[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conjugated vaccines consisting of flagellin and antigen activate TLR5 and induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses. Objective of the present study was to gain further insight into the mechanisms by which flagellin fusion proteins mediate their immune modulating effects. In a mouse model of Ova-induced intestinal allergy a fusion protein of flagellin and Ova (rflaA:Ova) was used for intranasal and intraperitoneal vaccination. Aggregation status of flaA, Ova and flaA:Ova were compared by light scattering, uptake of fluorescence labeled proteins into mDC was analyzed, processing was investigated by microsomal digestion experiments. Mechanism of DC-activation was investigated using proteasome and inflammasome inhibitors. Immune responses of wildtype, IL-10(-/-), TLR5(-/-) mDCs and Ova-transgenic T cells were investigated. Mucosal and i.p.-application of rflaA:Ova were able to prevent allergic sensitization, suppress disease-related symptoms, prevent body weight loss and reduction in food uptake. Intranasal vaccination resulted in strongest suppression of Ova-specific IgE production. These protective effects were associated with increased aggregation of rflaA:Ova and accompanied by tenfold higher uptake rates into mDC compared to the mixture of both proteins. Microsomal digestion showed that stimulation with rflaA:Ova resulted in faster degradation and the generation of different peptides compared to rOva. rflaA:Ova-mediated activation of mDC could be suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the application of both inflammasome and proteasome inhibitors. Using TLR5(-/-) mDC the rflaA:Ova induced IL-10 secretion was shown to be TLR5 dependent. In co-cultures of IL-10(-/-) mDC with DO11.10 T cells the lack of rflaA:Ova-mediated IL-10 secretion resulted in enhanced levels of both TH2 (IL-4, IL-5) and TH1 (IL-2 and IFN-y) cytokines. In summary, mucosal vaccination with flaA:Ova showed strongest preventive effect. Stimulation with rflaA:Ova results in strong immune modulation mediated by enhanced uptake of the aggregated fusion protein, likely resulting in a different processing by DC as well as stronger TLR5 mediated cell activation.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e87822. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell types and mechanisms involved in type I interferon (IFN)-mediated anti-inflammatory effects are poorly understood. Upon injection of artificial double-stranded RNA (poly(I:C)), we observed severe liver damage in type I IFN-receptor (IFNAR) chain 1-deficient mice, but not in wild-type (WT) controls. Studying mice with conditional IFNAR ablations revealed that IFNAR-triggering of myeloid cells is essential in order to protect mice from poly(I:C)-induced liver damage. Accordingly, in poly(I:C)-treated WT but not IFNAR-deficient mice, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were recruited to the liver. Comparing WT and IFNAR-deficient mice with animals deficient for the IFNAR on myeloid cells revealed a direct IFNAR-dependent production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1RA) that could be assigned to liver-infiltrating cells. Upon poly(I:C) treatment IFNAR-deficient mice displayed both a severe lack of IL-1RA production and an increased production of pro-inflammatory IL-1 indicating a severely imbalanced cytokine milieu in the liver in absence of a functional type I IFN system. Depletion of IL-1 or treatment with recombinant IL-1RA both rescued IFNAR-deficient mice from poly(I:C)-induced liver damage, directly linking the deregulated IL-1 and IL-1RA production to liver pathology. Conclusion: Type I IFN-signaling protects from severe liver damage by recruitment of monocytic MDSC and maintaining a balance between IL-1 and IL-1RA production. (Hepatology 2013;)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-encoding antigens are considered as safe vaccine candidates for various infectious diseases in humans. Here, we investigated the immune-modulating properties of MVA-encoding ovalbumin (MVA-OVA) on the allergen-specific immune response.
