[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the potential of adult neural stem cells to repair damage via cell replacement has been widely reported, the ability of endogenous stem cells to positively modulate damage is less well studied. We investigated whether medium conditioned by adult hippocampal stem/progenitor cells altered the extent of excitotoxic cell death in hippocampal slice cultures. Conditioned medium significantly reduced cell death following 24 h of exposure to 10 microM NMDA. Neuroprotection was greater in the dentate gyrus, a region neighboring the subgranular zone where stem/progenitor cells reside compared with pyramidal cells of the cornis ammonis. Using mass spectrometric analysis of the conditioned medium, we identified a pentameric peptide fragment that corresponded to residues 26-30 of the insulin B chain which we termed 'pentinin'. The peptide is a putative breakdown product of insulin, a constituent of the culture medium, and may be produced by insulin-degrading enzyme, an enzyme expressed by the stem/progenitor cells. In the presence of 100 pM of synthetic pentinin, the number of mature and immature neurons killed by NMDA-induced toxicity was significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that progenitors in the subgranular zone may convert exogenous insulin into a peptide capable of protecting neighboring neurons from excitotoxic injury.
Journal of Neurochemistry 06/2009; 109(3):858-66. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tissue engineering and cell therapy require large-scale production of homogeneous populations of lineage-restricted progenitor cells that easily can be induced to differentiate into a specific tissue. We have developed straightforward protocols for the establishment of human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hES-MP) cell lines. The reproducibility was proven by derivation of multiple hES-MP cell lines from 10 different hES cell lines. To illustrate clinical applicability, a xeno-free hES-MP cell line was also derived. None of the markers characteristic for undifferentiated hES cells were detected in the hES-MP cells. Instead, these cells were highly similar to mesenchymal stem cells with regard to morphology and expression of markers. The safety of hES-MP cells following transplantation was studied in severely combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The implanted hES-MP cells gave rise to homogeneous, well-differentiated tissues exclusively of mesenchymal origin and no teratoma formation was observed. These cells further have the potential to differentiate toward the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. The possibility of easily and reproducibly generating highly expandable hES-MP cell lines from well-characterized hES cell lines with differentiation potential into several mesodermal tissues entails an enormous potential for the field of regenerative medicine.
Stem Cell Research 06/2009; 3(1):39-50. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a system for in vitro cell migration analysis. Adult neural stem/progenitor cells are studied using time-lapse bright-field microscopy and thereafter stained immunohistochemically to find and distinguish undifferentiated glial progenitor cells and cells having differentiated into type-1 or type-2 astrocytes. The cells are automatically segmented and tracked through the time-lapse sequence. An extension to the Chan-Vese Level Set segmentation algorithm, including two new terms for specialized growing and pruning, made it possible to resolve clustered cells, and reduced the tracking error by 65%. We used a custom-built manual correction module to form a ground truth used as a reference for tracked cells that could be identified from the fluorescence staining. On average, the tracks were correct 95% of the time, using our new segmentation. The tracking, or association of segmented cells, was performed using a 2-state Hidden Markov Model describing the random behaviour of the cells. By re-estimating the motion model to conform with the segmented data we managed to reduce the number of tracking parameters to essentially only one. Upon characterization of the cell migration by the HMM state occupation function, it was found that glial progenitor cells were moving randomly 2/3 of the time, while the type-2 astrocytes showed a directed movement 2/3 of the time. This finding indicates possibilities for cell-type specific identification and cell sorting of live cells based on specific movement patterns in individual cell populations, which would have valuable applications in neurobiological research.
