Magdalena Chełchowska

Institute of Mother and Child, Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland

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Publications (79)23.28 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: One of the important factors affecting bone health is body weight. Underweight children are predisposed to disturbances in bone metabolism, which may result in osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between adipokines, bone metabolism, and anthropometric parameters in underweight prepubertal children. The study included 60 children aged 5-10 years. Among them, there were: 30 underweight children (BMI z-score ≤-1) and 30 normal-weight children (BMI z-score <-1 + 1 >). Body composition (fat mass, lean body mass, bone mass) and bone mineral density examination were performed by densitometry. Serum concentrations of bone metabolism markers and adipokines were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. In underweight children we observed significantly lower fat mass (p<0.0001), lean mass (p<0.001), bone mineral content (p<0.01) and bone mineral density both the total body (p<0.01) as well as lumbar spine L2-L4 (p<0.05) compared with normal-weight children. In the group of underweight children, serum concentration of bone resorption marker (CTX) was significantly higher than in normal-weight children (2.006±0.649 vs. 1.624±0.492 ng/ml, p<0.05), with no differences in the concentrations of osteocalcin and sclerostin between studied groups. The ratio of adipokines (leptin/adiponectin) was approximately 2-fold lower in underweight than in normal-weight subjects. In underweight children we observed positive correlations between concentrations of sclerostin and bone turnover markers (OC, CTX) and between adiponectin and CTX. However, there was no correlation between fat mass and leptin concentration in this group of children. Low body weight in prepubertal period is related with an alteration in the adipokines profile and bone metabolism markers, resulting in a decrease in bone mineral density. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 07/2015; 39(229):18-22.
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    ABSTRACT: In spite of medical progress in evolving diagnostic methods and clinical treatment premature delivery still remains the main problem in obstetric and perinatology. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the factors which can be important in physiological mechanisms of placental angiogenesis and regulation of vascular tone and could be useful in predicting the risk of premature labor. The aim of this study was to establish the relation between NO concentration in serum and uterine activity before 37 weeks of gestation in pregnancy with premature delivery. Correlations between serum level of NO and hemoglobin, C- reactive protein (CRP) and total leukocyte count (TLC) were also studied. The examined group included 47 primigravidas between 23 and 37 weeks of gestation with diagnosis of premature delivery and 26 gestational age-matched women with uncomplicated pregnancy. Serum NO concentration was determined by colorimetric method using a commercially available kit. In this assay total nitrite (nitrites + nitrates) - was analyzed as indicator of NO production. As compared to the control group, the maternal serum concentrations of NO in each group of women with premature delivery were lower and these differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). The lowest concentration of NO was observed in the group of patients with spontaneous uterine activity and without premature rupture of membranes (PROM) in comparison to other groups with imminent premature delivery and to the control group. The levels of hemoglobin and CRP were within the physiological range and correlated positively with the concentrations NO (r=0.635, p=0.015; r=0.484, p=0.035 respectively) in all women included in the study. The decreased level of NO in patients with preterm labor was not connected with subclinical infections but it may be associated with initiation of uterine contraction before 37 weeks of gestation. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 07/2015; 39(229):14-17.
