acromegaly underwent overnight cardiorespiratory monitoring, hormonal assays and cephalometric measurements on X-ray. A high prevalence of SDB was detected in acromegaly (87.5%). Log apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) correlated positively with soft palate length / body height (X-ray) (r=0.44, p=0.043), but not with log growth hormone levels and insulin-like growth factor type-1 standard deviation scores, size of pituitary adenoma, disease duration, body mass index, waist circumference, estimated visceral fat area, heel pad thickness / height, tongue thickness/ height, or oropharyngeal dimension/ height. In conclusion, our study demonstrated a high prevalence of SDB in Japanese patients with acromegaly, and its severity correlated with soft palate length. Based on the high incidence of SDB identified in the present study, we recommend that all patients with acromegaly are routinely screened for SDB for early diagnosis and treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease characterized by inadequate beta-cell response due to progressive insulin resistance that typically accompanies physical inactivity and weight gain. T2DM is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality related to the associated atherosclerotic cardiovascular risks and diabetic vasculopathies, including microangiopathies (e.g., blindness and renal failure) and macroangiopathies (atherosclerosis). The increasing global prevalence of T2DM is linked to the rising rates of obesity, especially abdominal obesity. Visceral fat accumulation is upstream of obesity-related disorders including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD), and is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis through dysregulated production of adipocytokines, especially hypoadiponectinemia. This review article discusses the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for T2DM and atherosclerosis, focusing on adiponectin. Clinical and experimental studies have shown that hypoadiponectinemia contributes to a variety of life style-related diseases including T2DM and atherosclerosis. It is likely that life-style modification, visceral fat reduction and use of medications that increase serum adiponectin levels (e.g., rimonabant, thiazolidinediones, fibrates, angiotensin receptor blocker and mineralocorticoid receptor blockade) when provided in combination can improve hypoadiponectinemia and thus prevent the development of life style-related diseases including T2DM and ACVD.
Endocrine, metabolic & immune disorders drug targets. 01/2012; 12(2):118-31.