The immune-modulating properties of MVA-OVA were investigated using GM-CSF-differentiated BMDCs from C57BL/6 mice. OVA expression upon MVA-OVA infection of BMDCs was monitored. Activation and maturation markers on viable MVA-OVA-infected mDCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. Secretion of INF-γ, IL-2, and IL-10 was determined in a co-culture of BMDCs infected with wtMVA or MVA-OVA and OVA-specific OT-I CD8(+) and OT-II CD4(+ ) T cells. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with wtMVA, MVA-OVA, or PBS, sensitized to OVA/alum and challenged with a diet containing chicken egg white. OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a and cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells were analyzed. Body weight, body temperature, food uptake, intestinal inflammation, and health condition of mice were monitored.
Infection with wtMVA and MVA-OVA induced comparable activation of mDCs. MVA-OVA-infected BMDCs expressed OVA and induced enhanced IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion from OVA-specific CD8(+ ) T cells in comparison with OVA, wtMVA, or OVA plus wtMVA. Prophylactic vaccination with MVA-OVA significantly repressed OVA-specific IgE, whereas OVA-specific IgG2a was induced. MVA-OVA vaccination suppressed TH 2 cytokine production in MLN cells and prevented the onset of allergic symptoms and inflammation in a mouse model of OVA-induced intestinal allergy.
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara-ovalbumin (MVA-OVA) vaccination induces a strong OVA-specific TH 1- immune response, likely mediated by the induction of IFN-γ and IgG2a. Finally, MVA-based vaccines need to be evaluated for their therapeutic potential in established allergy models.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the development and application of a new machine-learning approach to exhaustively and reliably identify major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) ligands among all 20(8) octapeptides and in genome-derived proteomes of Mus musculus , influenza A H3N8, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Focusing on murine H-2K(b), we identified potent octapeptides exhibiting direct MHC-I binding and stabilization on the surface of TAP-deficient RMA-S cells. Computationally identified VSV-derived peptides induced CD8(+) T-cell proliferation after VSV-infection of mice. The study demonstrates that high-level machine-learning models provide a unique access to rationally designed peptides and a promising approach toward "reverse vaccinology".
ACS Chemical Biology 06/2013; · 5.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic humanization of mice is frequently used to study the human immune system and its reaction upon experimental intervention. Immune compromised NOD-Rag1(-/-) mice, additionally deficient for the common gamma chain of cytokine receptors (γc) (NOD-Rag1(-/-) γc(-/-) mice), lack B, T and NK cells and allow for efficient human peripheral mononuclear cell (PBMC) engraftment. Yet, a major experimental drawback for studies using these mice is the rapid onset of graft versus host disease (GvHD). In order to elucidate the contribution of the xenogenic murine MHC class II in this context, we generated immune deficient mice expressing human MHC class II (HLA-DQ8) on a mouse class II deficient background (Aβ(-/-) ). We studied repopulation and onset of GvHD in these mouse strains following transplantation of DQ8 haplotype matched human PBMCs. The presence of HLA class II significantly promoted the repopulation rates in these mice. Virtually all of the engrafted cells were CD3(+) T cells. The presence of HLA class II did not advance B cell engraftment, such that humoral immune responses were undetectable. However, the overall survival of DQ8-expressing mice was significantly prolonged, compared to mice expressing mouse MHC class II molecules, and correlated with an increased time span until onset of GvHD. Our data thus demonstrate that this new mouse strain is useful to study GvHD and the prolonged animal survival and engraftment rates make it superior for experimental intervention following PBMC engraftment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated virus and a promising vaccine vector with potent immune stimulating properties. Deletion of the gene encoding the viral interleukin-1beta receptor (vIL-1betaR) in MVA (MVA[increment]IL-1betaR) was previously shown to enhance memory T cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of vIL-1betaR on blocking interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) upon MVA infection in various antigen presenting cells of murine and human origin, and analyzed whether inflammasome function contributes to IL-1beta production in different cell types. FINDINGS: Extending previous studies, immunizing mice with low doses of