[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adoptive cell therapy employing gene-modified T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising preclinical activity in a range of model systems and is now being tested in the clinical setting. The manufacture of CAR T-cells requires compliance with national and European regulations for the production of medicinal products. We established such a compliant process to produce T-cells armed with a first-generation CAR specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CAR T-cells were successfully generated for 14 patients with advanced CEA(+) malignancy. Of note, in the majority of patients, the defined procedure generated predominantly CD4(+) CAR T-cells with the general T-cell population bearing an effector-memory phenotype and high in vitro effector function. Thus, improving the process to generate less-differentiated T-cells would be more desirable in the future for effective adoptive gene-modified T-cell therapy. However, these results confirm that CAR T-cells can be generated in a manner compliant with regulations governing medicinal products in the European Union.
Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 11/2013; · 3.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Blood vessel formation is fundamental to development, while its dysregulation can contribute to serious disease. Expectations are that hundreds of millions of individuals will benefit from therapeutic developments in vascular biology. MSCs are central to the three main vascular repair mechanisms.Sources of dataKey recent published literature and ClinicalTrials.gov.Areas of agreementMSCs are heterogeneous, containing multi-lineage stem and partly differentiated progenitor cells, and are easily expandable ex vivo. There is no single marker defining native MSCs in vivo. Their phenotype is strongly determined by their specific microenvironment. Bone marrow MSCs have skeletal stem cell properties. Having a perivascular/vascular location, they contribute to vascular formation and function and might be harnessed to regenerate a blood supply to injured tissues.Areas of controversyThese include MSC origin, phenotype and location in vivo and their ability to differentiate into functional cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells or act as vascular stem cells. In addition their efficacy, safety and potency in clinical trials in relation to cell source, dose, delivery route, passage and timing of administration, but probably even more on the local preconditioning and the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.Growing pointsUnderstanding the origin and the regenerative environment of MSCs, and manipulating their homing properties, proliferative ability and functionality through drug discovery and reprogramming strategies are important for their efficacy in vascular repair for regenerative medicine therapies and tissue engineering approaches.Areas timely for developing researchCharacterization of MSCs' in vivo origins and biological properties in relation to their localization within tissue niches, reprogramming strategies and newer imaging/bioengineering approaches.
British Medical Bulletin 10/2013; · 4.36 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient homing/mobilization of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to/from bone marrow niches enhances their therapeutic efficacy. Additionally, homing is dependent on cell source and may be modulated by prior ex vivo cell expansion. Here, we describe a novel application of a 3-dimensional time-lapse method for assessing trafficking of individual human cord blood CD133(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in vitro, using the key chemokine CXCL12 as a paradigm. This new methodology allows distinction between chemotactic responses (displacement of center of mass and the forward migration index of the cells), and chemokinetic responses such as total cell path traveled in any direction (accumulated distance) and cell velocity in a 3-dimensional matrix. Other key advantages of this novel assay over existing assays include the ability to assess individual cell migration over times comparable to in vivo homing and rapid mobilization assays (18-24h) and to directly compare the strength or response of individual hematopoietic progenitor cells to different or competing stimuli and small molecule inhibitors in a single assay prior to analyses in vivo. Importantly, using this method, our results demonstrate definitively that CXCL12 regulates the chemotactic responses of human cord blood CD133(+) cells, but not their random migration or chemokinesis.
Stem cell research 04/2013; 11(2):707-720. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous attempts to identify neuroprotective targets by studying the ischemic cascade and devising ways to suppress it have failed to translate to efficacious therapies for acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that studying the molecular determinants of endogenous neuroprotection in two well-established paradigms, the resistance of CA3 hippocampal neurons to global ischemia and the tolerance conferred by ischemic preconditioning (IPC), would reveal new neuroprotective targets. We found that the product of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene (TSC1), hamartin, is selectively induced by ischemia in hippocampal CA3 neurons. In CA1 neurons, hamartin was unaffected by ischemia but was upregulated by IPC preceding ischemia, which protects the otherwise vulnerable CA1 cells. Suppression of hamartin expression with TSC1 shRNA viral vectors both in vitro and in vivo increased the vulnerability of neurons to cell death following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and ischemia. In vivo, suppression of TSC1 expression increased locomotor activity and decreased habituation in a hippocampal-dependent task. Overexpression of hamartin increased resistance to OGD by inducing productive autophagy through an mTORC1-dependent mechanism.
