Marek Zadrozny

University of Lodz, Łódź, Lodz Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (22)46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: XRCC2 and XRCC3 genes are structurally and functionally related to RAD51 which plays an important role in homologous recombination, the process frequently involved in cancer transformation. In the present work the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the RAD51 G135C polymorphism, XRCC2 Arg 188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism in 790 cases of breast cancer were investigated. The control group consisted of 798 cancer-free blood donors (age +/- 5 years) who were sex and ethnicity-matched. The polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP methods. We also correlated genotypes with the clinical characteristics of breast cancer patients. Our results obtained for the 135G>C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene indicated that both the C/C genotype and the C allele are strongly associated with breast cancer. The Arg/His genotype of XRCC2 (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48-3.16) and Thr/Met of XRCC3 increased the risk of type I breast cancer occurrence (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.60-3.41). We did not find any association with the RAD51, XRCC2/3 gene polymorphism and estrogen and progesterone receptor status. The results support the hypothesis that the polymorphism of RAD51 and XRCC2/3 gene may be associated with the incidence of sporadic breast cancer in Polish women.
    European journal of gynaecological oncology 01/2012; 33(2):145-50. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes that can lead to protein haploinsufficiency are generally associated with increased cancer risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between the risk of breast cancer and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes, encoding three key proteins of the homologous recombination repair: RAD51 (the human homologue of the E. coli RecA protein), X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCC) 2 and XRCC3. The polymorphisms studied were G135C of the RAD51 gene (c. -98 G>C; rs1801320), Arg188His of the XRCC2 gene (c. 563 G>A; rs3218536), and Thr241Met of the XRCC3 gene (c. 722 C>T; rs861539). Each polymorphism was genotyped by the PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment-length polymorphism) method in 700 Polish female patients with sporadic breast cancer and in 708 cancer-free women, who served as controls. In the present study, we showed the association between RAD51 G135C polymorphism and the incidence of breast cancer (p < 0.0001), but found no significant association with XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism. Instead, significant association was identified between XRCC2 Arg188His or XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism and breast cancer progression, assessed by the histological grading. However, each of these three polymorphisms was not associated with the tumor size or the lymph node metastases. This study provides evidence that links single nucleotide polymorphisms of RAD51 and XRCC2/3 genes with the risk of breast cancer in Polish women. In conclusion, RAD51 G135C, XRCC2 Arg188His and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms may be regarded as predictive factors of sporadic breast cancer in female population.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 01/2011; 224(3):201-8. · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Breast cancer is one of the major killers worldwide. Aberrant double-stranded break (DSB) repair leads to genomic instability, which is a hallmark of malignant cells. Double-stranded breaks are repaired in two pathways: homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous DNA end joining (NHEJ). It is not known whether these repair pathways are affected in sporadic breast tumours. Material and methods: In the present work the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the Ku70, A46922G (rs132793) polymorphism and Ligase IV, A6008G (Ile591Val) (rs2232641) polymorphism in breast cancer women were investigated. The genetic polymorphism analysis was performed using a DNA ABI PRISM 377 sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems) in 135 sporadic breast cancer cases. Results: The distribution of the genotypes of the A46922G polymorphism of Ku70 in patients differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There were significant differences in the frequencies of alleles between the breast cancer subjects and controls (p < 0.05). However, the distribution of the genotypes of the A6008G polymorphism of Ligase IV in both controls and patients did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from that predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the A46922G polymorphism of the Ku70 gene may be associated with the incidence of breast cancer in women from the Lodz region of Poland.
    Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists 01/2010; 61(1):27-31. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A C/T transition - rs4987117 (the Thr1915Met polymorphism) and an A/G transition - rs11571653 (the Met784Val polymorphism) in the BRCA2 gene were linked to breast cancer risk in Polish and Japanese populations, respectively. To study the association between polymorphisms of the BRCA2 gene and clinical parameters in breast cancer. Both polymorphisms were evaluated by RFLP - PCR in blood samples obtained from 117 women with sporadic breast cancer. Patients were stratified by genotype, Bloom - Richardson grade, TNM stage, estrogene and progesterone receptors (PR) status and the linkages of each genotype with each stratum were calculated by logistic regression. Variant genotypes and alleles of both polymorphisms of the BRCA2 gene were inversely related to hormone receptor status for a group of patients with at least one positive receptor status as compared to a group with both receptors negative status (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.07 - 0.95, p = 0.043 and OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19 - 0.82, p = 0.013 for Met1915Met homozygote and 1915Met allele, respectively and OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.00 - 0.13, p = 0.0005 and OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.21 - 0.88, p = 0.021, for Val784Val homozygote and the 784Val allele. No association was found between both polymorphisms and Bloom - Richardson grading and TNM staging. Our results suggest that variant genotypes of the Thr1915Met and Met784Val polymorphisms of the BRCA2 gene may be indicative factors in therapy of ductal breast cancer.
    Experimental oncology 12/2009; 31(4):250-1.
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    ABSTRACT: The RAD51 protein and its paralog, XRCC3, play an important role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. Since DSBs may contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer and variability in DNA repair genes may be linked with some cancers, we performed a case-control study (135 cases and 175 controls) to check the association between the genotypes of the Thr241Met polymorphism of the XRCC3 gene and the 135G>C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene and breast cancer occurrence and progression. Genotypes were determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes by RFLP-PCR. We did not find any association between either polymorphism singly and breast cancer occurrence. Both polymorphisms were not related to tumor size, estrogen and progesterone receptors status, cancer type and grade. However, the Thr241Met genotype of the XRCC3 polymorphism slightly increased the risk of local metastasis in breast cancer patients (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.27-5.17). The combined Thr241Met/135G>C genotype decreased the risk of breast cancer occurrence (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.59). Our results suggest that the variability of the DNA homologous recombination repair genes RAD51 and XRCC3 may play a role in breast cancer occurrence and progression, but this role may be underlined by a mutual interaction between these genes.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 05/2009; 87(1):32-5. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen (TAM) is a non-steroidal anti-estrogen used widely in the treatment and chemoprevention of breast cancer. TAM treatment can lead to DNA damage, but the mechanism of this process is not fully understood and the experimental data are often inconclusive. We compared the DNA-damaging potential of TAM in normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by using the comet assay. In order to assess whether oxidative DNA damage may contribute to TAM-induced lesions, we employed two DNA repair enzymes: endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg). The kinetics of repair of DNA damage was also measured. In order to evaluate the involvement of free radicals in the genotoxicity of TAM we pre-treated the cells with nitrone spin traps: DMPO and POBN. The use of common antioxidants: vitamin C, amifostine and genistein, helped to assess the contribution of free radicals. TAM damaged DNA in both normal and cancer cells, inducing mainly DNA strand breaks but not alkali-labile sites. The drug at 5 and 10 microM induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in lymphocytes and at 10 microM in MCF-7 cells. We observed complete repair of DSBs in cancer cells by contrast with incomplete repair of these lesions in lymphocytes. In both types of cells TAM induced oxidized purines and pyrimidines. Incubation of the cells with nitrone spin traps and antioxidants decreased, with exception of amifostine in MCF-7 cells, the extents of DNA damage in both kinds of cells, but the results were more distinct in cancer cells. Our results indicate that TAM can be genotoxic for normal and cancer cells by free radicals generation. It seems to have a higher genotoxic potential for normal cells, which can be the result of incomplete repair of DNA DSBs. Free radicals scavengers can modulate TAM-induced DNA damage interfering with its antitumour activity in cancer cells.
