[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogels are a suitable scaffold material for a variety of tissue engineering applications. However, these materials have a weak structure and require reinforcement. Integrating electrospun fibers could strengthen material properties. This study created fibers and evaluated the influence of the presence of polar head groups within a polysaccharide backbone following functionalization: silated-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC). Electrospinning is a multi-parameter, step by step process that requires optimization of solution and process parameters to understand and control the process. Fibers were created for 2%–3% wt/v solutions in water and ethanol. Viscosities of solutions were correlated with spinnability. Variations on process parameters did not reveal major variation on fiber morphology. Once controlled, the process was used for HPMC/Si-HPMC mixture solutions. Solubilization and dilution of Si-HPMC were made with common solvents for electrospinning. Two forms of polymer conformation were electrospun: silanol ending and silanolate ending. Microstructures and resulting nanofibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDX). The results show the feasibility of our strategy for creating nanofibers and the influence of polar head groups on electrospinnability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract often requires external radiation therapy. However, radiation affects all the components of bone, with different degrees of sensitivity, and may produce severe side effects such as mandibular osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Intraosseous vascularization is thought to be decreased after irradiation, but its impact on total bone volume is still controversial. The aim of this study was to compare intraosseous vascularization, cortical bone thickness, and total bone volume in a rat model of ORN versus nonirradiated rats, using a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis after intracardiac injection of a contrast agent. The study was performed on 8-week-old Lewis 1A rats (n = 14). Eleven rats underwent external irradiation on the hind limbs by a single 80-Gy dose. Three rats did not receive irradiation and served as controls for statistical analysis. Eight weeks after the external irradiation, all the animals received a barium sulfate intracardiac injection under general anesthesia. All samples were analyzed with the micro-computed tomography system at a resolution of 5.5 μm. The images were later processed to create 3D reconstructions and study vascularization, bone volume, and cortical thickness. Data from irradiated and nonirradiated rats were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. No animal died after irradiation. Nineteen irradiated tibias and six nonirradiated tibias were included for micro-CT analysis. The vessel percentage was significantly lower in irradiated bones (p = 0.0001). The distance between the vessels, a marker of vascular destruction, was higher after irradiation (p = 0.001). The vessels were also more altered distally after irradiation (p = 0.028). Cortical thickness was severely decreased after irradiation, sometimes even reduced to zero. Both trabecular and cortical structures were destroyed after irradiation, with wide bone gaps. Finally, both total bone volume (p = 0.0001) and cortical thickness (p = 0.0001) were significantly decreased in irradiated tibias compared to nonirradiated tibias. These results led to multiple spontaneous fractures in the irradiated group, and the destruction of intraosseous vessels observed macroscopically with the radiographic preview. This study revealed the impact of radiation on intraosseous vasculature and cortical bone with a micro-CT analysis in a rat ORN model. Hypovascularization and osteopenia are consistent with the literature, contributing a morphological scale with high resolution. Visualization of the vasculature by micro-CT is an innovative technique to see the changes after radiation, and should help adjust bone tissue engineering in irradiated bone.
Calcified Tissue International 05/2015; 97(1). DOI:10.1007/s00223-015-0010-9 · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone repair is an important concept in tissue engineering, and the ability to repair bone in hypotrophic conditions such as that of irradiated bone, represents a challenge for this field. Previous studies have shown that a combination of bone marrow and (BCP) was effective to repair irradiated bone. However, the origin and role played by each cell type in bone healing still remains unclear. In order to track the grafted cells, the development of an animal model that is immunotolerant to an allograft of bone marrow would be useful. Furthermore, because the immune system interacts with bone turnover, it is of critical importance to demonstrate that immunosuppressive drugs do not interfere with bone repair. After a preliminary study of immunotolerance, cyclosporin-A was chosen to be used in immunosuppressive therapy. Ten rats were included to observe qualitative and quantitative bone repair 8 days and 6 weeks after the creation of bone defects. The defects were filled with an allograft of bone marrow alone or in association with BCP under immunosuppressive treatment (cyclosporin-A). The results showed that there was no significant interaction of cyclosporin-A with osseous regeneration. The use of this new immunotolerant rat model of bone marrow allograft in future studies will provide insight on how the cells within the bone marrow graft contribute to bone healing, especially in irradiated conditions.