MVA[increment]IL-1betaR still showed enhanced memory CD8+ T cell activation compared to MVA wild-type (MVAwt) immunization. In vitro, murine myeloid dendritic cells, and activated, but not naive primary macrophages were identified as potent producers of IL-1beta upon infection with MVA. Importantly, free IL-1beta was only detected in the absence of vIL-1betaR. Moreover, MVA[increment]IL-1betaR increased amounts of bioactive IL-1beta compared to MVAwt after infection of human THP-1 cells, as detected using a reporter system that only responds to active and free IL-1beta. The MVA-mediated induction of IL-1beta was confirmed to depend on inflammasome function in human and murine cells, however in murine cells this apparently involves caspase-1-independent pathways. CONCLUSIONS: MVA lacking IL-1beta blocking activity leads to increased concentrations of free IL-1beta upon infection of murine and human antigen presenting cells; this is likely responsible for enhanced memory T cell activation upon MVA[increment]IL-1betaR immunization of mice. Moreover, our results suggest that MVA-mediated IL-1beta induction is a multifactorial process.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we identified the CD20 homolog Ms4a8a as a novel molecule expressed by tumor-associated macrophages that directly enhances tumor growth. Here, we analyzed Ms4a8a(+) macrophages in M2-associated infectious pathologies. In late-stage Trypanosoma congolense and Taenia crassiceps infections, Ms4a8a expression was detected in hepatic and peritoneal macrophages respectively. Innate immunity in these infections is modulated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and TLR2/4/7 agonists strongly induced Ms4a8a expression in bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) treated with M2 mediators (glucocorticoids/IL-4). LPS/dexamethasone/IL-4-induced Ms4a8a(+) BMDMs were characterized by strong expression of mRNA of mannose receptor (Mmr), arginase 1, and CD163, and by decreased iNOS expression. Coinduction of Ms4a8a by M2 mediators and TLR agonists involved the classical TLR signaling cascade via activation of MyD88/TRIF and NF-κB. Forced overexpression of Ms4a8a modulated the TLR4 response of RAW264.7 cells as shown by gene expression profiling. Upregulation of Hdc, Tcfec, and Sla was confirmed both in primary LPS/dexamethasone/IL-4-stimulated Ms4a8a(+) BMDMs and in peritoneal macrophages from late-stage Taenia crassiceps infection. In conclusion, we show that TLR signaling skews the typical alternative macrophage activation program to induce a special M2-like macrophage subset in vitro that also occurs in immunomodulatory immune reactions in vivo, a process directly involving the CD20 homolog Ms4a8a.
European Journal of Immunology 07/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TGN1412, a superagonistic CD28-specific antibody, was shown to require Fc-cross-linking or immobilization as a prerequisite to mediate T-cell proliferation and cytokine release in vitro. We used primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to study their ability to induce activation of TGN1412-treated T cells. We confirmed that peripheral primary human T cells do not show activation upon stimulation with soluble TGN1412 alone. Nevertheless, cocultivation of TGN1412-treated T cells with HUVECs induced T-cell activation that was further enhanced using cytokine prestimulated HUVECs. Unexpectedly, Fc-FcγR interaction was dispensable for endothelial cell-mediated proliferation of TGN1412-treated T cells. Transwell-culture assays showed that TGN1412-treated T cells need direct cell-to-cell contact to HUVECs to induce proliferation. We found that costimulatory ICOS-LICOS interaction between T cells and endothelial cells is critically involved in TGN1412-mediated effects. Blocking LICOS reduced TGN1412-mediated T-cell proliferation significantly, whereas recombinant LICOS fully conferred TGN1412-mediated T-cell proliferation. Of note, cytokine stimulation enhanced LICOS expression on HUVECs and ICOS-LICOS interaction up-regulated ICOS expression on TGN1412-treated T cells. Hence, we provide a model of positive feedback conferred by ICOS-LICOS interaction between TGN1412-treated T cells and endothelial cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interfering with interferon: A low-molecular-weight inhibitor has been discovered that blocks the interaction between interferon-α (IFN-α) and its receptor (see picture for a model of the interfaces). The resulting lead compound significantly reduces IFN-α production in vitro. NMR and SPR experiments confirm the direct interaction of the inhibitor with IFN-α.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 11/2011; 51(1):258-61. · 13.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 agonist flagellin is associated with immunomodulatory functions.