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    ABSTRACT: To verify if selected functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in LEP, LEPR and ADIPOQ loci are associated with the development of obesity and serum levels of the respective adipokines in prepubertal Caucasian children with obesity. Frequencies of -2548G>A LEP (rs7799039), Q223R (rs1137101) and K656N (rs8129183) LEPR, -11377C>G (rs266729) and -11426A>G (rs16861194) ADIPOQ polymorphisms were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in 101 obese (standard deviation score-body mass index (SDS-BMI)>2) and 67 normal-weight (SDS-BMI < -1+1>) children. Serum adipokine concentrations were measured using the ELISA method. The GC/GG genotypes of -11377C>G ADIPOQ polymorphism were associated with a higher risk of obesity (p = 0.022, OR = 2.08 [95%CI: 1.11-3.90]). Individuals carrying the GG genotype had a higher leptin/adiponectin ratio by 25% than CC homozygotes (ptrend = 0.05). In the multivariate linear regression model, we found differences among particular genotypes of this polymorphism in concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (ptrend = 0.043) and HMW/total adiponectin ratio (ptrend = 0.048), with the lowest values in GG homozygotes. Positive correlations between SDS-BMI and dietary reference intake (DRI) percentage were observed in individuals homozygous for allele C (r = 0.403, p = 0.01) and CG heterozygotes (r = 0.428, p = 0.004). No significant correlations between both parameters were found in the GG homozygotes. Among the analyzed polymorphisms, only -11377C>G ADIPOQ SNP was associated with obesity during the prepubertal period. Adipokine abnormalities coexisting with lack of relations between SDS-BMI and dietary intake may predict a higher risk of future obesity-related disorders in obese children carrying the GG genotype than in those with other genotypes.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 07/2015; DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000900 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: : To assess the relationships between components of the growth hormone axis, body composition, and bone markers in obese children. : We determined the levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) by immunoenzymatic methods, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 45 obese and 20 non-obese children. IGF-I and functional IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I/total IGFBP-3, and functional IGFBP-3/total IGFBP-3 molar ratios were significantly higher in obese patients than in controls. Multivariate regression analysis in obese patients showed significant associations of BALP with IGF-I (p=0.047) and percent of body fat mass (p=0.002). The relationship of IGF-I and functional IGFBP-3 to BALP may support the concept of IGF-I influence on accelerated bone formation process in obesity. Moreover, IGF-I and percentage of body fat mass may be significant predictors of BALP in obese during the prepubertal period.
    Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 02/2015; DOI:10.1515/jpem-2014-0326 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    Joanna Gajewska · Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz · Magdalena Chełchowska ·

    Pediatria polska 09/2014; 89(5). DOI:10.1016/j.pepo.2014.03.011
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Cancer and the use of a comprehensive anti-cancer treatment are unfavorable factors, which have a significant impact on bone mass accumulation, bone mineralization and consequently the occurrence of osteoporosis. Bone turnover is regulated by complex mechanisms, among which an important role play OPG/RANK/RANKL signaling pathway, adipokines, and fetuin-A. The aim of the study was to evaluate bone mineral density and concentrations of leptin and fetuin-A in patients with osteosarcoma after anti-cancer treatment. Materials and methods: The study included 50 children and adolescents aged 10-21 years. The study group consisted of 25 patients with osteosarcoma and 25 healthy counterparts as a control group. The examination was conducted 2 months after the last course of postoperative chemotherapy and included densitometric measurements: bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass, lean mass and biochemical measurements: serum concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphate, 25-hydroksyvitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and fetuin-A. Concentrations of leptin and fetuin-A were determined by immunoenzymatic methods. Results: In patients with osteosarcoma after anti-cancer treatment, we observed significantly reduced bone mineral content, bone mineral density and lean body mass compared with the healthy children (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Mean values of z-score of the whole body BMD and z-score of the lumbar BMD L1-L4 were significantly lower in patients than in the controls (p < 0.001). The serum concentrations of phosphate, magnesium, and alkaline phosphatase in both studied groups were similar, while calcium was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in patients than in the healthy children. The concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was about two-fold lower, while leptin approximately 2.5-fold higher in patients than in the controls. The mean value of fetuin-A was similar in both studied groups. Statistically significant positive correlations between body composition parameters and the values of BMD, as well as between anthropometric parameters and leptin and fetuin-A were observed. Conclusion: The deficit in bone mass observed in patients with malignant bone tumors after anti-cancer treatment might be the result of decreased serum calcium and vitamin D concentrations. The observed correlation between anthropometric and biochemical parameters may indicate the link between bone and adipose tissue metabolism.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 08/2014; 37(218):86-90.