Calcified Tissue International 02/2015; 96(5). DOI:10.1007/s00223-015-9970-z · 3.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-injection of high-dose buprenorphine is responsible for well-described complications. In 2011, we have been alerted by unusual but serious cutaneous complication among injection buprenorphine users. A prospective data collection identified 30 cases of necrotic cutaneous lesions after injection of filtered buprenorphine solution, among which 25 cases occurred following injection of buprenorphine generics. The main goal of our study was to put forward particularities that could explain the cutaneous complications, by qualitatively and quantitatively confronting particles present in Subutex and generics solutions. We used the same protocol that injected-buprenorphine users: generic or subutex tablets were crushed in sterile water and filtered through 2 filters commonly used (cotton-pad and sterifilt). Solutions were analyzed by laser granulometry, flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy. We have highlighted the wide variation of the quantity and the size of the particles present in solution between the two drugs after cotton-pad filtration. The proportion of particles <10 µm is systematically higher in the generic solutions than with Subutex. All of the insoluble particles found in generic solutions contain silica, whereas non- organic element was to be identified in the insoluble particles of Subutex. One skin biopsy obtained from one patient who developed a necrotic lesion after intravenous injection of filtrated solution of buprenorphine generic, shows non-organic elements. Identification of particles in situ enables us to confirm the presence of silica in the biopsy. Actually the monitoring of patient receiving generic of buprenorphine must be strengthened.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113991. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113991 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of bone regeneration in an osteoporotic environment, the present study described the development of an approach based on the use of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone substitutes that can promote new bone formation and locally deliver in situ bisphosphonate (BP), directly at the implantation site. The formulation of a CaP material has been optimized by designing an injectable apatitic cement that (i) hardens in situ despite the presence of BP and (ii) provides immediate mechanical properties adapted to clinical applications in an osteoporotic environment. We developed a large animal model for simulating lumbar vertebroplasty through a two-level lateral corpectomy on L3 and L4 vertebrae presenting a standardized osteopenic bone defect that was filled with cements. Both 2D and 3D analysis of micro-architectural parameters demonstrated that implantation of BP loaded cement in such vertebral defects positively influenced microarchitecture of the adjacent trabecular bone. This biological effect was distance-dependent from the implant, emphasizing the in situ effect of the BP and its release from the cement. As a drug device combination, this BP-containing apatitic cement shows good promise local approach for the prevention of osteoporotic vertebral fractures through percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consequences of the treatment of the squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aerodigestive tract (bone removal and external radiation therapy) are constant. Tissue engineering using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is considered as a promising alternative. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BCP and total fresh bone marrow (TBM) in regenerating irradiated bone defect. The aim of this study was to know if adding MSC to BCP + TBM mixture could improve the bone formation in irradiated bone defects. Twenty-four Lewis 1A rats received a single dose of 20 Gy to the hind limbs. MSC were sampled from non-irradiated donors and amplified in proliferative, and a part in osteogenic, medium. 3 weeks after, defects were created on femurs and tibias, which were filled with BCP alone, BCP + TBM, BCP + TBM + uncommitted MSC, or BCP + TBM + committed MSC. 3 weeks after, samples were removed and prepared for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The rate of bone ingrowth was significantly higher after implantation of BCP + TBM mixture. The adding of a high concentration of MSC, committed or not, didn't improve the bone regeneration. The association BCP + TBM remains the most efficient material for bone substitution in irradiated areas.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 08/2014; 25(12). DOI:10.1007/s10856-014-5282-5 · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maintenance of cell survival is essential for proper embryonic development. In the mouse, Notchless homolog 1 (Drosophila) (Nle1) is instrumental for survival of cells of the inner cell mass upon implantation. Here, we analyze the function of Nle1 after implantation using the Meox2tm1(cre)Sor mouse that expresses the Cre recombinase specifically in the epiblast at E5.5. First, we find that NLE1 function is required in epiblast cells, as Nle1-deficient cells are rapidly eliminated. In this report, we also show that the Meox2Cre transgene is active in specific tissues during organogenesis. In particular, we detect high Cre expression in the vertebral column, ribs, limbs and tailbud. We took advantage of this dynamic expression profile to analyze the effects of inducing mosaic deletion of Nle1 in the embryo. We show that Nle1 deletion in this context, results in severe developmental anomalies leading to lethality at birth. Mutant embryos display multiple developmental defects in particular during axial skeletal formation. We also provide evidence that axial defects are due to an increase in apoptotic cell death in the somite at E9.5. These data demonstrate an essential role for Nle1 during organogenesis and in particular during axial development.