Nature medicine 02/2013; 19(3):351-7. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human amniotic fluid obtained at amniocentesis, when cultured, generates at least two morphologically distinct mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) subsets. Of these, the spindle shaped amniotic fluid MSCs (SS-AF-MSCs) contain multipotent cells with enhanced adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, the capacity of these SS-AF-MSCs to support neovascularization by umbilical cord blood (UCB) endothelial colony forming cell (ECFC) derived cells in both in vitro and in vivo models. Interestingly, although the kinetics of vascular tubule formation in vitro were similar when the supporting SS-AF-MSCs were compared with the best vasculogenic supportive batches of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) or human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs), SS-AF-MSCs supported vascular tubule formation in vivo more effectively than BMSCs. In NOD/SCID mice, the human vessels inosculated with murine vessels demonstrating their functionality. Proteome profiler array analyses revealed both common and distinct secretion profiles of angiogenic factors by the SS-AF-MSCs as opposed to the hDFs and BMSCs. Thus, SS-AF-MSCs, which are considered to be less mature developmentally than adult BMSCs, and intermediate between adult and embryonic stem cells in their potentiality, have the additional and very interesting potential of supporting increased neovascularisation, further enhancing their promise as vehicles for tissue repair and regeneration.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54747. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of age and disease on endogenous cardiac progenitor cells, we obtained right atrial and left ventricular epicardial biopsies from patients (n = 22) with chronic ischaemic heart disease and measured doubling time and surface marker expression in explant- and cardiosphere-derived cells (EDCs, CDCs). EDCs could be expanded from all atrial biopsy samples, but sufficient cells for cardiosphere culture were obtained from only 8 of 22 ventricular biopsies. EDCs from both atrium and ventricle contained a higher proportion of c-kit+ cells than CDCs, which contained few such cells. There was wide variation in expression of CD90 (atrial CDCs 5-92 % CD90+; ventricular CDCs 11-89 % CD90+), with atrial CDCs cultured from diabetic patients (n = 4) containing 1.6-fold more CD90+ cells than those from non-diabetic patients (n = 18). No effect of age or other co-morbidities was detected. Thus, CDCs from atrial biopsies may vary in their therapeutic potential.
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 07/2012; 5(5):678-87. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Forming a microcirculation is critical for vascularisation of artificial skin substitutes. One strategy to improve speed of grafting is to pre-form microvascular networks in the substitute before applying to a wound. For clinical application, this requires sufficient functional endothelial cell numbers. In vitro endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) derived cells were expanded from cord and adult blood donations and co-cultured with human dermal fibroblasts or bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells to form microvascular networks in the presence or absence of dermal substitutes which are in clinical use. The number of endothelial cells generated ranged from 1.03×10(9) to 2.18×10(11) from 10 adult blood donations and 1×10(12) to 1.76×10(13) from 6 cord blood units after 50 days in culture. Two adult donations failed to generate ECFCs. Both cord and adult blood cells formed 2D microvascular networks in vitro, although there was a significant difference in the functional capacity of adult and cord blood ECFCs. While co-culture of the latter within dermal substitutes Matriderm or Integra demonstrated the formation of 3D microvascular networks penetrating 100μm, enhanced expansion, while maintaining functional capacity, of adult blood cells is required for fully pre-vascularising the clinical grade acellular dermal substitutes used here prior to applying these to burns.
Burns: journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries 02/2012; 38(5):691-701. · 1.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bone marrow contains specific microenvironmental stem cell niches that maintain haemopoiesis. CXCL12-expressing mesenchymal stromal cells are closely associated with the bone marrow sinusoidal endothelia, forming key elements of the haemopoietic stem cell niche, yet their ability to regulate endothelial function is not clearly defined. Given that the murine nestin(+) cell line, MS-5, provides a clonal surrogate bone marrow stromal niche capable of regulating both murine and human primitive haemopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) fate in vitro, we hypothesized that MS-5 cells might also support new blood vessel formation and function. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that this is indeed the case. Using proteome arrays, we identified HSC/HPC active angiogenic factors that are preferentially secreted by haemopoietic supportive nestin(+) MS-5 cells, including CXCL12 (SDF-1), NOV (CCN3), HGF, Angiopoietin-1 and CCL2 (MCP-1). Concentrating on CXCL12, we confirmed its presence in MS-5 conditioned media and demonstrated that its antagonist in receptor binding, AMD-3100, which mobilizes HSC/HPCs and endothelial progenitors from bone marrow, could significantly reduce MS-5 mediated human vasculogenesis in vitro, principally by regulating human endothelial cell migration. Thus, the clonal nestin(+) MS-5 murine bone marrow stromal cell line not only promotes human haemopoiesis but also induces human vasculogenesis, with CXCL12 playing important roles in both processes.