    Archive für Toxikologie 08/2007; 81(7):519-27. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA polymerase beta (Polbeta) provides most of the gap-filling synthesis at apurinic/apyrimidine sites of damaged DNA in the base excision repair pathway. Mutations in the gene encoding DNA polbeta have been identified in various carcinomas. We performed a case-control study to test the association between two polymorphisms in the polbeta gene: a Pro --> Arg change at codon 242 (the Pro242Arg polymorphism) and a Lys --> Met change at codon 289 (the Lys289Met polymorphism) and breast cancer risk and cancer progression. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 150 breast cancer patients and 150 cancer-free, age-matched women (controls) by PCR-RFLP. A strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the Met/Met phenotype of the Lys289Met polymorphism [odds ratio (OR) 3.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.87-7.56] and the Pro/Arg phenotype of the Pro242Lys polymorphism (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.15-3.34) was found. Polymorphism-polymorphism interaction between the Met/Met phenotype of the Lys289Met and the Pro/Arg phenotype of the Pro242Arg variants increased the risk of breast cancer (OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.31-7.09). We did not observe any correlation between studied polymorphisms and breast cancer progression evaluated by node-metastasis, tumor size and Bloom-Richardson grading. In conclusion, Polbeta may play a role in the breast carcinogenesis and the Lys289Met polymorphism of the polbeta gene may be considered as an independent, early, molecular diagnostic marker in breast cancer. The Pro242Arg polymorphism may contribute to the carcinogenesis through the interaction with the Lys289Met and therefore may be regarded as a dependent, auxiliary marker.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 07/2007; 103(2):161-6. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the 8q12-q24.1 chromosomal region, containing RAD54B gene in breast cancer. Polymorphic markers D8S539 and D8S543 were used. For alleles frequency estimation 100 primary breast cancers were tested. DNA was isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues and their matched blood samples. Polymerase chain reaction amplified products of normal and tumor DNA pairs were compared in ABI PRISM 377 DNA sequencer. In analyzed cases LOH was found in 1% and 2% of informative cases for microsatellite markers D8S539 and D8S543, respectively. This date indicate, that LOH isn't predictive for breast cancer.
    Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists 02/2007; 58(1):3-6. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is one of the major killers worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of BRCA1 germ-line mutations and the RAD51 G/C polymorphism in patients with breast cancer. 100 breast cancer women provided blood for mutation analysis. Blood samples age matched healthy individuals (n = 106) served as control. The G/C polymorphism and BRCA1 mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP methods. The distribution of the genotypes of the G/C polymorphism RAD51 in both control and patients did not differ significantly from those predicted by the Hardy - Weinberg distribution. There were no significant differences in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies between node-positive and node-negative patients. In present study one Ex20insC mutations of BRCA1 gene was identified in women with breast cancer. Our study implies that the G/C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene may not be directly involved in the development and=or progression of breast cancer.
    Experimental oncology 07/2006; 28(2):156-9.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to evaluate the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) in breast cancer, in the 12p13.3 and 1p32 chromosomal regions where RAD52 and RAD54 genes are localized. Polymorphic markers D12S98, D12S1698 for RAD52 and D1S209, D1S411 for RAD54 were used. Relationships between LOH and clinicopathological parameters, i.e. tumor type and grade, patient's age, steroid receptors status and lymph node and distal metastases were assessed. For alleles frequency estimation 100 primary breast cancers were tested. DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded tissues and their matched blood samples were analyzed for PCR-based LOH and MSI by fluorescence-based DNA sequencing technology. In analyzed cases LOH was found in 14% and 11% of informative cases for D12S98 and D12S1698 markers, respectively and in 18% and 17% of informative cases for D1S209 and D1S411 markers, respectively. The highest frequency of MSI was identified at loci D12S98 (10%) and D1S209 (11%). Significant correlations between RAD52 and RAD54 regions with concomitant LOH and histological type and progesterone receptor status were observed. In the case of RAD54 further correlations with respect to tumor grade and the presence of distal metastases were noticed.
    Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists 02/2006; 57(2):83-9. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The response of the cell to DNA damage and its ability to maintain genomic stability by DNA repair are crucial in preventing cancer initiation and progression. Therefore, polymorphism of DNA repair genes may affect the process of carcinogenesis. The importance of genetic variability of the components of mismatch repair (MMR) genes is well documented in colorectal cancer, but little is known about its role in breast cancer. hMSH2 is one of the crucial proteins of MMR. We performed a case-control study to test the association between two polymorphisms in the hMSH2 gene: an A --> G transition at 127 position producing an Asn --> Ser substitution at codon 127 (the Asn127Ser polymorphism) and a G --> A transition at 1032 position resulting in a Gly --> Asp change at codon 322 (the Gly322Asp polymorphism) and breast cancer risk and cancer progression. Genotypes were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes of 150 breast cancer patients and 150 age-matched women (controls) by restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific PCR. We did not observe any correlation between studied polymorphisms and breast cancer progression evaluated by node-metastasis, tumor size and Bloom-Richardson grading. A strong association between breast cancer occurrence and the Gly/Gly phenotype of the Gly322Asp polymorphism (odds ratio 8.39; 95% confidence interval 1.44-48.8) was found. Therefore, MMR may play a role in the breast carcinogenesis and the Gly322Asp polymorphism of the hMSH2 gene may be considered as a potential marker in breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2006; 94(3):199-204. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinases play a crucial role in the cancer invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity. A single guanine insertion--the 1G/2G polymorphism in the promoter of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) gene creates a binding site for the transcription factor AP-1 and thus may affect the transcription level of MMP-1. The C-->T substitution at the polymorphic site of the MMP-9 gene promoter results in a higher transcription activity of the T-allelic promoter trough the loss of binding site for a repressor protein. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of 1G/2G and C-->T polymorphisms on the MMP-1 and MMP-9 level and therefore on the occurrence and progression of breast cancer. We investigated the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the 1G/2G and C-->T polymorphisms for 270 patients with breast cancer and 300 healthy women served as control. The genotypes were determined by RFLP-PCR. Additionally, we estimated the level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 antigens in tumor samples and normal breast tissue using ELISA. The levels of MMP-1 in tumor samples of node positive patients ware significantly higher than in samples of node negative patients (p<0.05). Increased level of MMP-9 correlates with Bloom-Richardson grading III (p<0.05), increased tumor size (p<0.05) and absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors (p<0.01). Additionally, both MMP-1 and MMP-9 levels were higher in tumor than in the normal breast tissue. We showed the higher risk of metastasis development in lymph node for the 2G/2G genotype (OR=2.14; CI 95% 1.24;3.69) and the 2G allele carriers (OR=1.68; CI 95% 1.19;2.39). We found correlation between the T allele (OR=2.61; CI 95% 1.33;4.87), 2G (OR=2.58; CI 95% 1.35;4.91) and malignance. The results suggest that MMP-1 is responsible for the local invasion and MMP-9 is associated with the malignance and the growth of the tumor. We suggest that the 2G allele of the 1G/2G MMP-1 gene polymorphism may be associated with the lymph node metastasis in patients with breast cancer and therefore it can be considered as a progression marker in this disease.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 01/2006; 95(1):65-72. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We performed a case-control study (150 cases and 150 controls) to test the association between three polymorphisms in BRCA2 and RAD51 genes and breast cancer risk. Genotypes were determined in DNA from blood cells by PCR-RFLP. Cancer occurrence was strongly associated with the BRCA2 Met/1915Thr homozygous polymorphic variants, whereas heterozygous variant was associated with significant reduction in breast cancer risk. Gene-gene interaction between the BRCA2-Met1915Thr Thr/Thr and BRCA2-Met784Val Met/Met homozygous variants increased the risk. Therefore, the Met1915Thr polymorphism in the BRCA2 gene may be considered as an independent marker of breast cancer.
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 12/2005; 94(2):105-9. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BRCA1 tumor suppressor gene encodes an 1863-amino acid gene product that is implicated in many cellular pathways including transcription, cell-cycle checkpoint control, apoptosis and DNA repair. A role of apoptosis and BRCA1 germ-line mutation in breast cancer appearance was investigated in this study by both apoptosis frequency analysis and mutation screening of BRCA1 among breast cancer cases. Blood was obtained from 40 women with node-negative and node-positive ductal breast carcinomas with uniform tumor size. The blood samples from age matched healthy women (n=42) served as control. BRCA1 gene mutations were determined by PCR-RFLP methods. The apoptotic peripheral blood cells were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. The apoptotic cells were identified in 30% (12/40) of the patients. There were no significant differences in apoptosis frequencies between patients and controls (P > 0.05). Three mutations of BRCA1 gene were identified in apoptosis positive samples from breast cancer women; one Ex20insC and two ExII17delA. Our study implies that apoptosis may be involved not only in sporadic breast carcinoma without BRCA1 mutations, but also in BRCA1-associated breast carcinoma.
