[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potential for long term adverse effects from inhaled corticosteroids relates to their systemic absorption, usually assessed from proxy markers in short term studies. When fluticasone propionate and budesonide have been compared in this way the results have been inconsistent. To determine whether this is because of the subjects studied or the sensitivity of the systemic marker used, we have compared the effects of fluticasone propionate and budesonide in healthy and asthmatic subjects and investigated the effect of treatment on three systemic markers.
Forty six healthy subjects were randomised to receive inhaled fluticasone propionate 1500 microg/day (via an Accuhaler), budesonide 1600 microg/day (via a Turbuhaler), or placebo; 31 subjects with moderately severe asthma were randomised to receive the same doses of fluticasone propionate or budesonide but not placebo. Systemic effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects were compared after 7 days. Treatment was continued for another 21 days in the subjects with asthma when systemic effects and asthma control were assessed.
At baseline healthy subjects had higher urinary levels of total cortisol metabolites (TCM) than subjects with asthma. After 7 days of treatment with fluticasone propionate urinary TCM levels in the healthy subjects were significantly lower than in the subjects with asthma (mean difference between groups 1663 microg/day, 95% CI 328 to 2938). This was not the case with budesonide, however, where urinary TCM levels in the healthy subjects remained above those in the asthmatic subjects (mean difference between groups 1210 microg/day, 95% CI -484 to 2904). Urinary TCM levels were considerably more sensitive to the effects of inhaled corticosteroids than morning serum cortisol or osteocalcin concentrations. Only budesonide reduced the serum level of osteocalcin.
When given by dry powder inhaler for 7 days, fluticasone propionate 1500 microg/day has a greater effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy subjects than in subjects with asthma, but this is not the case for budesonide 1600 microg/day. These findings, together with the differences in sensitivity between systemic markers, explain many of the discrepancies in the literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Inhaled corticosteroids are absorbed into the systemic circulation, but the extent to which they have adverse effects on bone is uncertain. The question is important since 3% of the European population take an inhaled corticosteroid regularly and may do so for many years. Methods: We studied the dose-response relation between cumulative inhaled corticosteroid dose and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur in 196 adults (119 women) with asthma aged 20-40 years. Patients had taken an inhaled corticosteroid regularly for at least 6 months, and had had limited exposure to systemic steroids. Cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid was calculated from questionnaires and computerised and written general-practice records, and its effect on bone-mineral density was estimated by multiple regression analysis. Findings: Median duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment was 6 years (range 0.5-24), and median cumulative dose was 876 mg (87-4380). There was a negative association between cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter, both before and after adjustment for the effects of age and sex. A doubling in dose of inhaled corticosteroid was associated with a decrease in bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine of 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.04-0.28). Similar decreases were found at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter. Adjustment for potential confounding factors including physical activity and past oral, nasal, dermal, and parenteral corticosteroids did not weaken the associations. Interpretation: This study provides evidence of a negative relation between total cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density in patients with asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhaled corticosteroids are absorbed into the systemic circulation, but the extent to which they have adverse effects on bone is uncertain. The question is important since 3% of the European population take an inhaled corticosteroid regularly and may do so for many years.
We studied the dose-response relation between cumulative inhaled corticosteroid dose and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine and proximal femur in 196 adults (119 women) with asthma aged 20-40 years. Patients had taken an inhaled corticosteroid regularly for at least 6 months, and had had limited exposure to systemic steroids. Cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid was calculated from questionnaires and computerised and written general-practice records, and its effect on bone-mineral density was estimated by multiple regression analysis.
Median duration of inhaled corticosteroid treatment was 6 years (range 0.5-24), and median cumulative dose was 876 mg (87-4380). There was a negative association between cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter, both before and after adjustment for the effects of age and sex. A doubling in dose of inhaled corticosteroid was associated with a decrease in bone-mineral density at the lumbar spine of 0.16 SD (95% CI 0.04-0.28). Similar decreases were found at the femoral neck, Ward's triangle, and trochanter. Adjustment for potential confounding factors including physical activity and past oral, nasal, dermal, and parenteral corticosteroids did not weaken the associations.