Journal of Microscopy 02/2009; 233(1):178-91. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cranial radiation therapy is commonly used in the treatment of childhood cancers. It is associated with cognitive impairments tentatively linked to the hippocampus, a neurogenic region of the brain important in memory function and learning. Hippocampal neurogenesis is positively regulated by voluntary exercise, which is also known to improve hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. In this work, we irradiated the brains of C57/BL6 mice on postnatal day 9 and evaluated both the acute effects of irradiation and the effects of voluntary running on hippocampal neurogenesis and behavior 3 months after irradiation. Voluntary running significantly restored precursor cell and neurogenesis levels after a clinically relevant, moderate dose of irradiation. We also found that irradiation perturbed the structural integration of immature neurons in the hippocampus and that this was reversed by voluntary exercise. Furthermore, irradiation-induced behavior alterations observed in the open-field test were ameliorated. Together, these results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of physical exercise for functional and structural recovery from radiation-induced injury to the juvenile brain, and they suggest that exercise should be evaluated in rehabilitation therapy of childhood cancer survivors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2008; 105(38):14632-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus may be of significance for functional recovery after various injuries because they have a regenerative potential to form new neuronal cells. The hippocampus has been shown to express the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor 1a, and recent studies suggest GHS to both promote neurogenesis and have neuroprotective effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GHS could stimulate cellular proliferation and exert cell protective effects in adult rat hippocampal progenitor (AHP) cells. Both hexarelin and ghrelin stimulated increased incorporation of (3)H-thymidine, indicating an increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, hexarelin, but not ghrelin, showed protection against growth factor deprivation-induced apoptosis, as measured by annexin V binding and caspase-3 activity and also against necrosis, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release. Hexarelin activated the MAPK and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathways, whereas ghrelin activated only the MAPK pathway. AHP cells did not express the GHS receptor 1a, but binding studies could show specific binding of both hexarelin and ghrelin, suggesting effects to be mediated by an alternative GHS receptor subtype. In conclusion, our results suggest a differential effect of hexarelin and ghrelin in AHP cells. We have demonstrated stimulation of (3)H-thymidine incorporation with both hexarelin and ghrelin. Hexarelin, but not ghrelin, also showed a significant inhibition of apoptosis and necrosis. These results suggest a novel cell protective and proliferative role for GHS in the central nervous system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) counteracts oxidative stress in two essentially different disease-related models of brain injury, hypoxia-ischemia and irradiation, as judged by lower expression of nitrotyrosine (5-fold) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (10-fold) in XIAP-overexpressing compared with wild-type mice. XIAP overexpression induced up-regulation of at least three antioxidants residing in mitochondria, superoxide dismutase 2, thioredoxin 2 and lysine oxoglutarate reductase. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria was reduced in XIAP-overexpressing mice. Hence, in addition to blocking caspases, XIAP can regulate reactive oxygen species in the brain, at least partly through up-regulation of mitochondrial antioxidants. XIAP-induced prevention of oxidative stress was not secondary to tissue protection because although XIAP overexpression provides tissue protection after hypoxia-ischemia, it does not prevent tissue loss after irradiation. This is a previously unknown role of XIAP and may provide the basis for development of novel protective strategies for both acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, where oxidative stress is an integral component of the injury mechanisms involved.
European Journal of Neuroscience 01/2008; 26(12):3402-10. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After neurotrauma, ischemia, or neurodegenerative disease, astrocytes upregulate their expression of the intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin (Vim), and nestin. This response, reactive gliosis, is attenuated in GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice, resulting in the promotion of synaptic regeneration after neurotrauma and improved integration of retinal grafts. Here we assessed whether GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) astrocytes affect the differentiation of neural progenitor cells. In coculture with GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) astrocytes, neural progenitor cells increased neurogenesis by 65% and astrogenesis by 124%. At 35 days after transplantation of neural progenitor cells into the hippocampus, adult GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice had more transplant-derived neurons and astrocytes than wild-type controls, as well as increased branching of neurite-like processes on transplanted cells. Wnt3 immunoreactivity was readily detected in hippocampal astrocytes in wild-type but not in GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) astrocytes allow more neural progenitor cell-derived neurons and astrocytes to survive weeks after transplantation. Thus, reactive gliosis may adversely affect the integration of transplanted neural progenitor cells in the brain. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is enhanced in several models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this study, we used low-dose whole brain radiation to suppress hippocampal neurogenesis and then studied the effect of this treatment on epileptogenesis in a kindling model for TLE.
Half of the rats were exposed to a radiation dose of 8 Gy one day before the initiation of a rapid kindling protocol. Afterdischarge threshold (ADT), afterdischarge duration (ADD), clinical seizure severity, and inflammation were compared between groups. On the first and third day after radiation, rats were injected with 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to evaluate neurogenesis. Seven and 21 days after radiation, numbers of doublecortin (DCX) positive neuroblasts in subgranular zone and granule cell layer were compared between groups.