    Polish journal of pathology: official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists 02/2005; 56(3):111-4. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired DNA repair may fuel up malignant transformation of breast cells due to the accumulation of spontaneous mutations in target genes and increasing susceptibility to exogenous carcinogens. Moreover, the effectiveness of DNA repair may contribute to failure of chemotherapy and resistance of breast cancer cells to drugs and radiation. The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA repair. To evaluate further the role of DNA repair in breast cancer we determined: (1) the kinetics of removal of DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and the anticancer drug doxorubicin, and (2) the level of basal, oxidative and alkylative DNA damage before and during/after chemotherapy in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. The level of DNA damage and the kinetics of DNA repair were evaluated by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Oxidative and alkylative DNA damage were assayed with the use of DNA repair enzymes endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), recognizing oxidized DNA bases and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) recognizing alkylated bases. We observed slower kinetics of DNA repair after treatment with hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin in lymphocytes of breast cancer patients compared to control individuals. The level of basal, oxidative and alkylative DNA damage was higher in breast cancer patients than in the control and the difference was more pronounced when patients after chemotherapy were engaged, but usually the level of DNA damage in these patients was too high to be measured with our system. Our results indicate that peripheral blood lymphocytes of breast cancer patients have more damaged DNA and display decreased DNA repair efficacy. Therefore, these features can be considered as risk markers for breast cancer, but the question whether they are the cause or a consequence of the illness remains open. Nevertheless, our results suggest that research on the mutagen sensitivity and efficacy of DNA repair could impact the development of new diagnostic and screening strategies as well as indicate new targets to prevent and cure cancer. Moreover, the comet assay may be applied to evaluate the suitability of a particular mode of chemotherapy to a particular cancer patient.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2004; 554(1-2):139-48. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DNA damage may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications mainly through oxidative stress. Little is known about DNA repair disturbances potentially contributing to the overall extent of DNA damage in T2DM, which, in turn, may be linked with genomic instability resulting in cancer. To assess whether DNA repair may be perturbed in 2DM we determined: (1) the level of endogenous basal DNA damage, this means damage recognized in the alkaline comet assay (DNA strand breaks and alkali labile sites) as well as endogenous oxidative and alkylative DNA damage (2) the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin and the efficacy of removing of DNA damage induced by these agents in peripheral blood lymphocytes of T2DM patients and healthy individuals. The level of DNA damage and the kinetics of DNA repair was evaluated by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Oxidative and alkylative DNA damage were assayed with the use of DNA repair enzymes endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), recognizing oxidized DNA bases and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) recognizing alkylated bases. The levels of basal endogenous and oxidative DNA damage in diabetes patients were higher than in control subjects. There was no difference between the level of alkylative DNA in the patients and the controls. Diabetes patients displayed higher susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin and decreased efficacy of repairing DNA damage induced by these agents than healthy controls. Our results suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus may be associated not only with the elevated level of oxidative DNA damage but also with the increased susceptibility to mutagens and the decreased efficacy of DNA repair. These features may contribute to a link between diabetes and cancer and metrics of DNA damage and repair, measured by the comet assay, may be markers of risk of cancer in diabetes.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2004; 554(1-2):297-304. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent data indicate that in breast cancer patients the presence of Paget disease of the nipple may be related to poor prognosis. Therefore, we decided to assess long-term results of the treatment of such patients, and to assess the relationship between the physical and pathological findings and prognosis. The files of 60 patients with Paget disease of the nipple who were treated between 1977 and 2000 were analyzed retrospectively with respect to the results of physical and pathologic examinations, disease recurrence and survival. In 38/60 patients, the cancer was invasive. In 26/60 patients, palpable masses in the breast were diagnosed. The 5-year overall survival probability was 0.68; the probability was 0.82 for patients without palpable masses, 0.51 for those with palpable masses, 0.91 for patients without invasive cancer and 0.58 for patients with associated invasive cancer. In conclusions, patients with Paget disease of the nipple and with palpable mass in the breast had unfavorable diagnosis. The nature of all nipple changes should be explained as early as possible in order to diagnose the disease when no mass is palpable in the breast.