This study provides evidence of a negative relation between total cumulative dose of inhaled corticosteroid and bone-mineral density in patients with asthma.
The Lancet 05/2000; 355(9213):1399-403. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02138-3 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone mineral density has been reduced in patients with asthma taking inhaled corticosteroids in some cross sectional studies and this could be important if treatment is continued for several decades. The possibility of confounding by age, menopausal status, physical activity and, especially, past oral steroid use has not been excluded in most studies. The present study was designed to assess the magnitude of any reduction in bone mineral density in relation to inhaled steroid use after adjusting for these factors.
Bone mineral density (BMD), vertebral fractures, and markers of bone metabolism (serum osteocalcin, procollagen peptide I, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and urinary deoxypyridinoline cross links) were measured in 81 patients with asthma age 20-40 years; 34 patients (19 men) who had never had inhaled or systemic steroids and 47 (19 men) who had taken inhaled steroids for at least five years with limited exposure to systemic steroids in the past. Data relating to past medication use, physical activity, smoking, and other confounding factors were collected by questionnaire. The relation between inhaled steroid dose and duration and BMD was assessed by linear regression analysis, accounting for potential confounders including weight, exercise, and oral steroid use.
The 47 patients taking an inhaled steroid had a mean current dose of 620 micrograms/day (range 100-3000 micrograms), a mean duration of use of 7.8 years, and had had a mean of 0.85 courses of prednisolone in the past. There was no significant difference in mean BMD values between those who were and those who were not on inhaled steroids in men or women. However, on multivariate analysis, cumulative inhaled steroid dose was associated with a reduction in posterior-anterior (P-A) and lateral lumbar spine bone mineral density in women, equivalent to a 0.11 standard deviation reduction in bone density per 1000 micrograms/day inhaled steroid per year after adjustment for potential confounding factors (95% CI for P-A spine 0.01 to 0.22; for lateral spine 0.02 to 0.21). Previous oral steroid use was not an important confounding factor in these patients. Inhaled steroid use was not related to BMD at the wrist or hip in women or at any skeletal site in men. Women taking an inhaled steroid had lower levels of serum osteocalcin than those not taking them, although this was not dose related. Inhaled steroid use was not associated with differences in other markers of bone metabolism in men or women or with the presence of vertebral fractures.
Although an effect of confounding factors cannot be excluded entirely in a cross sectional study, our findings are in keeping with an effect of inhaled steroid therapy in reducing bone density in the spine in women and provide an estimate of the magnitude of this effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to assess the role of prostaglandins in asthma but their effects on bronchoconstrictor challenges have been inconsistent. The effects of three nebulised nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the airway response to inhaled sodium metabisulphite (MBS) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) were compared in the same asthmatic subjects to see whether contractile prostaglandins were involved in MBS or AMP induced bronchoconstriction. A possible protective effect of the osmolarity or pH of the inhaled solutions was also assessed.
Two double blind placebo controlled studies were carried out. In study 1, 15 non-aspirin sensitive patients with mild asthma attended on four occasions and inhaled 5 ml of lysine aspirin (L-aspirin) 900 mg, indomethacin 50 mg, sodium salicylate 800 mg, or saline 20 minutes before an inhaled MBS challenge. On four further occasions 14 of the patients inhaled the same solutions followed by an inhaled AMP challenge. In study 2, 10 of the patients attended on four additional occasions and inhaled 5 ml of 0.9%, 3%, 10%, or 9.5% saline with indomethacin 50 mg 20 minutes before an inhaled MBS challenge.
In study 1 inhaled lysine aspirin had a similar effect on MBS and AMP induced bronchoconstriction, increasing the provocative dose causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20) by 1.29 (95% CI 0.54 to 2.03) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.93) doubling doses, respectively. Indomethacin increased the MBS PD20 and AMP PD20 by 0.64 (95% CI -0.1 to 1.38) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.69) doubling doses, respectively. Sodium salicylate had no significant effect on either challenge. The two solutions causing most inhibition were the most acidic and the most alkaline. In study 2 inhaled 9.5% saline with indomethacin (osmolarity 3005 mOsm/kg) increased the MBS PD20 by 1.1 doubling doses (95% CI 0.2 to 2.0) compared with only 0.09 (95% CI -0.83 to 1.0) and 0.04 (95% CI -0.88 to 0.95) doubling doses with 3% saline (918 mOsm/kg) and 10% saline (2994 mOsm/ kg), respectively.
