[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the low gastric cancer incidence rate relative to the highly prevalent Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection; data relevant to H. pylori infection during gastric carcinogenesis in Indian patients is currently lacking.
World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 06/2014; 20(22):6860-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Globally, around 150 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). India contributes a large proportion of this HCV burden. The prevalence of HCV infection in India is estimated at between 0.5% and 1.5%. It is higher in the northeastern part, tribal populations and Punjab, areas which may represent HCV hotspots, and is lower in western and eastern parts of the country. The predominant modes of HCV transmission in India are blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic injections. There is a need for large field studies to better understand HCV epidemiology and identify high-prevalence areas, and to identify and spread awareness about the modes of transmission of this infection in an attempt to prevent disease transmission.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 06/2014; 4(2):106-116.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The estimated prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India is between 0.5 and 1.5% with hotspots showing much higher prevalence in some areas of northeast India, in some tribal populations and in certain parts of Punjab. Genotype 3 is the most prevalent type of infection. Recent years have seen development of a large number of new molecules that are revolutionizing the treatment of hepatitis C. Some of the new directly acting agents (DAAs) like sofosbuvir have been called game-changers because they offer the prospect of interferon-free regimens for the treatment of HCV infection. These new drugs have not yet been approved in India and their cost and availability is uncertain at present. Till these drugs become available at an affordable cost, the treatment that was standard of care for the whole world before these newer drugs were approved should continue to be recommended. For India, cheaper options, which are as effective as the standard-of-care (SOC) in carefully selected patients, are also explored to bring treatment within reach of poorer patients. It may be prudent to withhold treatment at present for selected patients with genotype 1 or 4 infection and low levels of fibrosis (F1 or F2), and for patients who are non-responders to initial therapy, interferon intolerant, those with decompensated liver disease, and patients in special populations such as stable patients after liver and kidney transplantation, HIV coinfected patients and those with cirrhosis of liver.
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology. 06/2014; 4(2):117–140.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(6):1503-1509. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attempts to diagnose and subtype irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by symptom-based criteria have limitations, as these are developed in the West and might not be applicable in other populations.
This study aimed to compare different criteria for diagnosing and subtyping of IBS in India.
Manning's and the Rome I, II, and III criteria as well as the Asian criteria were applied to 1,618 patients (from 17 centers in India) with chronic lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms with no alarm features and negative investigations.
Of 1,618 patients (aged 37.5 [SD 12.6] years; 71.2 % male), 1,476 (91.2 %), 1,098 (67.9 %), 649 (40.1 %), 849 (52.5 %), and 1,206 (74.5 %) fulfilled Manning's, Rome I, II, and III, and the Asian criteria, respectively. The most common reason for not fulfilling the criteria was absence of the following symptoms: "more frequent stools with onset of pain," "loose stool with onset of pain," "relief of pain with passage of stool," "other abdominal discomfort/bloating," and, in a minority, not meeting the duration criterion of 3 months/12 weeks. By stool frequency, constipation-predominant IBS (<3 stools/week) was diagnosed in 319 (19.7 %), diarrhea-predominant IBS (>3 stools/day) in 43 (2.7 %), and unclassified in 1,256 (77.6 %). By Bristol stool form, constipation, diarrhea, and unclassified were diagnosed in 655 (40.5 %), 709 (43.8 %), and 254 (15.7 %) patients, respectively. By their own perception, 462 (28.6 %), 541 (33.4 %), and 452 (27.9 %) patients reported constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, and alternating types, respectively.
By Manning's and the Asian criteria, a diagnosis of IBS was made frequently among Indian patients with chronic functional lower GI symptoms with no alarm features; the Rome II criteria gave the lowest yield. By the stool frequency criteria, a majority of patients had unclassified pattern, unlike by the stool form and patients' perception of their symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Budd-Chiari Syndrome is associated with hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This syndrome is rare in infants and children. As this syndrome is uncommon, especially in the paediatric age group, misdiagnoses and delays in the diagnosis are frequent. A high index of clinical suspicion along with a radiological aid and a histopathological correlation can lead to an early diagnosis and an appropriate management in such cases.This case report highlights the occurrence of this rare condition in the paediatric age group as well as it redefines the salient features of this syndrome.
Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR. 12/2012; 6(10):1783-1785.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2010, the Indian Society of Gastroenterology's Task Force on Inflammatory Bowel Diseases undertook an exercise to produce consensus statements on ulcerative colitis. This consensus, produced through a modified Delphi process, reflects our current understanding of the definition, diagnostic work up, treatment and complications of ulcerative colitis. The consensus statements are intended to serve as a reference point for teaching, clinical practice, and research in India.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), once thought to be uncommon, is now seen commonly in India. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology (ISG) Task Force on IBD decided to collate data on the clinical spectrum of IBD currently prevailing in India. METHODS: An open call to members of ISG was given through publication of a proforma questionnaire in the Indian Journal of Gastroenterology and the web portal of ISG. The proforma contained questions related with demographic features, family history, risk factors, clinical manifestations and characteristics, course of disease, and pattern of treatment of IBD. RESULTS: Of 1,255 filled questionnaires received, 96 were rejected and 1,159 (92.3 %) were analyzed. This comprised data on 745 (64.3 %) patients with UC, 409 (35.3 %) with CD, and 5 with indeterminate colitis. The median duration of illness was longer in patients with CD (48 months) compared to those with UC (24 months) (p = 0.002). More than one half of patients (UC 51.6 %, CD 56.9 %) had one or more extraintestinal symptoms. A definite family history of IBD was present in 2.9 % (UC 2.3 % and CD 4.6 %; p = 0.12). The extent of disease in UC was pancolitis 42.8 %, left-sided colitis 38.8 %, and proctitis alone in 18.3 %. The extent of disease involvement in CD was both small and large intestine in 39.6 %, colon alone in 31.4 % and small intestine alone in 28.9 %. Stricturing and fistulizing disease were noted in 18.8 % and 4.4 % of patients with CD respectively. Chronic continuous and intermittent disease course were present in 35.5 % and 47.2 % of UC patients respectively, and in 23.1 % and 68.8 % of CD patients. Four percent of patients with UC had undergone colectomy, while 15.2 % of patients with CD underwent surgical intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The present survey provides a reasonable picture of the demographic features and clinical manifestations of Indian patients with IBD, their risk factors, course of disease, and the treatment given to them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A large number of abstracts dealing with colonoscopy were presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW; 7-10 May 2011; Chicago, Illinois, USA). Topics included: new techniques in colonoscopy, recent innovations in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), prevention of postpolypectomy bleeding, Raman spectroscopy, bowel preparation during colonoscopy, risk factors for high grade dysplasia (HGD) in colonic adenoma, recent advances in endoscopic treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), and follow-up of HGD and CRC after endoscopic treatment. This review focuses on the most relevant presentations dealing with colon tumours and colonoscopy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was, first, to show in a case control study that in alcoholic cirrhotic patients colonic vascular ectasias (VE) are a complication of portal hypertension and, second, to establish in a histomorphometric study that colonic vascular ectasias and rectal varices (RV) are only endoscopic features of a new entity: portal hypertensive colopathy, the pathologic basis of which is colonic mucosal capillary ectasia. In the case control study, for each case, three age- and sex-matched controls selected from consecutive patients were used. Sixteen alcoholic cirrhotic patients, 12 men, 4 women (mean age ±sd: 62±10 years) had colonic vascular ectasias. The prevalence of esophageal varices (88% vs 44%,PPPPP2 vs 1676±345 µm2,P
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the distribution of genotypes and its association with severity of liver disease in patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) in Uttar Pradesh, India. One hundred five HBsAg positive patients were selected for the study. The DNA was extracted by using pure viral DNA extraction kit. The genotype of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) was identified by using polymerase chain reaction- based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, by using AvaII and DpnII restriction enzyme to see the different patterns of cleavage that would occur at this specific site. Among 105 HBsAg positive chronic liver disease patients 58 patients were positive for HBeAg and 47 samples were HBeAg negative. Genotyping was done successfully in 91 samples. Genotype A was identified in 22% and genotype D in 78% CHB patients. Genotype A showed elevated liver enzymes much more than genotype D. The Child Pugh classification of 20 patients with genotype A was class A (n = 2), B (n = 9), C (n = 9) and of genotype D was class A (n = 13), B (n = 50) and C (n = 8). In conclusion our results showed that Genotype D was the commonest genotype in Uttar Pradesh, whereas genotype A had significantly more elevated ALT/AST levels than genotype D. (P < 0.05). Child Pugh Grade B was significantly more in patients with genotype D, whereas Child Pugh Grade C was more in genotype A.