British Journal of Haematology 02/2012; 157(3):299-311. · 4.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy offers a promising approach to the regeneration of damaged vascular and cardiac tissue after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This has resulted in multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) worldwide.
To critically evaluate evidence from RCTs on the effectiveness of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) to treat acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
This Cochrane review is an update of a previous one (published in 2008). MEDLINE (1950 to January 2011), EMBASE (1974 to January 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 1, 2011), CINAHL (1982 to January 2011) and the Transfusion Evidence Library (1980 to January 2011) were searched. In addition, several international and ongoing trial databases were searched and handsearching of relevant conference proceedings undertaken to January 2011.
RCTs comparing autologous stem/progenitor cells with no autologous stem/progenitor cells in patients diagnosed with AMI were eligible.
Two authors independently screened all references, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Meta-analyses using a random-effects model were conducted and heterogeneity was explored for the primary outcome using sub-group analyses.
Thirty-three RCTs (1765 participants) were eligible for inclusion. Stem/progenitor cell treatment was not associated with statistically significant changes in the incidence of mortality (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.21) or morbidity (the latter measured by re-infarction, hospital re-admission, restenosis and target vessel revascularisation). A considerably high degree of heterogeneity has been observed among the included trials. In short-term follow up, stem cell treatment was observed to improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly (WMD 2.87, 95% CI 2.00 to 3.73). This improvement in LVEF was maintained over long-term follow up of 12 to 61 months (WMD 3.75, 95% CI 2.57 to 4.93). With certain measurements and at certain times, stem cell treatment was observed to reduce left ventricular end systolic and end diastolic volumes (LVESV & LVEDV) and infarct size significantly in long-term follow up. There was a positive correlation between mononuclear cell dose infused and the effect on LVEF measured by magnetic resonance imaging. A correlation between timing of stem cell treatment and effect on LVEF measured by left ventricular angiography was also observed.
Despite the high degree of heterogeneity observed, the results of this systematic review suggest that moderate improvement in global heart function is significant and sustained long-term. However, because mortality rates after successful revascularization of the culprit arteries are very low, larger number of participants would be required to assess the full clinical effect of this treatment. Standardisation of methodology, cell dosing and cell product formulation, timing of cell transplantation and patient selection may also be required in order to reduce the substantial heterogeneity observed among the included studies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether there are important sources of heterogeneity between the findings of different clinical trials which administer autologous stem cell treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to evaluate what factors may influence the long-term effects of this treatment.
MEDLINE (1950-January 2011), EMBASE (1974-January 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1), CINAHL (1982-January 2011), and ongoing trials registers were searched for randomised trials of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for AMI. Hand-searching was used to screen recent, relevant conference proceedings (2005-2010/11). Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models and heterogeneity between subgroups was assessed using chi-squared tests. Planned analyses included length of follow-up, timing of cell infusion and dose, patient selection, small trial size effect, methodological quality, loss of follow-up and date of publication. Thirty-three trials with a total of 1,765 participants were included. There was no evidence of bias due to publication or time-lag, methodological quality of included studies, participant drop-out, duration of follow-up or date of the first disclosure of results. However, in long-term follow-ups the treatment seemed more effective when administered at doses greater than 10(8) cells and to patients with more severe heart dysfunction.