Inhaled L-aspirin and indomethacin have broadly similar protective effects against MBS and AMP induced bronchoconstriction in the doses given, although the effect of indomethacin on MBS was not quite statistically significant. The osmolarity and pH of the solutions did not appear to be important determinants of the response. The effect of L-aspirin and indomethacin is likely to be the result of cyclooxygenase inhibition reducing the production of contractile prostaglandins during MBS and AMP challenge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the relation between lung function and dietary intake of the antioxidant vitamins C and E in the general population in a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of adults from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham. In 2,633 subjects 18 to 70 yr of age, we measured FEV1 and FVC, allergen skin sensitivity to grass pollen, cat fur, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, pack-years smoking exposure by personal recall, and usual dietary intake of vitamins C and E by semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for the effects of age, sex, height, mean allergen skin wheal diameter, and pack-years smoking history, both FEV1 and FVC were significantly and independently related to mean daily intake of vitamin C, such that a standard deviation (40 mg/d) higher vitamin C intake was associated with a 25.0 (95% CI, 5.2 to 44.8; p = 0.01) ml higher FEV1 and a 23.3 (0.94 to 45.7, p = 0.04) ml higher FVC. There was also an association between vitamin E intake and lung function, such that a standard deviation (2.2 mg) higher intake of vitamin E was associated with a 20.1 (1.3 to 40.4, p = 0.04) ml higher FEV1 and a 23.1 (1.0 to 45, p = 0.04) ml higher FVC. However, vitamin C and vitamin E intakes were significantly correlated (r = 0.29, p < 0.001), and after allowing for the effects of vitamin C there was no additional independent effect of vitamin E on either FEV1 or FVC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 05/1995; 151(5):1383-7. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm.151.5.7735589 · 13.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High dietary sodium intake has been identified as a potential cause of asthma and airway hyperreactivity. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium intake is an independent determinant of the risk of hyperreactivity in the general population, and to assess the role of atopy in the association between these factors.
Airway reactivity to methacholine, atopy, 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, and self-reported smoking and symptom history were measured in a random sample of 1702 adults aged 18-70 from an administrative district of Nottingham. Hyperreactivity was defined as a PD20FEV1 of 12.25 mumol or less, and atopy was defined quantitatively as the mean allergen skin weal response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat fur, and grass pollen, and categorically as the occurrence of any allergen response 1 mm or greater than the saline control. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent relative odds of hyperreactivity, atopy, or symptoms in relation to sodium excretion in all 1702 subjects, and multiple linear regression to assess the independent relation between sodium excretion and mean allergen skin weal diameter, and the PD20 value amongst hyperreactive subjects.
There was no relation between the relative odds of hyperreactivity to methacholine and 24 hour urinary sodium excretion, either before or after adjustment for age, smoking, allergen skin weal diameter, and sex, and similarly no relation if the analysis was restricted to men or women only. The relative odds of having at least one allergen skin test response 1 mm greater than the saline control were increased in relation to sodium excretion after adjustment for age, sex, and smoking by a ratio of 2.08 (95% CI 1.04 to 4.15) per log10 unit increase in sodium excretion, but there was no evidence of an association between sodium excretion and the occurrence of self-reported wheeze, hay fever, eczema, or asthma. There was no relation between 24 hour sodium excretion and the magnitude of the mean allergen skin weal response or the PD20 value.
These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high dietary sodium intake is a risk factor for airway hyperreactivity or atopic disease in the general adult population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnesium is involved in a wide range of biological activities, including some that may protect against the development of asthma and chronic airflow obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that high dietary magnesium intake is associated with better lung function, and a reduced risk of airway hyper-reactivity and wheezing in a random sample of adults. In 2633 adults aged 18-70 sampled from the electoral register of an administrative area of Nottingham, UK, we measured dietary magnesium intake by semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, lung function as the 1-sec forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and atopy as the mean skin-prick test response to three common environmental allergens. We measured airway reactivity to methacholine in 2415 individuals, defining hyper-reactivity as a 20% fall in FEV1 after a cumulative dose of 12.25 mumol or less. Mean (SD) daily intake of magnesium was 380 (114) mg/day. After adjusting for age, sex, and height, and for the effects of atopy and smoking, a 100 mg/day higher magnesium intake was associated with a 27.7 (95% CI, 11.9-43.5) mL higher FEV1, and a reduction in the relative odds of hyper-reactivity by a ratio of 0.82 (0.72-0.93). The same incremental difference in magnesium intake was also associated with a reduction in the odds of self-reported wheeze within the past 12 months, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, atopy, and kilojoule intake, by a ratio of 0.85 (0.76-0.95). Dietary magnesium intake is independently related to lung function and the occurrence of airway hyper-reactivity and self-reported wheezing in the general population. Low magnesium intake may therefore be involved in the aetiology of asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease.
The Lancet 09/1994; 344(8919):357-62. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(94)91399-4 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The factors that determine the occurrence of airway hyperreactivity in the general population are not clearly understood. This study was designed to assess the independent effects of age, atopy, smoking and airway calibre. In a random sample of 2,415 adults aged 18-70 yrs we measured reactivity to methacholine as the dose provoking a 20% fall (PD20) in one-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), atopy as the mean skin wheal response to three common environmental allergens, and airway calibre as the baseline FEV1 in absolute terms, as percent predicted (FEV1 % predicted) and as percent forced vital capacity (FEV1 % FVC). Hyperreactivity, defined as a PD20 < or = 12.25 mumol, was present in 314 (13%) of the sample, and before adjustment for FEV1 was more common in females (independent odds ratio (OR) = 2.05 (95% confidence interval 1.6-2.7)), current smokers (OR = 1.89 (1.3-2.6)), atopics (OR = 1.39 (1.3-1.5) per mm skin wheal), and in older age groups (OR for age 60-70 yrs relative to 18-29 yrs = 2.70 (1.7-4.3)). However, the odds of hyperreactivity were also strongly and independently related to absolute FEV1 (OR = 0.46 (0.27-0.77) per litre), FEV1 % predicted (OR = 0.96 (0.94-0.98) per percent), and FEV1 % FVC (OR = 0.92 (0.90-0.94) per percent; combined chi-square on 3 df = 312, p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
European Respiratory Journal 06/1994; 7(5):881-7. · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Refractoriness occurs after challenges causing mediator release in asthma, by a mechanism which may involve inhibitory prostaglandins. Bronchoconstriction due to inhaled sodium metabisulphite is thought to involve neural pathways and to be independent of mediator release; whether it shows refractoriness is uncertain. We have sought evidence of refractoriness to the bronchoconstrictor response to inhaled sodium metabisulphite in subjects with mild asthma, and have tested the hypothesis that the development of refractoriness involves inhibitory prostaglandins. Twelve subjects were challenged twice with a dose of sodium metabisulphite, previously shown to cause a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1); the second challenge proceeded after recovery from the first. The response to sodium metabisulphite was expressed as the maximum % fall in FEV1 and area under the change in FEV1 curve over 20 min (AUC). Nine subjects were studied after double-blind treatment with oral indomethacin, 50 mg t.d.s., or placebo, for 3 days. The second sodium metabisulphite challenge caused significantly less bronchoconstriction than the first (mean maximum fall in FEV1 13.1 and 24.3%, respectively). Nine subjects showed a greater than 50% reduction in the response to the second challenge (mean reduction in AUC 73.7%). In these subjects, indomethacin did not alter the response to the first sodium metabisulphite challenge, or the mean maximum fall in FEV1 in response to the second challenge (placebo 9.7%, indomethacin 11.2%), but significantly increased the AUC of the second challenge (placebo 55, indomethacin 114). The mean reduction in AUC from first to second challenge was 78% with placebo and 48% with indomethacin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
European Respiratory Journal 02/1994; 7(1):50-4. DOI:10.1183/09031936.94.07010050 · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhaled frusemide protects subjects with asthma against a wide range of bronchoconstrictor challenges, including allergen, exercise and inhaled sodium metabisulphite. An investigation was designed to determine whether this protection is related to the production of inhibitory prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), by studying the effect of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin on the protection afforded by inhaled frusemide against exercise induced asthma.
In a double blind crossover study 10 subjects with mild asthma were pretreated with indomethacin (50 mg thrice daily) or placebo capsules for three days; they then inhaled frusemide (40 mg) or placebo 10 minutes before an exercise test previously shown to cause a 20-30% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1).
After inhalation of placebo exercise caused a similar maximum fall in FEV1 whether pretreatment was with placebo (26%) or indomethacin (25.2%). After inhalation of frusemide the maximum fall in FEV1 was reduced to 14.3% after placebo pretreatment and to 21.8% after indomethacin pretreatment; the difference between placebo and indomethacin pretreatment was significant (mean difference 7.5%, 95% limits 0.6%, 14.4%). The inhibitory effect of frusemide on the response to exercise, assessed as change in FEV1 over 30 minutes, was significantly greater with placebo (62%) than indomethacin (13%) pretreatment.
These findings support a role for inhibitory prostanoids, such as PGE2, in the beneficial effects of frusemide as a protection against exercise induced asthma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating epinephrine concentrations are altered in certain pathophysiological states, but whether such changes in epinephrine concentrations can alter bronchial responsiveness in subjects with asthma has not been studied. We studied 10 subjects with asthma in a double-blind crossover study on 4 nonconsecutive days. After measurement of baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and plasma epinephrine concentration, subjects were given placebo or 4, 16, or 64 ng.kg-1.min-1 epinephrine by intravenous infusion for 45 min. Blood was taken for plasma epinephrine concentration before the infusion and at 30 min, when a histamine challenge test was performed. Mean plasma epinephrine concentrations ranged from 0.37 nmol/l on placebo to 3.76 nmol/l with the 64-ng/kg infusion. FEV1 increased progressively with increasing concentrations of infused epinephrine, the mean change ranging from -0.051 on placebo to 0.331 after the highest concentration of epinephrine. The provocative dose of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 increased progressively with increasing concentrations of infused epinephrine, geometric mean values ranging from 0.61 mumol with placebo to 1.7 mumol after the highest dose of epinephrine. Thus epinephrine, at physiological plasma concentrations, can modify bronchial reactivity.
Journal of Applied Physiology 10/1992; 73(3):1004-7. · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that inhaled corticosteroids may provide greater protection against constrictor stimuli that act indirectly such as exercise than those that act directly such as histamine.
The effects of six weeks treatment with inhaled budesonide (800 micrograms twice daily) on bronchial reactivity to histamine, exercise, and eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation of dry air were compared in a double blind, placebo controlled, non-crossover study in 40 subjects with asthma. Change in bronchial reactivity to histamine and eucapnic hyperventilation over the six weeks was measured as change in the provocative dose of histamine or dry air causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20 histamine and PV20 eucapnic hyperventilation (EVH) of dry air); this was not possible for exercise because of the development of refractoriness. To enable the change in response to all three stimuli to be compared, the response (percent fall in FEV1) to a fixed dose was measured for all three challenge tests.
After budesonide there was an increase in PD20 histamine from 0.48 to 2.81 mumol and in PV20 EVH from 364 to 639 litres, and a significant correlation between the changes in PD20 histamine and PV20 EVH (r = 0.63). The median percentage fall in FEV1 in response to eucapnic hyperventilation, exercise, and histamine was similar before budesonide (25.5%, 26.6%, and 24.5%); the reduction in the percentage fall in FEV1 with budesonide was also similar for the three challenges (18.9%, 17.5%, and 16.6%), and all differed significantly from the changes following placebo. There was a significant correlation between change in percentage fall in FEV1 after budesonide with the three stimuli (histamine v exercise: r = 0.48; histamine v eucapnic hyperventilation: r = 0.46; exercise v eucapnic hyperventilation: r = 0.63).