    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 04/2004; 23(1):33-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A single guanine insertion (1G/2G polymorphism) in the promoter of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) gene creates a binding site for the transcription factor and may affect the level of transcription of MMP-1. An elevated level of MMP-1 in cancer cells may facilitate their invasion and contribute to metastasis. To evaluate the contribution of 1G/2G polymorphism in the development and/or progression of breast cancer we genotyped 135 subjects with breast cancer. The 1G/2G polymorphism was determined by the method based on restriction endonuclease digestion. We found that the frequency of the 2G allele was higher in lymphnode-metastasis patients than in the group without metastasis (p < 0.001). We did not find differences between distribution of the genotypes and frequencies of alleles in cancer patients and in healthy subjects served as control. Our results suggest that allele 2G may be associated with lymphnode metastasis in patients with breast cancer and therefore it can be considered as a prognostic marker in this disease.
    Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research: CR 04/2004; 23(1):121-5. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amsacrine is an acridine derivative drug applied in haematological malignancies. It targets topoisomerase II enhancing the formation of a cleavable DNA-enzyme complex and leading to DNA fragmentation in dividing cancer cells. Little is known about other modes of the interaction of amsacrine with DNA, by which it could affect also normal cells. Using the alkaline comet assay, we showed that amsacrine at concentrations from the range 0.01 to 10 microM induced DNA damage in normal human lymphocytes, human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells lacking the p53 gene and murine pro-B lymphoid cells BaF3 expressing BCR/ABL oncogene measured as the increase in percentage tail DNA. The effect was dose-dependent. Treated cells were able to recover within a 120-min incubation. Amifostine at 14 mM decreased the level of DNA damage in normal lymphocytes, had no effect on the HL-60 cells and potentiated the DNA-damaging effect of the drug in BCR/ABL-transformed cells. Vitamin C at 10 and 50 microM diminished the extent of DNA damage in normal lymphocytes, but had no effect in cancer cells. Pre-treatment of the cells with the nitrone spin trap, N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone or ebselen, which mimics glutathione peroxidase, reduced the extent of DNA damage evoked by amsacrine in all types of cells. The cells exposed to amsacrine and treated with endonuclease III and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II, the enzymes recognizing oxidized and alkylated bases, respectively, displayed greater extent of DNA damage than those not treated with these enzymes. The results obtained suggest that free radicals may be involved in the formation of DNA lesions induced by amsacrine. The drug can also methylate DNA bases. Our results indicate that the induction of secondary malignancies should be taken into account as diverse side effects of amsacrine. Amifostine may potentate DNA-damage effect of amsacrine in cancer cells and decrease this effect in normal cells and Vitamin C can be considered as a protective agent against DNA damage in normal cells.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 03/2003; 535(1):25-34. · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The breast cancer suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 interact with RAD51, a protein essential for maintaining genomic stability by playing a central role in homology-dependent recombinational repair of the DNA double-strand breaks. Therefore, genetic variability in the RAD51 gene may contribute to the appearance and/or progression of breast cancer. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5'- untranslated region of RAD51 (a G to C substitution at position 135, the G/C polymorphism) is reported to modulate breast cancer risk. We investigated the distribution of genotypes and frequency of alleles of the G/C polymorphism in breast cancer. Tumor tissues were obtained from postmenopausal women with node-negative and node-positive breast carcinoma with uniform tumor size. Blood samples from age matched healthy women served as control. The G/C polymorphism was determined by PCR-based MvaI restriction fragment length polymorphism. The distribution of the genotypes of the G/C polymorphism did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) from those predicted by the Hardy-Weinberg distribution. There were no differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequencies between node-positive and node-negative patients. There were no significant differences between distributions of the genotypes in subgroups assigned to histological grades according to Scarf-Bloom-Richardson criteria and the distribution predicted by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Our study implies that the G/C polymorphism of the RAD51 gene may not be directly involved in the development and/or progression of breast cancer and so it may not be useful as an independent marker in this disease.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 02/2003; 50(1):249-53. · 1.19 Impact Factor