We showed that radiation significantly suppressed neurogenesis and neuroblast production during kindling acquisition. Radiation prevented an increase in ADT that became significantly lower in radiated rats. On the third and fourth kindling acquisition day radiated rats developed more severe seizures more rapidly, which resulted in a significantly higher mean severity score on these days. Differences in ADD could not be demonstrated.
Our results demonstrate that brain radiation with a relatively low dose effectively suppressed the generation of new granule cells and transiently enhanced excitability during kindling acquisition. Although seizure-induced neurogenesis was lower in the radiated rats we could not detect a strong effect on the final establishment of the permanent fully kindled state, which argues against a prominent role of seizure-induced neurogenesis in epileptogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to a previous study of Sanai et al., our study had the advantage of using serial sagittal sections of the human basal forebrain, combined with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine
labeling, rigorous magnetic resonance imaging, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. We believe these methods convincingly
demonstrate the presence of a rostral migratory stream in the human brain that resembles that in other mammals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During brain development, one of the most important structures is the subventricular zone (SVZ), from which most neurons are generated. In adulthood the SVZ maintains a pool of progenitor cells that continuously replace neurons in the olfactory bulb. Neurodegenerative diseases induce a substantial upregulation or downregulation of SVZ progenitor cell proliferation, depending on the type of disorder. Far from being a dormant layer, the SVZ responds to neurodegenerative disease in a way that makes it a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upon cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) can move from mitochondria to nuclei, participate in chromatinolysis, and contribute to the execution of cell death. Previous work (Cande, C., N. Vahsen, I. Kouranti, E. Schmitt, E. Daugas, C. Spahr, J. Luban, R.T. Kroemer, F. Giordanetto, C. Garrido, et al. 2004. Oncogene. 23:1514-1521) performed in vitro suggests that AIF must interact with cyclophilin A (CypA) to form a proapoptotic DNA degradation complex. We addressed the question as to whether elimination of CypA may afford neuroprotection in vivo. 9-d-old wild-type (WT), CypA(+/-), or CypA(-/-) mice were subjected to unilateral cerebral HI. The infarct volume after HI was reduced by 47% (P = 0.0089) in CypA(-/-) mice compared with their WT littermates. Importantly, CypA(-/-) neurons failed to manifest the HI-induced nuclear translocation of AIF that was observed in WT neurons. Conversely, CypA accumulated within the nuclei of damaged neurons after HI, and this nuclear translocation of CypA was suppressed in AIF-deficient harlequin mice. Immunoprecipitation of AIF revealed coprecipitation of CypA, but only in injured, ischemic tissue. Surface plasmon resonance revealed direct molecular interactions between recombinant AIF and CypA. These data indicate that the lethal translocation of AIF to the nucleus requires interaction with CypA, suggesting a model in which two proteins that normally reside in separate cytoplasmic compartments acquire novel properties when moving together to the nucleus.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2007; 204(8):1741-8. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously demonstrated that glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is present in the adult rat hippocampus. This finding leads to the conclusion that all members of the secretin-glucagon family of gastrointestinal regulatory polypeptides can be found in the brain. To investigate the localization of GIP-producing cells, we used immunohistochemistry on sections of the adult rat brain. High levels of GIP immunoreactivity were observed in the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Moreover, a moderate but distinct GIP immunoreactivity was observed in the cerebral cortex, amygdala, substantia nigra, and lateral septal nucleus as well as in several nuclei in the thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. GIP immunoreactivity was frequently found to colocalize with the neuronal marker NeuN but never with the glial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Thus, GIP appears to be mainly neuronal to its distribution. This widespread distribution of GIP-immunoreactive cells suggests the involvement of GIP in various neuronal functions and suggests that GIP may act as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator. This is the first characterization of the anatomical distribution of GIP-immunoreactive cells in the rat brain providing an anatomical framework for future investigations regarding the functions of GIP in the central nervous system.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/2007; 85(10):2099-119. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that recombinant human (rh) IGF-I induces cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of hypophysectomized rats. In the current investigation, we determined the effects of rhIGF-I on proliferation and differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Adult hypophysectomized rats were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newborn cells (once a day for the first 5 d), and rhIGF-I was administered peripherally for 6 or 20 d. In the cerebral cortex, the number of BrdU-labeled cells increased after 20 d but not after 6 d of rhIGF-I infusion. This suggests that rhIGF-I enhances the survival of newborn cells in the cerebral cortex. Using BrdU labeling combined with the oligodendrocyte-specific markers myelin basic protein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, we demonstrated an increase in oligodendrogenesis in the cerebral cortex. The total amount of myelin basic protein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase was also increased on Western blots of homogenates of the cerebral cortex, confirming the immunohistochemical findings. Also, we observed an increase in the number of capillary-associated BrdU-positive cells, although total capillary area was not increased. rhIGF-I treatment did not affect cortical astrogliogenesis and neurogenesis was not observed. The ability of rhIGF-I to induce cortical oligodendrogenesis may have implications for the regenerative potential of the cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of endogenous progenitor cells in two brain regions in the adult, the notion that progenitor cells might be useful for repairing damaged neurons or replacing dead neurons has gone from fiction to a reality, at least in the laboratory setting. Progenitor cells have the unique ability to be able to produce new neurons in response to endogenous and exogenous cues from their microenvironment in the brain and from the environment of the organism. However, in models of several disorders and insults the regenerative potential of the central nervous system need external enhancing. In this review we begin by focussing on the developments in the field of neurobiology that have led to the specific study of neural progenitor cell biology. In particular we discuss the two germinal niches, the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone, as well as how various neurological diseases affect these niches. We furthermore try to define primary progenitor cell disorders and secondary progenitor cell responses. The second part of this review focuses on proteomic approaches for studying progenitor cells. These techniques allow the array of proteins that are expressed by progenitor cells to be determined and further more allow comparisons between diseased and normal cells or treated and untreated cell populations. If we can induce neural progenitor cells to generate functional neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) then the burden of neurological disorders may be eased in the future. The advances in proteomic technology have and will enable further understanding of the regulatory processes in these cells so that progenitor cell integration and differentiation can be enhanced. Hopefully an increase in knowledge of progenitor cell biology will have a major impact on clinical practice.
Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 07/2007; 8(3):117-25. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factors (TFs) are responsible for the specification and fate determination of cells as they develop from progenitor cells into specific types of cells in the brain. Sox-2 and Pax-6 are TFs with key functional roles in the developing brain, although less is known about TFs in the rudimentary germinal zones in the adult human brain. In this study we have investigated the distribution and characterization of Sox-2 and Pax-6 in the human subventricular zone (SVZ). Sox-2 immunoreactivity showed a nuclear labeling pattern and colocalised on GFAP immunoreactive cells as well as on bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells, whereas Pax-6 immunoreactivity was detectable in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of SVZ cells and colocalised with PSA-NCAM-positive progenitor cells. Thus, our data surprisingly reveal that these TFs are differentially expressed in the adult human SVZ where Sox-2 and Pax-6 specify a glial and neuronal fate, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine-day-old harlequin (Hq) mice carrying the hypomorphic apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)(Hq) mutation expressed 60% less AIF, 18% less respiratory chain complex I and 30% less catalase than their wild-type (Wt) littermates. Compared with Wt, the infarct volume after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was reduced by 53 and 43% in male (YX(Hq)) and female (X(Hq)X(Hq)) mice, respectively (P<0.001). The Hq mutation did not inhibit HI-induced mitochondrial release of cytochrome c or activation of calpain and caspase-3. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor quinoline-Val-Asp(OMe)-CH(2)-PH (Q-VD-OPh) decreased the activation of all detectable caspases after HI, both in Wt and Hq mice. Q-VD-OPh reduced the infarct volume equally in Hq and in Wt mice, and the combination of Hq mutation and Q-VD-OPh treatment showed an additive neuroprotective effect. Oxidative stress leading to nitrosylation and lipid peroxidation was more pronounced in ischemic brain areas from Hq than Wt mice. The antioxidant edaravone decreased oxidative stress in damaged brains, more pronounced in the Hq mice, and further reduced brain injury in Hq but not in Wt mice. Thus, two distinct strategies can enhance the neuroprotection conferred by the Hq mutation, antioxidants, presumably compensating for a defect in AIF-dependent redox detoxification, and caspase inhibitors, presumably interrupting a parallel pathway leading to cellular demise.