The similar magnitude of change in bronchial reactivity to all three stimuli after budesonide and the within subject correlation obtained between these changes suggest that corticosteroids act by a common mechanism to protect against eucapnic hyperventilation, exercise, and histamine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The time course of change in FEV1, bronchial reactivity, and daily measures of asthma control (peak expiratory flow, symptoms, and beta 2-agonist inhaler use) was determined during 6 wk of treatment with inhaled budesonide, 800 micrograms twice a day, and for 2 wk following cessation of treatment in 40 asthmatic subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Histamine reactivity, expressed as the provocative dose of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20), was measured at intervals during the 8 wk of the study, with more frequent measurements after the first and last dose of drug to provide a detailed profile of change at the start and end of treatment. The first dose of budesonide caused a small increase in median values of FEV1 (0.2 L) and PD20 (1.0 doubling dose of histamine), which was maximum at 6 h. There was a further increase in FEV1 and PD20 over the 6 wk in the budesonide group relative to placebo, the maximum increases (0.53 L, 3.4 doubling doses of histamine) being recorded 6 h after the last dose on Day 42. Following cessation of treatment, FEV1 and PD20 declined and PD20 returned to placebo values at 1 wk. Median PEF increased by 40 and 30 L/min in the morning and evening, respectively, with budesonide treatment. Symptom scores and beta 2-agonist inhaler use were lower in the budesonide group than the placebo group during treatment but tended to be similar (symptom scores) or higher (beta 2-agonist) in the 2 wk following cessation of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The American review of respiratory disease 07/1991; 143(6):1317-21. DOI:10.1164/ajrccm/143.6.1317 · 10.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchial reactivity is being measured with increasing frequency in epidemiological studies, but there debate continues about the relative merits of the different methods used to measure reactivity, particularly for subjects with no previous experience of reactivity testing as is the case in epidemiological studies. Repeatability is likely to improve with practice, and laboratory based studies on experienced subjects may overestimate the repeatability of a test in inexperienced subjects. We have compared the repeatability of the Yan method with a dosimeter (Mefar) method of administering methacholine to 40 asthmatic subjects: 20 with experience of methacholine challenge on at least six previous occasions and 20 with no previous experience. Subjects attended the laboratory on four days within a two week period, at the same time of day. A methacholine challenge was performed on two occasions using the Yan method and on two occasions using the dosimeter. Methacholine responsiveness was measured as the provocative dose causing a 20% reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (PD20FEV1). Geometric mean PD20FEV1 values with the Yan method were 1.14 doubling doses (DD) of methacholine higher than with the dosimeter method. In the experienced subjects, the 95% range for a single estimate was +/- 1.56 DD for the Yan method and +/- 1.37 DD for the dosimeter method. In the inexperienced subjects, the 95% ranges were +/- 2.65 and +/- 1.87 DD for the Yan and dosimeter methods, respectively. Thus, the differences in repeatability between the Yan and dosimeter methods, were small; experienced subjects gave more repeatable values than inexperienced subjects.
European Respiratory Journal 05/1991; 4(4):497-502. · 7.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of two pranayama yoga breathing exercises on airway reactivity, airway calibre, symptom scores, and medication use in patients with mild asthma were assessed in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. After baseline assessment over 1 week, 18 patients with mild asthma practised slow deep breathing for 15 min twice a day for two consecutive 2-week periods. During the active period, subjects were asked to breathe through a Pink City lung (PCL) exerciser--a device which imposes slowing of breathing and a 1:2 inspiration:expiration duration ratio equivalent to pranayama breathing methods; during the control period, subjects breathed through a matched placebo device. Mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate, symptom score, and inhaler use over the last 3 days of each treatment period were assessed in comparison with the baseline assessment period; all improved more with the PCL exerciser than with the placebo device, but the differences were not significant. There was a statistically significant increase in the dose of histamine needed to provoke a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PD20) during pranayama breathing but not with the placebo device. The usefulness of controlled ventilation exercises in the control of asthma should be further investigated.
The Lancet 07/1990; 335(8702):1381-3. DOI:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91254-8 · 45.22 Impact Factor