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the effect of tobacco smoking on the concentrations of leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), total adiponectin, and free leptin index (FLI) in the serum of maternal-cord pairs. We also investigated the correlations between these biochemical parameters and newborn birth weight and length. The study included eighty-five healthy pregnant women, who were divided into smoking and tobacco- abstinent groups according to serum cotinine concentrations. We found that maternal and fetal leptin, sOB-R concentrations, and free leptin index were similar in smoking and tobacco abstinent groups. We observed significant negative relationship between the reported number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and cord blood leptin (r=-0.37; p<0.05). In the group of smoking women, total serum adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower than in the tobacco abstinent group in mothers as well as in cord blood (p<0.05). A significant negative association between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and total adiponectin concentration in maternal as well as newborn serum was observed (r=-0.38; p<0.05). Umbilical serum leptin, sOB-R, and FLI levels were significantly lower and adiponectin higher compared with maternal concentrations at birth (p<0.05). Mean birth weight and body length of the smoking mothers' infants were significantly lower (p<0.001; p=0.015, respectively) compared with the abstinent group, and negatively correlated with the daily number of cigarettes consumed (birth weight r=-0.39; p<0.05; birth length r=-0.37; p<0.05). Cord blood values of leptin, FLI and adiponectin were significantly correlated with newborn birth weight. We also observed a positive relationship between cord blood adiponectin levels and the birth body length in the two studied groups (r=0.49; p<0.002). Tobacco smoking during pregnancy decreases maternal and fetal serum adiponectin levels but does not have a significant effect on blood leptin concentrations. The direct association between the cord blood values of these adipokines and birth weight and length suggest that rather fetal (not maternal) adiponectin and leptin concentrations may be involved in fetal development during pregnancy.
    Przegla̧d lekarski 01/2014; 71(11):567-71.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim: of this study was to assess concentrations of sclerostin and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in children with cow's milk allergy. Material and methods: The study included 45 children (age range 2-6 years) with diagnosed cow`s milk allergy, who were on a dairy-free diet and under systematic medical and dietary control at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. The control group consisted of 40 healthy children (2-6 years), who did not have any symptoms of cow`s milk allergy nor any diseases influencing bone metabolism. Their diets included milk and dairy products. Dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed based on 3-day records using the Dietetyk2® nutritional program. In the serum samples, we measured concentrations of calcium, phosphate and total alkaline phosphatase by standard methods, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by chemiluminescence method and bone metabolism markers by immunoenzymatic methods. The Statistica (version 10.0) computer software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The nutritional status of studied children based on BMI value was normal. In all patients, the average daily value of dietary energy and percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were consistent with the recommended values. The intake of calcium in the diets of all children was deficient, however, the intake of vitamin D was consistent with recommendations in the children with allergy, while in the healthy children it was below the recommended values. Mean serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, osteocalcin and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were similar in both studied groups. We observed significantly lower sclerostin levels in children with cow`s milk allergy (0.295±0.116 ng/ml) than in the healthy children (0.353±0.126 ng/ml) (p<0.05). The ratio of cytokines RANKL/OPG (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand/osteoprotegerin) was significantly higher in children with allergy compared with their healthy counterparts (p<0.05). Conclusions: Basic laboratory parameters related to bone turnover in children with cow`s milk allergy, who were under medical and nutritional care, were normal. Reduced levels of sclerostin and increased ratio of cytokines RANKL/OPG may suggest disturbances in the balance between bone formation and bone resorption in these patients. Further research is needed on bone metabolism in children with food allergy, who due to the use an elimination diet may be at risk of developing abnormalities in the skeletal system.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 12/2013; 17(3):246-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Adipokines may influence bone metabolism in children, but this phenomenon is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationships between bone markers and adipokines during weight loss in obese children.We determined serum leptin, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), adiponectin, BALP (bone alkaline phosphatase), CTX-I (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen), body composition and bone mineral density (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) in 100 obese prepubertal children before and after 3 months of lifestyle intervention (low-energy diet, physical activity). The control group consisted of 70 non-obese children.Obese children had higher BALP activity by about 20% (p<0.001) and similar value of CTX-I compared with non-obese children. After weight loss (-0.96 BMI-SDS mean change), the BALP value in obese patients decreased (p<0.001), whereas CTX-I concentration was unchanged. Changes in BALP were positively correlated with changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) (r=0.352, p<0.001), but not associated with adipokine levels. Trend analysis using SDS-BMI subgroups showed that greater reduction of body mass was associated with a greater decrease of BALP (p=0.035) and leptin values (p<0.001), as well as a greater increase of sOB-R (p<0.003).Obesity during the prepubertal period is associated with an alteration in the adipokines profile and greater whole-body bone mass as a result of increased bone formation rather than reduced bone resorption. Changes in bone metabolism during lifestyle intervention seem to be related to weight loss but not to changes in adipokines. Further studies should elucidate the influence of long-term therapy on bone mass in childhood.
    Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 06/2013; 121(8). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1347198 · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on concentration of selected angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF, placenta growth factor PIGF) and somatomedin C (insulin-like growth factor-I) in blood of mothers and umbilical cord blood. The correlations between studied biochemical parameters and markers of estimated intensity of cigarette smoking as well as birth weight were also determined. Fifty healthy pregnant women were divided into two groups: smoking and tobacco abstinent group according to serum cotinine concentration. The current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 5 cigarettes per day for 2 years before conception and continued smoking during pregnancy. In the group of smoking mothers the mean serum concentration of cotinine was 91.6 microg/L and correlated positively with number of cigarettes daily consumed (r = 0.58, p < 0.01) as well as with time of smoking before conception (r = 0.40, p < 0.05). The mean serum concentration of PIGF in III trimester of pregnancy was significantly higher in the group of smokers than in non-smoking ones (p < 0.0001) and correlated with serum cotinine concentration (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and number of cigarettes daily consumed (r = 0.58, p < 0.01). The concentration of serum VEGF was similar in both studied group. The mean serum level of IGF-I was significantly lower in group of smokers than in non-smokers in the I and III trimester of gestation (p < 0.01). Also in umbilical cord blood of smoking newborn the concentration of IGF-I was lower by 20% than in nonsmoking group (p < 0.05). We observed negative correlation between number of cigarettes daily consumed and serum level of IGF-I in blood of mothers as well as in blood of their children (I trimester: r = -0.43, p < 0.05; III trimester: r = -0.70, p < 0.001; umbilical cord blood: r = -0.45, p < 0.05). In both studied groups there were a positive correlation between birth weight and concentrations of IGF-I in blood of mothers and umbilical cord blood (group of smokers: mothers r = 0.43, p < 0.05, cord blood r = 0.50, p < 0.01; group of tobacco abstinent: mothers r = 0.51, p < 0.01, cord blood r = 0.41, p < 0.05). The birth weight of the smoking mothers' infants was lower by about 400 g (p < 0.01) and their birth body length by 1.5 cm (p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = -0.55; p < 0.005). Our results indicate, that tobacco smoking during pregnancy increased serum PIGF levels in the final stages of gestation and has no effect on the concentration of VEGF, which may lead to an increase of trophoblast proliferation and uteroplacental dysfunction. Lower than in tobacco abstinent levels of IGF-I in serum of smoking mothers and in umbilical cord blood and their close relationship with birth weight, may suggests a direct effect of this factor on birth anthropometric parameters.
    Przegla̧d lekarski 01/2013; 70(10):800-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to assess bone formation and resorption processes and bone metabolism regulators, such as osteoprotegerin and fetuin-A in children with cystic fibrosis. Material and methods: We examined 45 children with cystic fibrosis aged 5-13 years treated at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw. The control group consisted of 35 healthy children in the same synage range without any diseases which may influence bone metabolism. We determined serum calcium and phosphate levels by colorimetric methods, vitamin D3 by the chemiluminiscence method and bone metabolism markers (osteocalcin, 5b isoenzyme of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A) by immunoenzymatic methods. Results: Mean serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate in the studied children were within the reference ranges. However, the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was significantly lower in patients with cystic fibrosis compared to the controls (19.3±7.6 vs 25.2±8.9 ng/ml, p<0.01). In cystic fibrosis children we observed a statistically significant lower concentration of osteocalcin (81.9±28.9 vs 97.9±28.6 ng/ ml, p<0.01) and similar activity of 5b isoenzyme of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (12.5±2.9 vs 13.4±3.5 U/L) as compared to healthy peers. Mean serum concentration of osteoprotegerin in patients with CF was significantly lower than in the control children (4.1±0.98 vs 4.59±0.86 pmol/l, p<0.05). Serum concentration of fetuin-A was comparable in both groups of children. Conclusions: In children with cystic fibrosis changes in the profile of bone metabolism markers were observed. Even patients with CF who are clinically stable and supplemented with vitamins are at risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis in their later life. Therefore, they should be under a comprehensive medical and nutritional care in order to achieve their optimal peak bone mass.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 09/2012; 16(2):117-123.