Cell Death and Differentiation 05/2007; 14(4):775-84. · 8.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on proliferation and differentiation in the immature (postnatal day 9) and juvenile (postnatal day 21) mouse hippocampus were investigated by injecting bromodeoxyuridine (50 mg/kg) daily for 7 days after the insult and evaluating the labeling 5 weeks after HI. Phenotypic differentiation was evaluated using NeuN, Iba1, APC, and S100beta as markers of neurons, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes, respectively. The basal proliferation, in particular neurogenesis, was higher in the immature than in the juvenile hippocampus. Hypoxia-ischemia did not increase neurogenesis significantly in the immature dentate gyrus (DG), but it increased several-fold in the juvenile brain, reaching the same level as in the normal, noninjured immature brain. This suggests that the immature hippocampus is already working at the top of its proliferative capacity and that even though basal neurogenesis decreased with age, the injury-induced generation of new neurons in the juvenile hippocampus could not increase beyond the basal level of the immature brain. Generation of glial cells of all three types after HI was significantly more pronounced in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus region of the juvenile hippocampus. In the DG, only microglia production was greater in the juvenile brain. Increased microglia proliferation correlated with increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IL-18 3 days after HI, indicating that the inflammatory response is stronger in the juvenile hippocampus. In summary, contrary to what has been generally assumed, our results indicate that the juvenile brain has a greater capacity for neurogenesis after injury than the immature brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rostral migratory stream (RMS) is the main pathway by which newly born subventricular zone cells reach the olfactory bulb (OB) in rodents. However, the RMS in the adult human brain has been elusive. We demonstrate the presence of a human RMS, which is unexpectedly organized around a lateral ventricular extension reaching the OB, and illustrate the neuroblasts in it. The RMS ensheathing the lateral olfactory ventricular extension, as seen by magnetic resonance imaging, cell-specific markers, and electron microscopy, contains progenitor cells with migratory characteristics and cells that incorporate 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and become mature neurons in the OB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain that overlies the caudate nucleus is one of the principal brain regions in which neurogenesis occurs in the human brain, throughout life. 2. In response to the degeneration that occurs in the caudate nucleus in Huntington's disease, or in the caudate nucleus or cortex in stroke models, the SVZ increases the production of progenitor cells that migrate towards the site of the damage where they can differentiate into mature neurons and glial cells. The SVZ contains three main cell types and these are progenitor cells, glial cells and migratory neuroblasts; glial cells are the most common cell type and, in response to Huntington's disease, most of the SVZ cell proliferation is glial, but the number of precursor and neuroblasts is also increased. 3. The SVZ is enriched in neuroactive compounds, such as neuropeptide Y and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunits gamma2, which stimulate ongoing neurogenesis. Interestingly, these stimulating cues are upregulated in the SVZ in response to Huntington's disease. Thus, the SVZ comprises heterogeneous cell types that are maintained in an environment that is permissive to neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and responds to neurodegenerative changes in adjacent brain regions by increasing progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an attempt to replace the cells that die as a result of neurodegeneration.
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 01/2007; 34(5-6):528-32. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells reside in defined areas of the adult mammalian brain, including the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Rat neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) isolated from this region retain their multipotency in vitro and in vivo after grafting into the adult brain. Recent studies have shown that endogenous or grafted NSPCs are activated after an injury and migrate toward lesioned areas. In these areas, reactive astrocytes are present and secrete numerous molecules and growth factors; however, it is not currently known whether reactive astrocytes can influence the lineage selection of NSPCs. We investigated whether reactive astrocytes could affect the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of adult NSPCs by modelling astrogliosis in vitro, using mechanical lesion of primary astrocytes. Initially, it was found that conditioned medium from lesioned astrocytes induced astrocytic differentiation of NSPCs without affecting neuronal or oligodendrocytic differentiation. In addition, NSPCs in coculture with lesioned astrocytes also displayed increased astrocytic differentiation and some of these NSPC-derived astrocytes participated in glial scar formation in vitro. When proliferation and survival of NSPCs were analyzed, no differential effects were observed between lesioned and nonlesioned astrocytes. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of the astrocyte-inducing activity, the expression of two potent inducers of astroglial differentiation, ciliary neurotrophic factor and leukemia inhibitory factor, was analyzed by Western blot and shown to be up-regulated in conditioned medium from lesioned astrocytes. These results demonstrate that lesioned astrocytes can induce astroglial differentiation of NSPCs and provide a mechanism for astroglial differentiation of these cells following brain injury.
Journal of Neuroscience Research 12/2006; 84(7):1415-24. · 2.97 Impact Factor