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e98507. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098507 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study reports on the incorporation of the self-setting polysaccharide derivative hydrogel (silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, or Si-HPMC) into the formulation of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) to develop a novel injectable material for bone substitution. The effects of Si-HPMC on the handling properties (injectability, cohesion and setting time) and mechanical properties (Young's modulus, fracture toughness, flexural and compressive strength) of CPCs were systematically studied. It was found that Si-HPMC could endow composite CPC pastes an appealing rheological behavior at the early stage of setting, promoting its application in open bone cavities. Moreover, Si-HPMC made the composite CPC have a good injectability and cohesion, and reduced the setting time. After hardening, Si-HPMC increased the porosity of CPCs, especially the macroporosity as a result of entrapped air bubbles; however it did not compromise but even improve the mechanical properties of composite CPCs, which demonstrates a strong toughening and strengthening effect. In view of the above, the Si-HPMC composite CPC may be particularly promising as bone substitute material for clinic application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous bone grafting (BG) remains the standard reconstruction strategy for large craniofacial defects. Calcium phosphate (CaP) biomaterials, such as biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), do not yield consistent results when used alone and must then be combined with cells through bone tissue engineering (BTE). In this context, total bone marrow (TBM) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are the primary sources of cellular material used with biomaterials. However, several other BTE strategies exist, including the use of growth factors, various scaffolds, and MSC isolated from different tissues. Thus, clinicians might be unsure as to which method offers patients the most benefit. For this reason, the aim of this study was to compare eight clinically relevant BTE methods in an "all-in-one" study.
We used a transgenic rat strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), from which BG, TBM, and MSC were harvested. Progenitor cells were then mixed with CaP materials and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After eight weeks, bone formation was evaluated by histology and scanning electron microscopy, and GFP-expressing cells were tracked with photon fluorescence microscopy.
Bone formation was observed in only four groups. These included CaP materials mixed with BG or TBM, in which abundant de novo bone was formed, and BCP mixed with committed cells grown in two- and three-dimensions, which yielded limited bone formation. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that only the TBM and BG groups were positive for GFP expressing-cells, suggesting that these donor cells were still present in the host and contributed to the formation of bone. Since the TBM-based procedure does not require bone harvest or cell culture techniques, but provides abundant de novo bone formation, we recommend consideration of this strategy for clinical applications.
PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81599. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081599 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits of pomegranate (PG) have raised a growing scientific interest. Since PG is endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, we hypothesized that it may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis.
We used ovariectomized (OVX) mice as a well-described model of postmenopausal osteoporosis to study the influence of PG consumption on bone health. Mice were divided into five groups as following: two control groups sham-operated and ovariectomized (OVX CT) mice fed a standard diet, versus three treated groups OVX mice given a modified diet from the AIN-93G diet, containing 5.7 % of PG lyophilized mashed totum (OVX PGt), or 9.6 % of PG fresh juice (OVX PGj) or 2.9 % of PG lyophilized mashed peel (OVX PGp).
As expected, ovariectomy was associated with a decreased femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone micro-architecture parameters. Consumption of PGj, PGp, or PGt induced bone-sparing effects in those OVX mice, both on femoral BMD and bone micro-architecture parameters. In addition, PG (whatever the part) up-regulated osteoblast activity and decreased the expression of osteoclast markers, when compared to what was observed in OVX CT animals. Consistent with the data related to bone parameters, PG consumption elicited a lower expression of pro-inflammatory makers and of enzymes involved in ROS generation, whereas the expression of anti-inflammatory markers and anti-oxidant actors was enhanced.
These results indicate that all PG parts are effective in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice. Such an effect could be partially explained by an improved inflammatory and oxidative status.