Evaluation of heterogeneity between trials has not identified significant sources of bias in this study. However, clinical differences between trials are likely to exist which should be considered when undertaking future trials.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e37373. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are being used increasingly to complement their embryonic counterparts to understand and develop the therapeutic potential of pluripotent cells. Our objectives were to identify an efficient cardiac differentiation protocol for human iPS cells as monolayers, and demonstrate that the resulting cardiac progenitors could provide a therapeutic benefit in a rodent model of myocardial infarction. Herein, we describe a 14-day protocol for efficient cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells as a monolayer, which routinely yielded a mixed population in which over 50% were cardiomyocytes, endothelium, or smooth muscle cells. When differentiating, cardiac progenitors from day 6 of this protocol were injected into the peri-infarct region of the rat heart; after coronary artery ligation and reperfusion, we were able to show that human iPS cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells engrafted, differentiated into cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle, and persisted for at least 10 weeks postinfarct. Hearts injected with iPS-derived cells showed a nonsignificant trend toward protection from decline in function after myocardial infarction, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at 10 weeks, such that the ejection fraction at 10 weeks in iPS treated hearts was 62%±4%, compared to that of control infarcted hearts at 45%±9% (P<0.2). In conclusion, we demonstrated efficient cardiac differentiation of human iPS cells that gave rise to progenitors that were retained within the infarcted rat heart, and reduced remodeling of the heart after ischemic damage.
Stem cells and development 12/2011; 21(6):977-86. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) have been widely used in cancer immunotherapy but show significant donor-to-donor variability and low capacity for the cross-presentation of tumour-associated antigens (TAA) to CD8(+) T cells, greatly limiting the success of this approach. Given recent developments in induced pluripotency and the relative ease with which induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines may be generated from individuals, we have succeeded in differentiating dendritic cells (DC) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A(*)0201(+) iPS cells (iPS cell-derived DC (ipDC)), using protocols compliant with their subsequent clinical application. Unlike moDC, a subset of ipDC was found to coexpress CD141 and XCR1 that have been shown previously to define the human equivalent of mouse CD8α(+) DC, in which the capacity for cross-presentation has been shown to reside. Accordingly, ipDC were able to cross-present the TAA, Melan A, to a CD8(+) T-cell clone and stimulate primary Melan A-specific responses among naïve T cells from an HLA-A(*)0201(+) donor. Given that CD141(+)XCR1(+) DC are present in peripheral blood in trace numbers that preclude their clinical application, the ability to generate a potentially unlimited source from iPS cells offers the possibility of harnessing their capacity for cross-priming of cytotoxic T lymphocytes for the induction of tumour-specific immune responses.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells provide a promising source of cardiac progenitor cells for administration to the infarcted heart. Here, we describe a protocol for efficient, serum free, directed differentiation of human iPS cells, as a monolayer, that yields a mixed population in which cardiomyocytes, endothelium and smooth muscle cells constitute over 50% of the differentiated population, with no additional selection strategies utilised. GFP positive cardiac progenitors from human iPS cells (2×10(6)) were administered by direct injection into the myocardium of athymic nude rats following 50 min of ischaemia. Cardiac function was measured using MRI at 2 days, 2, 6 and 10 weeks. At 10 weeks the hearts were removed for histology. By 6 weeks, control infarcted hearts (n=5) had significantly larger end systolic volumes and lower ejection fractions than sham operated hearts (n=3) whereas hearts treated with iPS-derived cardiac differentiated cells (n=4) maintained cardiac function; such that by 10 weeks the end systolic volumes and ejection fractions were not significantly different from those of the sham operated animals (ejection fraction at 10 weeks: sham 77±5%, infarct 45±9% (p<0.05 vs sham), iPS 62±4%). Histological analysis showed that the human iPS-derived cardiac progenitor cells engrafted, differentiated into cardiomyocytes and smooth muscle, and persisted for at least 10 weeks post-infarct. Thus efficient directed differentiation of human iPS cells towards the cardiac lineage generates cells that can prevent loss of heart function after ischaemic heart damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin has a remarkable capacity for regeneration, but age- and diabetes-related vascular problems lead to chronic non-healing wounds for many thousands of U.K. patients. There is a need for new therapeutic approaches to treat these resistant wounds. Donor mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been shown to assist cutaneous wound healing by accelerating re-epithelialization. The aim of this work was to devise a low risk and convenient delivery method for transferring these cells to wound beds. Plasma polymerization was used to functionalize the surface of medical-grade silicone with acrylic acid. Cells attached well to these carriers, and culture for up to 3 days on the carriers did not significantly affect their phenotype or ability to support vascular tubule formation. These carriers were then used to transfer MSCs onto human dermis. Cell transfer was confirmed using an MTT assay to assess viable cell numbers and enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled MSCs to demonstrate that the cells post-transfer attached to the dermis. We conclude that this synthetic carrier membrane is a promising approach for delivery of therapeutic MSCs and opens the way for future studies to evaluate its impact on repairing difficult skin wounds.