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Tobacco smoking creates health problems which apply not only to individuals and the family but also to different ages and social groups, as well as the national economy. Epidemiologic studies conducted at the Institute of Mother and Child indicated that in Poland 25-30% women smoke during pregnancy. Lead exposure from cigarette smoke may have a negative effect on the transplacental flow of micronutrients and have an adverse influence on the growth and development of the fetus, and then on children. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking cigarettes on plasma and whole blood lead levels in pregnant women. Material and methods: Eighty healthy pregnant women, patients of the Clinical Department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Institute of Mother and Child and Warsaw Medical University, were divided into two groups: group I - tobacco smokers and group II- tobacco abstainers according to questionnaire declaration and serum cotinine concentration. Current smokers were defined as those who had smoked 5 cigarettes per day for 2 years before conception and continued smoking during pregnancy. The women exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (smoking spouse or other family members, co-workers) were excluded from the non-smoking group. All pregnant volunteers signed a written, informed consent form, approved by the Institute's Ethical Committee. The concentrations of lead in plasma and whole blood were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on spectrometer analyzer ICP MS Elan 6100 (Perking Elmer, Germany). Levels of cotinine in serum were determined by Cotinine Direct ELISA test (Calbiotech Inc. Canada). Results: In the group of smoking mothers the mean serum cotinine concentration was 69.1 μg/L, whereas in the group of tobacco abstainers it was present only in trace amount. In group I we observed a significant positive correlation between serum cotinine and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (r=0.74; p<0.001), as well as the period of smoking before conception (r=0.60; p<0.001). The concentrations of lead in the plasma of smoking women were significantly higher than in the group of tobacco abstainers in each trimester of pregnancy (I trimester: 0.22 μg/dL vs 0.12 μg/dL p<0.01; II trimester: 0.19 μg/L vs 0.10 μg/L p<0.001; III trimester 0.28 μg/ dL vs 0.13 μg/dL p<0.0001). Tobacco smoking mothers also had a higher concentration of lead in whole blood as compared to pregnant non-smoking women. These differences were statistically significant and amounted to 2.15 μg/dL vs 1.28 μg/L in the first, 1.99 μg/dL vs 1.19 μg/dL in the second and 2.11 μg/dL vs 1.58 μg/dL in the third trimester of pregnancy. We observed that the level of lead was correlated with cotinine in blood, as well as with the number of cigarettes and the length of time women smoked before conception. Such an effect was observed in every trimester of gestation. A strong correlation between the number of cigarettes/day and lead concentration in plasma (r=0.57; p<0.001) and whole blood (r=0.54; p<0.001) was found in the third trimester of pregnancy. Conclusions: Tobacco smoking during pregnancy increased the concentrations in maternal blood lead. The level of lead in plasma and whole blood correlated with the degree of intensity of cigarette smoking in the pregnant women studied. It may be a result of influencing the mobilization of calcium from the bone with simultaneous release of lead deposited in the bone. Further studies are required to characterize the effect of higher lead level in the blood of mothers on the risk of premature labor, low birth weight of newborns and their inferior development.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2012; 16(3):196-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Phenylketonuria, galactosemia and celiac disease are disorders in which elimination diets are the only known therapy, which reverses many clinical manifestations of acute phase in the patients. Unfortunately, most of them develop long-term complications, including bone turnover impairment and low bone mineral density. These disturbances are not only observed in adulthood but also in childhood and adolescence. Insufficient accumulation of peak bone mass in these periods is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures in later life. The pathological mechanisms leading to a diminished bone mineral content in these disorders are not well known. The patients might be at risk for a decreased bone mineral content because of either dietary deficiencies secondary to the elimination diets and/or unknown intrinsic factors. This article overviews bone metabolism disturbances in phenylketonuria, galactosemia and celiac disease during childhood and adolescence, when growth and bone turnover are most intensive. The available data and own results concerning bone markers in children with these disorders and proposal for the prevention of osteoporosis in pediatric patients treated with elimination diets are discussed.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2012; 16(1):61-9.