European Journal of Nutrition 11/2013; 53(5). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0615-6 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the current context of longer life expectancy, the prevalence of osteoporosis is increasingly important. This is why development of new strategies of prevention is highly suitable. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and its major component, punicic acid (a conjugated linolenic acid), have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties both in vitro and in vivo, two processes strongly involved in osteoporosis establishment. In this study, we demonstrated that PSO consumption (5% of the diet) improved significantly bone mineral density (240.24±11.85 vs. 203.04±34.19 mg/cm(3)) and prevented trabecular microarchitecture impairment in ovariectomized (OVX) mice C57BL/6J, compared to OVX control animals. Those findings are associated with transcriptional changes in bone tissue, suggesting involvement of both osteoclastogenesis inhibition and osteoblastogenesis improvement. In addition, thanks to an ex vivo experiment, we provided evidence that serum from mice fed PSO (5% by gavage) had the ability to significantly down-regulate the expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers and RANK-RANKL downstream signaling targets in osteoclast-like cells (RAW264.7) (RANK: negative 0.49-fold vs. control conditions). Moreover, in osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1), it elicited significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity (+159% at day 7), matrix mineralization (+271% on day 21) and transcriptional levels of major osteoblast lineage markers involving the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our data also reveal that PSO inhibited pro-inflammatory factors expression while stimulating anti-inflammatory ones. These results demonstrate that PSO is highly relevant regarding osteoporosis. Indeed, it offers promising alternatives in the design of new strategies in nutritional management of age-related bone complications.
The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 08/2013; 24(11). DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.04.005 · 3.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synthetic analogs to natural extracellular matrix at the nanometer level are of great potential for regenerative medicine. This study introduces a novel and simple method to produce polymer nanofibers and evaluates the properties of the resulting structures as well as their suitability to support cells and their potential interest for bone and vascular applications. The devised approach diffracts a polymer solution by means of a spraying apparatus and of an airstream as sole driving force. The resulting nanofibers were produced in an effective fashion and a factorial design allowed to isolate the processing parameters that control nanofiber size and distribution. The nanofibrillar matrices revealed to be of very high porosity and were effectively colonized by human bone marow mesenchymal cells while allowing extracellular matrix production and osteoblastic differentiation. In vivo, the matrices provided support for new bone formation and provided a good patency as small diameter vessel grafts.
Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 08/2013; 20(4). DOI:10.1089/ten.TEC.2013.0147 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogel polymers have many applications in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study in dogs was to investigate bone regeneration in dehiscence-type peri-implant defects created surgically and treated with (i) biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) granules alone; (ii) a composite putty hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)/BCP (MBCP/putty); and (iii) a polymer crosslinked membrane of silanized-HPMC (Si-HPMC/BCP) compared with empty controls. At 3 months, new bone formation was significantly more important in defects filled with HPMC/BCP or Si-HPMC/BCP compared with spontaneous healing in control (P = 0.032 and P = 0.046 respectively) and more substantial compared with BCP alone. Furthermore, new bone formation in direct contact with the implant surface was observed in all three groups treated with BCP. The addition of HPMC to the BCP granules may have enhanced the initial stability of the material within the blood clot in these large and complex osseous defects. The Si-HPMC hydrogel may also act as an occlusive membrane covering the BCP, which could improve the stability of the granules in the defect area. However, the crosslinking time of the Si-HPMC is too long for easy handling and the mechanical properties remain to be improved. The composite MBCP/putty appears to be a valuable bone-graft material in complex defects in periodontology and implantology. These encouraging results should now be confirmed in clinical studies.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 08/2013; 24(12). DOI:10.1007/s10856-013-5019-x · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of hydroxyapatite crystals and their insertion into collagen fibrils of the matrix are essential steps for bone mineralization. As phosphate is a main structural component of apatite crystals, its uptake by skeletal cells is critical and must be controlled by specialized membrane proteins. In mammals, in vitro studies have suggested that the high-affinity sodium-phosphate cotransporter PiT1 could play this role. In vivo, PiT1 expression was detected in hypertrophic chondrocytes of murine metatarsals, but its implication in bone physiology is not yet deciphered. As the complete deletion of PiT1 results in embryonic lethality at E12.5, we took advantage of a mouse model bearing two copies of PiT1 hypomorphic alleles to study the effect of a low expression of PiT1 on bone mineralization in vivo. In this report, we show that a 85% down-regulation of PiT1 in long bones resulted in a slight (6%) but significant reduction of femur length in young mice (15- and 30-day-old). However, despite a defect in alcian blue / alizarin red S and Von Kossa staining of hypomorphic 1-day-old mice, using X-rays micro-computed tomography, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and histological staining techniques we could not detect differences between hypomorphic and wild-type mice of 15- to 300-days old. Interestingly, the expression of PiT2, the paralog of PiT1, was increased 2-fold in bone of PiT1 hypomorphic mice accounting for a normal phosphate uptake in mutant cells. Whether this may contribute to the absence of bone mineralization defects remains to be further deciphered.
PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e65979. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0065979 · 3.23 Impact Factor