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 09/2011; 18(2):143-55. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC), our aim was twofold: (1) to examine potential obstetric selection criteria for achieving the highest ECFC yields from UCB units, and (2) to determine whether transient storage temperatures of fresh UCB and cryopreservation of UCB units affected ECFC yield and function. ECFC quality was assessed before and after cryopreservation by their clonogenic proliferative potential. Of the 20 factors examined, placental weight was the only statistically significant obstetric factor that predicted ECFC frequency in UCB. Studies on the effects of storage revealed that transient storage of fresh UCB at 4°C reduced ECFC yield compared with storage at 22°C, while cryopreservation of UCB MNCs significantly reduced ECFC recoveries. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that placental weight and temperature of storage prior to processing or culture have significant effects on ECFC frequency in UCB. Our studies further support the evidence that cryopreservation of UCB MNCs compromises ECFC recovery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is of major interest because of its involvement in numerous pathologies or for promoting tissue repair. It is often assessed by the ability of endothelial cells to sprout, migrate, and form vascular tubules in Matrigel in vitro. Matrigel contains a mixture of basement membrane components, which stimulate endothelial cells to form capillary-like hexagonal structures, and is often preferred over other in vitro assays because of its ease of use, rapidity and the ability to measure key steps in angiogenesis, including migration, protease activity, and tubule formation. Various methods have been used to quantitate tubule formation, yet no consensus has been reached regarding the best quantification method for evaluating the efficacy of angiogenic stimulants or inhibitors in this Matrigel assay. Here, we have measured the ability of umbilical cord blood endothelial colony-forming cell-derived cells to form tubules in growth factor reduced Matrigel in the presence or absence of two angiogenic inhibitors, suramin and SU6668, to compare the benefits and limitations of two quantification methods-Angiosys and Wimasis. These comparative analyses revealed that both Angiosys and Wimasis are easy to use, accurately quantify angiogenesis, and will suit the needs of different types of users.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 06/2011; 17(9):895-906. · 4.64 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer a unique potential for understanding the molecular basis of disease and development. Here we have generated several human iPS cell lines, and we describe their pluripotent phenotype and ability to differentiate into erythroid cells, monocytes, and endothelial cells. More significantly, however, when these iPS cells were differentiated under conditions that promote lympho-hematopoiesis from human embryonic stem cells, we observed the formation of pre-B cells. These cells were CD45(+)CD19(+)CD10(+) and were positive for transcripts Pax5, IL7αR, λ-like, and VpreB receptor. Although they were negative for surface IgM and CD5 expression, iPS-derived CD45(+)CD19(+) cells also exhibited multiple genomic D-J(H) rearrangements, which supports a pre-B-cell identity. We therefore have been able to demonstrate, for the first time, that human iPS cells are able to undergo hematopoiesis that contributes to the B-cell lymphoid lineage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neovascularization or new blood vessel formation is of utmost importance not only for tissue and organ development and for tissue repair and regeneration, but also for pathological processes, such as tumour development. Despite this, the endothelial lineage, its origin, and the regulation of endothelial development and function either intrinsically from stem cells or extrinsically by proangiogenic supporting cells and other elements within local and specific microenvironmental niches are still not fully understood. There can be no doubt that for most tissues and organs, revascularization represents the holy grail for tissue repair, with autologous endothelial stem/progenitor cells, their proangiogenic counterparts and the products of these cells all being attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Historically, a great deal of controversy has surrounded the identification and origin of cells and factors that contribute to revascularization, the use of such cells or their products as biomarkers to predict and monitor tissue damage and repair or tumour progression and therapeutic responses, and indeed their efficacy in revascularizing and repairing damaged tissues. Here, we will review the role of endothelial progenitor cells and of supporting proangiogenic cells and their products, principally in humans, as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for wound repair and tissue regeneration.
Journal of The Royal Society Interface 12/2010; 7 Suppl 6:S731-51. · 4.91 Impact Factor