  • Bone 05/2011; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.606 · 3.97 Impact Factor
  • J. Gajewska · J. Ambroszkiewicz · M. Chełchowska · T. Laskowska-Klita ·

    Bone 05/2011; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.607 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: THE AIM of our study was to investigate associations between serum adipocytokines status and anthropometric parameters as well as total energy and macronutrient intake in vegetarian, normal-weight omnivorous and obese omnivorous children. We examined 90 healthy prepubertal children aged 4-10 years who had been referred to the Department of Nutrition at the Institute of Mother and Child in Warsaw for dietary consultation. Patients with endocrine disorders or genetic syndromes, as well as those who were taking medications that could affect growth, pubertal development or nutritional status were excluded. Children were divided into groups: vegetarians (n=30), normal-weight omnivores (n=30) and obese omnivores (n=30). Anthropometric measurement (weight, height) was performed in all children and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. A whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was performed to determine fat mass, the percentage of body fat and lean body mass using a Lunar Prodigy (GE, USA). Dietary constituents were assessed by questionnaire (nutrient intake from a 3-day period: 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) and calculated using the nutritional computer program Dietetyk2®. Serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides concentrations were assessed by standard enzymatic methods. Serum levels of leptin, soluble leptin receptor and adiponectin were determined by immunoenzymatic assays. There were no significant differences in body weight, height, BMI and lean mass values between vegetarians and normal-weight children on traditional mixed diet. Children on vegetarian diet had lower fat mass (p<0.05) and fat mass/lean mass ratio (p<0.05) than normal-weight omnivores. However, omnivorous children with simple obesity had significantly higher body weight, height, BMI, fat and lean mass in comparison to vegetarian as well to normal-weight omnivorous children. The fat mass/lean mass ratio in obese children was about 2.5-fold higher than in normal-weight subjects on traditional diet. Total energy and percentage of energy from macronutrients in diets of all children were within the recommended daily intake. Children on vegetarian diet was related with lower fat and higher carbohydrates intake in comparison to their omnivorous peers. Vegetarian children had significantly lower mean total cholesterol (151.5±18.0 mg/dL), low-density lipoprotein (81.0±13.6 mg/dL) and triglycerides (61.6±20.5 mg/dL) than omnivores, especially the obese ones (165.0±22.3 mg/dL, 94.7±19.2 mg/dL, 82.4±32.3 mg/dL, respectively). These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05). Serum concentration of leptin was significantly lower in vegetarian children (3.0±2.1 ng/ml) compared with omnivores (6.8±3.4 ng/ml in normal weight versus 37.8±12.7 ng/ml in obese) (p<0.0001). However, serum soluble leptin receptor as well as adiponectin were at higher levels in vegetarians than in omnivores (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). We observed that serum leptin levels positively and soluble leptin receptor negatively correlated with body mass index and fat mass in prepubertal children. Moreover, leptin levels negatively correlated with its soluble receptor and with adiponectin. In children different kinds of diet might modify not only body mass and lipid profile but also serum concentration of adipocytokines. Determination of leptin and its soluble receptor, as well as adiponectin levels may be clinically useful in the medical and nutritional care of obese as well as vegetarian prepubertal children.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):326-34.