Indian Journal of Virology 06/2011; 22(1):24-8. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well known agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Around 400 million people worldwide carrier of HBV of which more than 250 million reside in Asia, and 1-2 million people have died from it. It has a partially double-stranded DNA, having 3.2-kb genome size and replicate via reverse transcription of RNA intermediate. In the natural history or during the antiviral therapy of chronic HBV infection, seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBeAg is usually accompanied by a decrease in viral replication and remission of liver disease. Based on genomic sequence data HBV is classified into eight genotypes A-H and four major serotypes ayw, ayr, adw and adr on the basis of complete genome and S gene sequence analysis. Genotypes and serotypes are useful tools in understanding the epidemiology of HBV infection. HBV genotypes have distinct geographical distributions. The HBV variants appear during HBeAg seroconversion and they bring mutations in the precore region (PC) that prevent HBeAg synthesis. Another common HBeAg variant is the basal core promoter mutant (BCP) characterized by point mutation in the promoter of both HBeAg mRNA and core protein mRNA. The most frequent core promoter mutation is the double A1762T and G1764A nucleotide exchange, which results in a substantial decrease in HBeAg expression but enhanced viral genome replication. The approved antiviral drugs such as Interferon, lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir and telbivudine for purpose of treating chronic HBV infection is to prevent or stop the progression of liver injury by suppressing viral replication or eliminating infection. Sustained losses of viral markers of active viral replication (HBeAg and HBV DNA) are the standard end point of the therapies.
Indian Journal of Virology 06/2011; 22(1):1-10. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications are thought to be infrequent in India; there are no data from India on the prevalence of and risk factors for GERD. The Indian Society of Gastroenterology formed a task force aiming to study: (a) the frequency and profile of GERD in India, (b) factors including diet associated with GERD.
In this prospective, multi-center (12 centers) study, data were obtained using a questionnaire from 3224 subjects regarding the frequency, severity and duration of heartburn, regurgitation and other symptoms of GERD. Data were also obtained regarding their dietary habits, addictions, and lifestyle, and whether any of these were related or had been altered because of symptoms. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods.
Two hundred and forty-five (7.6%) of 3224 subjects had heartburn and/or regurgitation at least once a week. On univariate analysis, older age (OR 1.012; 95% CI 1.003-1.021), consumption of non-vegetarian and fried foods, aerated drinks, tea/coffee were associated with GERD. Frequency of smoking was similar among subjects with or without GERD. Body mass index (BMI) was similar in subjects with and without GERD. On multivariate analysis, consumption of non-vegetarian food was independently associated with GERD symptoms. Overlap with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome was not uncommon; 21% reported difficulty in passage of stool and 9% had mucus in stools. About 25% of patients had consulted a doctor previously for their gastrointestinal symptoms.
7.6% of Indian subjects have significant GERD symptoms. Consumption of non-vegetarian foods was an independent predictor of GERD. BMI was comparable among subjects with or without GERD.
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2011; 30(3):118-27.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women and possible risk factors for perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission.
Four thousand pregnant women were evaluated using history, examination, and test for serum HBsAg using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. For HBsAg positive women, liver function tests and a test for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was done. HBV DNA analysis was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Of 4,000 women studied, 37 (0.9%) tested positive for HBsAg. Of these 37 women, 6 (16%) presented with acute hepatitis and 31 (84%) were asymptomatic. The highest HBsAg positivity rate was seen in the age group of 21-25 years (1.15%) followed by 26-30 years (0.86%). Assessment of risk factors revealed history of tattooing in 29/37 (78.4%) women. HBeAg was positive in 21 of 37 (56.8%) women. Of the 16 HBeAg negative women, 5 were positive for HBV DNA and anti-HBe antibody, 6 had only anti-HBe antibody and 5 had neither HBV DNA nor anti-HBe. Vertical transmission was seen in 65% (13/20) of babies born to mothers who were positive for HBeAg and HBV DNA. In contrast, it was only 9.1% (1/11) for babies born to mothers who were negative for both HBeAg and HBV DNA. Of the 25 babies delivered vaginally, 15 (60%) developed vertical transmission. None of the four babies delivered by elective cesarean section had evidence of vertical transmission.
Seroprevalence of HBsAg in antenatal women was found to be 0.9%. HBe-antigen and HBV DNA positivity was associated with a higher chance of vertical transmission.
Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2011; 30(2):66-71.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of microscopic colitis among patients presenting with chronic watery diarrhea.
Colonic biopsies from 400 patients presenting with chronic watery diarrhea and other symptoms pertaining to lower gastrointestinal tract were studied. After a detailed clinical history and thorough physical examination full length colonoscopy was done using flexible colonoscope. Colonic biopsies were taken from abnormal and normal areas. Three to five micron thick sections were cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome stain to highlight sub epithelial collagen.
Fifteen out of 400 (3.7%) colonic biopsies from patients presenting with chronic diarrhea had evidence of microscopic colitis. Five out of fifteen biopsies (33%) were diagnosed as collagenous colitis, 10 biopsies (67%) had evidence of lymphocytic colitis; 14/400(3.5%) histologically normal biopsies were taken as controls to compare various demographic and risk factors. Ten out of 15 patients (67%) were clinically diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome. In the remaining five an infective etiology was suspected. On colonoscopy12/15 (80%) had no abnormality and 3/15 (20%) had mild hyperemia.
A possibility of microscopic colitis should be considered while examining colonoscopic biopsy of a patient with chronic watery diarrhea and normal colonoscopy to avoid the misdiagnosis that may affect the treatment of patients.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 01/2010; 53(1):15-9. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori has been the subject of intense investigation since its culture from a gastric biopsy in 1982. From the beginning, this gram-negative bacterium has provoked the interest of bacteriologists, gastroenterologists, infectious disease specialists, cancer biologists, epidemiologists, pathologists, and pharmaceutical scientists. Pathologists were among the first groups of scientists to reevaluate their data in the context of the newly discovered bacterial etiological agent. Chronic inflammation elicited by the bacterium provided the missing link in the progression to gastric carcinoma; accordingly, H. pylori was named as a class 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Two key papers published in 1991 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported a positive association between gastric cancer and H. pylori infection. This fact provided a strong rationale to treat all who tested positive for H. pylori. Antibiotic regimens have been largely successful, but some agents such as metronidazole and clarithromycin have been rendered ineffective in several countries and geographical areas of the United States by the emergence of strains resistant to these compounds. Although there was some skepticism initially, within few years numerous research groups verified the association of H.pylori with gastric carcinoma. Host related factors for the development of disease can indicate genetic susceptibility (or resistance) or acquired influences, which may stimulate defenses of the host against environmental carcinogens like H.pylori. The present article is a mini-review of the history and epidemiology of the bacterium and its suggested association with the development and progression of gastric cancer.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2010; 11(3):583-8. · 1.50 Impact Factor