We sought to investigate whether Listeria monocytogenes-derived flagellin A (flaA) can modulate ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell responses and prevent OVA-induced intestinal allergy.
Bone marrow-derived myeloid dendritic cells from BALB/c, C57BL/6, or TLR signaling-deficient (MyD88(-/-)) mice were stimulated with rOVA, rflaA, rflaA plus rOVA, or a recombinant fusion protein consisting of rflaA and rOVA (rflaA:OVA). The immunomodulating properties of rflaA plus rOVA and rflaA:OVA were investigated by means of DC-T-cell coculture with CD4(+) T cells from OVA-T-cell receptor transgenic or OVA/alum-immunized mice. rflaA:OVA was applied as a prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine in a murine model of intestinal allergy.
rflaA:OVA induced upregulation of TLR5 and dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-10 secretion by myeloid dendritic cells. IL-10 contributed to repressing IL-4 and IFN-γ secretion by OVA-T-cell receptor transgenic CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, rflaA:OVA suppressed CD4(+) T cells derived from T(H)2-biased mice on OVA/alum immunization. In a murine model of intestinal allergy, prophylactic vaccination with rflaA:OVA reduced T-cell activation. Protection from intestinal allergy included suppression of OVA-specific IgE while inducing OVA-specific IgG(2a). Equimolar amounts of rflaA or rOVA provided alone or as a mixture did not have comparable effects. Moreover, therapeutic vaccination was shown to reduce allergic symptoms and T-cell activation in the spleen.
The rflaA:OVA fusion protein showed strong TLR-mediated immunomodulating capacities probably attributed by the proximity of adjuvant and allergen, leading to the prevention of intestinal allergy in a murine disease model. Therefore recombinant flaA:allergen fusion proteins are promising vaccine candidates for intervention in patients with IgE-mediated allergy.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 08/2011; 128(6):1340-1348.e12. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) induction upon viral infection contributes to the early antiviral host defense and ensures survival until the onset of adaptive immunity. Many viral infections lead to an acute, transient IFN expression which peaks a few hours after infection and reverts to initial levels after 24 to 36 h. Robust IFN expression often is conferred by specialized plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and may depend on positive-feedback amplification via the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). Here, we show that mice infected with Thogoto virus (THOV), which is an influenza virus-like orthomyxovirus transmitted by ticks, mounted sustained IFN responses that persisted up to 72 h after infection. For this purpose, we used a variant of THOV lacking its IFN-antagonistic protein ML, an elongated version of the matrix (M) protein [THOV(ΔML)]. Of note, large amounts of type I IFN were also found in the serum of mice lacking the IFNAR. Early IFN-α expression seemed to depend on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, whereas prolonged IFN-α responses strictly depended on RIG-I-like helicase (RLH) signaling. Unexpectedly, THOV(ΔML)-infected bone marrow-derived pDC (BM-pDC) produced only moderate IFN levels, whereas myeloid DC (BM-mDC) showed massive IFN induction that was IPS-1-dependent, suggesting that BM-mDC are involved in the massive, sustained IFN production in THOV(ΔML)-infected animals. Thus, our data are compatible with the model that THOV(ΔML) infection is sensed in the acute phase via TLR and RLH systems, whereas at later time points only RLH signaling is responsible for the induction of sustained IFN responses.
Journal of Virology 12/2010; 84(23):12344-50. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Virus-induced expansion of CD8(+) T cells may be promoted by type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-triggering of T cells, depending on the pathogen tested. We studied modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), a promising vaccine vector candidate, which was derived from conventional vaccinia virus (VACV) by more than 570 consecutive in vitro passages. In adoptive transfer experiments, we verified that VACV expressing the gp33 epitope of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (VACV(gp33)) induced largely IFNAR-independent expansion of gp33-specific T cells. On the contrary, MVA(gp33)-induced T-cell expansion was IFNAR dependent. Interestingly, under the latter conditions, T-cell activation was IFNAR independent, whereas T-cell apoptosis was enhanced in the absence of IFNAR. To address whether MVA-induced T-cell expansion was solely affected by IFNAR-triggering of T cells, expansion of endogenous T cells was studied in conditional mice with a T-cell- or DC-specific IFNAR deletion. Interestingly, both mouse strains showed moderately reduced T-cell expansion, whereas mice with a combined T-cell- and DC-specific IFNAR ablation showed massively reduced T-cell expansion similar to that of IFNAR(-/-) mice. These results are compatible with the model that IFN-inducing viruses such as MVA confer virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell expansion by concomitant IFNAR-triggering of DC and of T cells.
European Journal of Immunology 10/2010; 40(10):2769-77. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor ligands are immune-modulatory components linking innate and adaptive immune responses and are considered to be promising vaccine components. Objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant activity of Listeria monocytogenesis-derived TLR5-ligand flagellin A (flaA) genetically fused to ovalbumin (Ova, major chicken white egg allergen) in a murine in vitro system. Recombinant flaA, rOva, and a fusion protein of rflaA and rOva (rflaA:Ova) were over-expressed in Escherchia coli and purified by FPLC. LPS depletion was confirmed by LAL test. TLR5-binding was evaluated by human and murine TLR5-transgenic HEK 293 cells. The immune-modulatory effect of rflaA:Ova and rflaA:Ova modified by reduction and alkylation on purified BALB/c bone marrow-derived myeloid (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was investigated by flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Dose-dependent IL-8 secretion from transgenic HEK 293 cells confirmed binding of rflaA and rflaA:Ova molecules to human and murine TLR5. Recombinant flaA showed similar biological reactivity to TLR5-ligand fliC derived from Salmonella typhimurium applied as positive control. Compared to rflaA, both rflaA:Ova preparations induced higher expression of maturation markers (CD40, CD69, CD80, and CD86) on mDC, whereas only CD69 and CD40 were upregulated on pDC. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-10 production by mDC was enhanced upon stimulation with rflaA:Ova constructs in comparison to an equimolar mixture of both proteins whereas pDC did not show secretion of the investigated cytokines. Any immunological effects of LPS can be excluded by depletion of endotoxins and the lack of IL-10 production upon proteinase K digestion of rflaA:Ova. In summary, the rflaA:Ova fusion proteins showed an enhanced immune modulating capacity in comparison to rflaA or the mixture of rflaA and antigen. Since the rflaA:Ova fusion proteins induce strong IL-10 induction they are considered as potential vaccine candidates to improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lentiviral gene transfer vectors are suitable for genetically modifying non-cycling primary human cells. In this study, we analyzed transduced human dendritic cells (DC) generated by the use of three different GFP-encoding lentiviral vectors, HIV-2 ROD A Δenv-GFP (ROD A), SIVsmm PBj ΔE EGFP (PBj), and SIVmac ΔE EGFP (SIVmac). CD14+ monocytes were isolated from buffy coat, transduced, and differentiated to immature and mature DC. Cytofluometric analysis of DC revealed high transduction efficiencies at MOI 1 for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-derived vectors PBj and SIVmac ranging between 80-90 and 70-90%, respectively. In contrast, transduction with ROD A resulted only in approximately 30%-positive DC at the same MOI. Of note, none of the analyzed vectors affected expression of maturation and/or activation markers. Moreover, transduction with PBj or SIVmac did not induce significant cytokine responses whereas ROD A transduction stimulated weak interferon-alpha responses. SIVmac transduced DC showed normal phagocytosis of antigen and normal allo T cell stimulatory capacity when compared with untreated DC. Thus, the SIVmac lentiviral transduction vector is suitable for efficient genetic modification of human DC without affecting phenotype or function and thus qualifies this vector as a versatile tool for use in basic research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-23 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of the IL-23-specific subunit p19 and the p40 subunit which also constitutes part of IL-12. IL-23 propagates development of Th17 cells, a novel T cell subset which produces IL-17 but no interferon-gamma or IL-4. For both, IL-23 and IL-23-driven IL-17, a crucial role in autoimmune diseases such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis, and colitis is well accepted. Recent studies indicate that there is also a role for IL-23 and IL-17 in tumorigenesis, promoting tumor growth and vascularization, and affecting tumor incidence. We show that human CD14(+) peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC), as used for clinical applications in anti-tumor immunization strategies, produce high amounts of IL-23. CD40-triggering of immature and mature DC but not of primary monocytes induced a rapid expression of high levels of IL-23, free p40, and minor levels of IL-12. Upon stimulation of DC subsets with a variety of different danger signals such as single stranded and double stranded RNA, bacterial components or viral infections, IL-23 expression pattern was analyzed. Interestingly, co-stimulation with CD40L enabled IL-23 expression by DC subsets towards danger signals to which they have been unresponsive upon single stimulation. Furthermore, we detected two novel splice variants of the IL-23-specific subunit p19 that could be associated with the regulation of IL-23 expression. Data presented here might have an impact on DC-based cancer vaccination strategies and contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of the heterodimeric cytokine IL-23.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB(2)) reduces ischemic injury in several organs. However, the mechanisms underlying this protective action are unclear. In a mouse model of ischemic stroke, we show that the CB(2) agonist JWH-133 (1 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)) decreases the infarct size measured 3 d after onset of ischemia. The neuroprotective effect of JWH-133 was lost in CB(2)-deficient mice, confirming the specificity of JWH-133. Analysis of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that bone marrow-derived cells mediate the CB(2) effect on ischemic brain injury. CB(2) activation reduced the number of neutrophils in the ischemic brain as shown by FACS analysis and by measuring the levels of the neutrophil marker enzyme myeloperoxidase. Indeed, we found in vitro that CB(2) activation inhibits adherence of neutrophils to brain endothelial cells. JWH-133 (1 microM) also interfered with the migration of neutrophils induced by the endogenous chemokine CXCL2 (30 ng/ml) through activation of the MAP kinase p38. This effect on neutrophils is likely responsible for the neuroprotection mediated by JWH-133 because JWH-133 was no longer protective when neutrophils were depleted. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that by activating p38 in neutrophils, CB(2) agonists inhibit neutrophil recruitment to the brain and protect against ischemic brain injury.-Murikinati, S., Jüttler, E., Keinert, T., Ridder, D. A., Muhammad, S., Waibler, Z., Ledent, C., Zimmer, A., Kalinke, U., Schwaninger, M. Activation of cannabinoid 2 receptors protects against cerebral ischemia by inhibiting neutrophil recruitment.
The FASEB Journal 11/2009; 24(3):788-98. · 5.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The tick-transmitted orthomyxovirus Thogoto virus (THOV) encodes the ML protein acting as a viral suppressor of the host interferon (IFN) system. Here, we describe that type I IFN is strongly induced in primary mouse embryo fibroblasts as well as plasmacytoid dendritic cells upon infection with a THOV mutant lacking the ML gene. However, wild-type THOV encoding ML suppresses induction of IFN by preventing the activation of members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family. We found that reporter gene expression dependent on IRF3 and IRF7 was strongly inhibited by ML. Further experiments revealed that ML interacts with IRF7 and prevents dimerization of the transcription factor and its association with the coactivator TRAF6. Interestingly, another IRF7 activation step, nuclear translocation, is not affected by ML. Our data elucidate ML protein as a virulence factor with an IRF-specific IFN-antagonistic spectrum.
Journal of General Virology 10/2009; 91(Pt 1):220-7. · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Maillard reaction occurs between reducing sugars and proteins during thermal processing of foods. It produces chemically glycated proteins termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The glycation structures of AGEs are suggested to function as pathogenesis-related immune epitopes in food allergy.
This study aimed at defining the T-cell immunogenicity of food AGEs by using ovalbumin (OVA) as a model allergen.
AGE-OVA was prepared by means of thermal processing of OVA in the presence of glucose. Activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was evaluated in cocultures with bone marrow-derived murine myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) as antigen-presenting cells. The uptake mechanisms of mDCs for AGE-OVA were investigated by using inhibitors of putative cell-surface receptors for AGEs, as well as mDCs deficient for these receptors.
Compared with the controls (native OVA and OVA thermally processed without glucose), AGE-OVA enhanced the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells on coculture with mDCs, indicating that the glycation of OVA enhanced the T-cell immunogenicity of the allergen. The mDC uptake of AGE-OVA was significantly higher than that of the controls. We identified scavenger receptor class A type I and II (SR-AI/II) as a mediator of the AGE-OVA uptake, whereas the receptor for AGEs and galectin-3 were not responsible. Importantly, the activation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells by AGE-OVA was attenuated on coculture with SR-AI/II-deficient mDCs.
SR-AI/II targets AGE-OVA to the MHC class II loading pathway in mDCs, leading to an enhanced CD4(+) T-cell activation. The Maillard reaction might thus play an important role in the T-cell immunogenicity of food allergens.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2009; 125(1):175-83.e1-11. · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of the latent kinase PKR is a potent innate defense reaction of vertebrate cells towards viral infections, which is triggered by recognition of viral double-stranded (ds) RNA and results in a translational shutdown. A major gap in our understanding of PKR's antiviral properties concerns the nature of the kinase activating molecules expressed by influenza and other viruses with a negative strand RNA genome, as these pathogens produce little or no detectable amounts of dsRNA. Here we systematically investigated PKR activation by influenza B virus and its impact on viral pathogenicity. Biochemical analysis revealed that PKR is activated by viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes known to contain single-stranded RNA with a 5'-triphosphate group. Cell biological examination of recombinant viruses showed that the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of vRNP late in infection is a strong trigger for PKR activation. In addition, our analysis provides a mechanistic explanation for the previously observed suppression of PKR activation by the influenza B virus NS1 protein, which we show here to rely on complex formation between PKR and NS1's dsRNA binding domain. The high significance of this interaction for pathogenicity was revealed by the finding that attenuated influenza viruses expressing dsRNA binding-deficient NS1 proteins were rescued for high replication and virulence in PKR-deficient cells and mice, respectively. Collectively, our study provides new insights into an important antiviral defense mechanism of vertebrates and leads us to suggest a new model of PKR activation by cytosolic vRNP complexes, a model that may also be applicable to other negative strand RNA viruses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the course of infection, the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by specialized pattern recognition receptors in the host leads to activation of the innate immune system. Whereas the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses in secondary lymphoid organs is well described, little is known about the effects of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-induced activation on primary lymphoid organs. Here we show that activation of innate immunity through the virus-sensing melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) receptor causes a rapid involution of the thymus. We observed a strong decrease in thymic cellularity associated with characteristic alterations in thymic subpopulations and microanatomy. In contrast, immune stimulation with potent TLR agonists did not lead to thymic involution or induce changes in thymic subpopulations, demonstrating that thymic pathology is not a general consequence of innate immune activation. We determined that suppression of thymocyte proliferation and enhanced apoptosis are the essential cellular mechanisms involved in the decrease in thymic size upon MDA-5 activation. Further, thymic involution critically depended on type I IFN. Strikingly however, no direct action of type I IFN on thymocytes was required, given that the decrease in thymic size was still observed in mice with a selective deletion of the type I IFN receptor on T cells. All changes observed were self-limiting, given that cessation of MDA-5 activation led to a rapid recovery of thymic size. We show for the first time that the in vivo activation of the virus-sensing MDA-5 receptor leads to a rapid and reversible involution of the thymus.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2009; 182(10):6044-50. · 5.52 Impact Factor