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    ABSTRACT: It is widely recognized that lifestyle intervention with modification of dietary habits and physical activity is effective in weight reduction and may improve the biochemical parameters in obese children and adolescents. However, the levels of adiponectin multimeric complexes during lifestyle intervention have not been extensively studied in obese children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 3-months weight-reduction programme on serum adiponectin multimeric complexes in obese prepubertal children. Changes in clinical, anthropometric and metabolic parameters including total adiponectin and its multimeric forms were assessed in 30 obese children aged 4-10 years, after a 3-months lifestyle intervention programme. This programme consisted of dietary and physical activity modifications and behaviour therapy including individual psychological care for the child and its family. The recommended daily intake from low-energy diet was 1200-1400 kcal/day. The reference group consisted of 35 healthy normal-weight children. Concentration of serum total adiponectin (Total-A) and its multimeric complexes: low molecular weight (LMW) adiponectin, medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin were measured by ELISA kit. We observed that the concentrations of total adiponectin and HMW adiponectin were 25% (p<0.01) and 45% (p<0.0001) lower respectively, in obese children compared to controls. HMW/ Total-A ratio was lower in the obese children than in the controls (p<0.001), whereas LMW/Total-A ratio was higher in the obese as compared to the normal-weight children (p<0.001). After 3-months therapy the increases of total adiponectin concentration (by 20%, p<0.001), HMW (by 25%, p<0.001) and MMW adiponectin (by 30%, p<0.05) were recorded in these patients in comparison to baseline values. The increase of HMW/Total-A ratio (p<0.05) and the decrease of LMW/Total-A ratio (p<0.05) were also found in obese patients after weight-reduction programme as compared to the level before therapy. After modification of the diet and physical activity, the BMI of the obese children declined by 10% (p<0.01). Our results indicate that the weight loss in children after 3-months therapy is associated with the increase of total and HMW, MMW adiponectin concentration. This suggests that the intervention programme is sufficient to detect significant changes in adiponectin multimeric profile, which confirms the efficacy of this therapy in prepubertal obese children.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):298-305.
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    ABSTRACT: Vegetarian diets are considered to promote health and reduce the risk of some chronic diseases. It is also known that restriction or exclusion of animal foods may result in low intake of essential nutrients. The aim of the presented study was to assess the intake and serum status of vitamin B12, folate, vitamins A, E and D, as well as concentrations of homocysteine, total antioxidant status and iron balance in Polish vegetarian children. The study included 50 children, aged 5-11 who had been referred to the Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 32 were vegetarians (aged 6.5±4.2 years) and 18 omnivores (aged 7.9±2.7 years). Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2®. Folate and vitamin B12 were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay, total homocysteine with a fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS (total antioxidant status) by colorimetric method. Vitamin A and E in serum were determined by the high-pressure liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and vitamin D by immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA). Concentrations of iron, ferritin, transferrin and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) in serum were determined by commercially available kits. In vegetarian children daily intake of vitamin B12 (1.6 ěg) was in the recommended range, that of folate (195 ěg) and vitamin A (1245 ěg) higher, but vitamin E slightly lower (6.6 ěg) and three-fold lower vitamin D (1.1 ěg) than references allowance. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 (548 pg/ml), folate (12.8 ng/ml), vitamin A (1.2 ěmol/L), vitamin E (15.6 ěmol/l) were within physiological range, but that of vitamin D (13.7 ěg/L) was only half of the lowest limit of the reference value. In vegetarian children in comparison to omnivorous similar levels of homocysteine (6.13 ěmol/L vs 5.45 ěmol/L) and vitamin A (1,17 ěmol/L vs 1.32 ěmol/L) were observed. Lower (p<0.05) values of vitamin E (15.6 ěmol/L vs 18.4 ěmol/L) and TAS (1.21 mmol/L vs 1.30 mmol/L; p<0.0001) were found. Concentrations of iron markers were in physiological range. Obtained results indicated that intakes of vitamin B12 and folic acid from vegetarian diets are sufficient to maintain serum concentrations of both homocysteine and iron in the range observed in omnivorous children. High consumption of vitamin A and low vitamin E only slightly affected their serum values. Significantly lower concentration of serum vitamin E in vegetarian children in comparison to nonvegetarians may be reflected with statistically significant lowering of total antioxidant status. Insufficient intake of vitamin D and its low serum concentration should be under close monitoring in vegetarian children. In order to prevent vitamin D deficiency appropriate age-dependent supplementation should be considered.
    Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2011; 15(3):318-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Biochemical markers of bone turnover reflecting the intensity of all bone remodeling processes in skeleton are important for fast and non-invasive assessment of bone formation and resorption processes. They can be used in terms of both physiological and pathological states. The aim of this study was to investigate if bone metabolism markers can be clinically useful for monitoring of treatment in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma. The study consisted of 55 patients (median age 15 years) with osteosarcoma and 60 healthy age matched counterparts. Serum bone turnover markers (bone alkaline phosphatase - BALP, osteocalcin - OC and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen - CTX) were analyzed by immunoenzymatic methods in patients at time of diagnosis, during treatment and after therapy. We observed that before treatment the concentration of OC in patients with osteosarcoma was significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to that obtained in healthy children, however, BALP and CTX were at a similar level. During chemotherapy the values of bone formation and resorption markers significantly decreased by about 20-30%. After therapy we observed different concentrations of all bone turnover markers in patients with favorable and unfavorable prognosis. Median values of OC and BALP were over twofold higher in patients with progression as compared to patients with remission of disease (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Patients with poor prognosis had also higher serum concentration of bone resorption marker in comparison to patients with remission (p<0.01). Presented results suggest that bone turnover markers identify changes in bone metabolism in patients with osteosarcoma during anticancer therapy. These markers due to the non-invasive methods and their specificity might be useful in monitoring of clinical treatment of osteosarcoma patients.
    Advances in Medical Sciences 11/2010; 55(2):266-72. DOI:10.2478/v10039-010-0043-2 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vegetarian diet may play a preventive role in the development of chronic diseases such as coronary heart and cardiovascular disease. However increase of homocysteine (Hcy) concentration in peoples avoiding animal products may contribute to an increased atherosclerotic risk in these subjects. Recent evidence has suggested that role of hyperhomocysteinemia in atherogenesis is associated with process of autooxidation, which can promote the production of hydroxyl radicals, resulting in oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein and endothelium injury. The oxidant-antioxidant imbalance depends not only on the amount of enhanced free oxygen species but also insufficiency of antioxidant defence system. Total antioxidant status (TAS) expresses capacity for scavenging of free radicals minimizes oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to asses concentrations of homocysteine and total antioxidant status in serum of children on vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We also studied levels of vitamin A (retinol) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) particular components of TAS. The study included 35 children, aged 5-16 who had been referred to Institute of Mother and Child for dietary consultation. From those, 17 were lacto-ovo-vegetarians and 18 omnivores. Dietary constituents were analyzed using the nutritional programme Dietetyk2 and completed with supplementation data. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated in serum with fluorescence polarization immunoassay and TAS by colorimetric method. Levels of vitamin A and E were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean concentration of homocysteine was similar in both studied groups (vegetarians: 6.13 +/- 1.01 micromol/l vs. omnivores: 5.45 +/- 0.98 micromol/l). In vegetarian children serum level of TAS was significantly lower (1.21 +/- 0.06 mmol/I) as compared to those in non-vegetarian ones (1.30 +/- 0.05 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), but remained within the physiological range (1.16-1.40 mmol/l). The mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in serum of vegetarians were lower than observed in omnivores group, but only in case of alpha-tocopherol the difference was statistically significant (vegetarians: 15.58 +/- 4.12 vs. omnivores: 18.41 +/- 3.10; p < 0.05). In studied group of children on lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, serum concentrations of homocysteine are normal and daily food intake of antioxidants and their level in blood are sufficient for preserving adequate total antioxidant status.
    Polski merkuriusz lekarski: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego 09/2010; 29(171):177-80.

Publication Stats

197 Citations
23.28 Total Impact Points


  • 2002-2015
    • Institute of Mother and Child
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2001-2013
    • Instytut Matki i Dziecka
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2000
    • Medical University of Warsaw
      Warszawa, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland