[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concerns have been raised regarding partial nephrectomy (PN) techniques that do not occlude the main renal artery.
Compare the perioperative outcomes of superselective versus main renal artery control during robotic PN.
A retrospective analysis of 121 consecutive patients undergoing robotic PN using superselective control (group 1, n=58) or main artery clamping (group 2, n=63).
Group 1 underwent tumor-specific devascularization, maintaining ongoing arterial perfusion to the renal remnant at all times. Group 2 underwent main renal artery clamping, creating global renal ischemia.
Perioperative and functional data were evaluated. The Pearson chi-square or Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used.
All robotic procedures were successful, all surgical margins were negative, and no kidneys were lost. Compared with group 2 tumors, group 1 tumors were larger (3.4 vs 2.6cm, p=0.004), more commonly hilar (24% vs 6%, p=0.009), and more complex (PADUA 10 vs 8, p=0.009). Group 1 patients had longer median operative time (p<0.001) and transfusion rates (24% vs 6%, p<0.01) but similar estimated blood loss (200 vs 150ml), perioperative complications (15% vs 13%), and hospital stay. Group 1 patients had less decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge (0% vs 11%, p=0.01) and at last follow-up (11% vs 17%, p=0.03). On computed tomography volumetrics, group 1 patients trended toward greater parenchymal preservation (95% vs 90%, p=0.07) despite larger tumor size and volume (19 vs 8ml, p=0.002). Main limitations are the retrospective study design, small cohort, and short follow-up.
Robotic PN with superselective vascular control enables tumor excision without any global renal ischemia. Blood loss, complications, and positive margin rates were low and similar to main artery clamping. In this initial developmental phase, limitations included more perioperative transfusions and longer operative time. The advantage of superselective clamping for better renal function preservation requires validation by prospective randomized studies.
Preserving global blood flow to the kidney during robotic partial nephrectomy (PN) does not lead to a higher complication rate and may lead to better postoperative renal function compared with clamped PN techniques.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To facilitate robotic nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, we developed a novel three dimensional (3D) surgical navigation model which is displayed on the Tile-Pro function of the da Vinci® surgeon console. Based on 3-D trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsies (Urostation®, Koelis), we reconstructed a 3-D model of the TRUS-visible, histologically-confirmed 'index' cancer lesion in 10 consecutive patients. Five key anatomic structures (prostate, image-visible biopsy-proven 'index' cancer lesion, neurovascular bundles, urethra, and recorded biopsy trajectories) were image-fused and displayed onto the Tile-Pro function of the robotic console. 3D model facilitated careful surgical dissection in the vicinity of the biopsy-proven 'index' lesion. Geographic location of the 'index lesion' on final histology correlated with the software-created 3D model. Negative surgical margins were achieved in 90%, except for one case with extensive extra-prostate extension. At post-operative 3 months, PSA were undetectable (<0.03 ng/ml) in all cases. The initial experience of the navigation model is presented.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 01/2014; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intraoperative transrectal ultrasonography during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy has been reported to lead to a reduction in surgical margin rates. However, the use of a surgeon-controlled ultrasound probe that allows for precise manipulation and direct interpretation of the image by a console surgeon has yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to show initial feasibility using the microtransducer with 9-mm scan length controlled by the console surgeon during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in 10 patients. The transducer is designed as a drop-in probe with a flexible cord for insertion through a laparoscopic port, and is controlled by a robotic arm with the ultrasonographic image shown as a console Tile-pro display. Intraoperative localization of the biopsy-proven cancerous hypoechoic lesion was feasible in four out of four cases. The microtransducer facilitated identification of the bladder neck as well as the appropriate level of neurovascular bundle release. Negative surgical margin was achieved in all 10 cases (100%), even though five of 10 patients (50%) had extraprostatic (pT3) disease. Recovery of erectile function and continence was encouraging. In conclusion, intraoperative ultrasound navigation using a drop-type microtransducer is a novel technique that could enhance the incremental value of the standard information.
International Journal of Urology 01/2014; · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant developments in transurethral surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), simple prostatectomy remains an excellent option for patients with large glands.
To describe our technique of transvesical robotic simple prostatectomy (RSP).
From May 2011 to April 2013, 25 patients underwent RSP.
We performed RSP using our technique.
Baseline demographics, pathology data, perioperative complications, 90-d complications, and functional outcomes were assessed.
Mean patient age was 72.9 yr (range: 54-88), baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was 23.9 (range: 9-35), prostate volume was 149.6ml (range: 91-260), postvoid residual (PVR) was 208.1ml (range: 72-800), maximum flow rate (Qmax) was 11.3ml/s, and preoperative prostate-specific antigen was 9.4 ng/ml (range: 1.9-56.3). Eight patients were catheter dependent before surgery. Mean operative time was 214min (range: 165-345), estimated blood loss was 143ml (range: 50-350), and the hospital stay was 4 d (range: 2-8). There were no intraoperative complications and no conversions to open surgery. Five patients had a concomitant robotic procedure performed. Early functional outcomes demonstrated significant improvement from baseline with an 85% reduction in mean IPSS (p<0.0001), an 82.2% reduction in mean PVR (p=0.014), and a 77% increase in mean Qmax (p=0.20). This study is limited by small sample size and short follow-up period. One patient had a urinary tract infection; two had recurrent hematuria, one requiring transfusion; one patient had clot retention and extravasation, requiring reoperation.
Our technique of RSP is safe and effective. Good functional outcomes suggest it is a viable option for BPH and larger glands and can be used for patients requiring concomitant procedures.
We describe the technique and report the initial results of a series of cases of transvesical robotic simple prostatectomy. The procedure is both feasible and safe and a good option for benign prostatic hyperplasia with larger glands.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present consensus panel convened to discuss the use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for small renal masses, formulate technical aspects, outline potential pitfalls and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician.
The meeting was conducted as an informal consensus process and no scoring system was used to measure the levels of agreement on the different topics. A moderated general discussion was used as the basis for consensus and arising issues were resolved at this point. A consensus was established and lack of agreement to topics or specific items was noted at this point.
Recommended biopsy technique: at least 2 cores, sampling different tumor regions with ultrasonography being the preferred method of image guidance. Pathological interpretation: "non-diagnostic samples" should refer to insufficient material, inconclusive and normal renal parenchyma. For non-diagnostic samples, a repeat biopsy is recommended. Fine needle aspiration may provide additional information but cannot substitute for core biopsy. Indications for RMB: biopsy is recommended in most cases except in patients with imaging or clinical characteristics indicative of pathology (syndromes, imaging characteristics) and cases whereby conservative management is not contemplated. RMB is recommended for active surveillance but not for watchful waiting candidates.
We report the results of an international consensus meeting on the use of renal mass biopsy for small renal masses, defining the technique, pathological interpretation and indications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To present the oncological and functional outcomes of salvage focal (SFC) and salvage total (STC) cryoablation for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after failed primary radiotherapy.
From March 2003 to August 2010, 50 men with biopsy-proven unilateral (n = 25) or bilateral (n = 25) radio-recurrent PCa underwent SFC or STC, respectively. Patients were assessed after treatment by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, transrectal ultrasonography, biopsy and questionnaires. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined using the Phoenix criteria (PSA nadir + 2 mg/mL). Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed.
The median pre-cryoablation PSA level and Gleason score were, respectively, 2.8 ng/mL and 7 for SFC, and 3.9 ng/mL and 7 for STC. The median follow-up was 31 and 53 months (P = 0.004) for SFC and STC, respectively. Oncological outcomes were as follows: no patient died; one patient who underwent STC developed bone metastases; eight patients who underwent SFC and three who underwent STC had BF and the 5-year BF-free survival rates were 54 and 86%, respectively. In those patients without BF, the mean PSA decreased by 86% for SFC and 90% for STC within the first year and remained stable. Functional outcomes were as follows: new onset urinary incontinence occurred in three (13%) patients in the STC group, whereas no patient in the SFC group developed incontinence (P = 0.10); Two of seven patients in the SFC group retained postoperative potency, but none of the four potent patients in the STC group recovered potency postoperatively (P = 0.48); one (4%) patient in the STC group developed a recto-urethral fistula, but none occurred in the SFC group (P = 0.48).
SFC and STC are feasible and safe with acceptable mid-term oncological outcomes. For carefully selected patients, SFC is an option that could be associated with lower treatment-related morbidity compared with STC. Although longer follow-up and more patient numbers are needed, our initial oncological and functional outcomes of SFC and STC are encouraging.
BJU International 08/2013; 112(3):298-307. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To describe a technique to manage large intravesical prostate lobes (IVPL) during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods: We used a "rescue stitch" to retract large IVPLs anteriorly out of the bladder lumen. This stitch is a 6-inch long 0-vicryl suture on a CT-1 needle with a Hem-o-lok clip tied to the tail end. We deployed this through the IVPL from distal to proximal allowing the Hem-o-lok clip to sit against the lobe's distal aspect. The suture is grasped and pulled toward the symphysis, delivering the IVPL from the bladder lumen providing an unobstructed view of the posterior bladder neck (BN). Results: This was performed in 15 patients. Median (range) time to prepare and deploy the stitch(es) was 2 (0.5-3) and 5 (2-15) minutes, respectively. Five patients required >1 stitch. BN reconstruction was not required. No patient had positive margin at the BN. Conclusions: Deploying a stitch allows anterior dynamic retraction of the prostate, facilitating the dissection of the posterior BN.
Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 07/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate three standardized robotic surgery training methods, inanimate, virtual reality and in vivo, for their construct validity. To explore the concept of cross-method validity, where the relative performance of each method is compared. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Robotic surgical skills were prospectively assessed in 49 participating surgeons who were classified as follows: 'novice/trainee': urology residents, previous experience <30 cases (n = 38) and 'experts': faculty surgeons, previous experience ≥30 cases (n = 11). Three standardized, validated training methods were used: (i) structured inanimate tasks; (ii) virtual reality exercises on the da Vinci Skills Simulator (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA); and (iii) a standardized robotic surgical task in a live porcine model with performance graded by the Global Evaluative Assessment of Robotic Skills (GEARS) tool. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate performance differences between novices and experts (construct validity). Spearman's correlation coefficient (ρ) was used to measure the association of performance across inanimate, simulation and in vivo methods (cross-method validity). RESULTS: Novice and expert surgeons had previously performed a median (range) of 0 (0-20) and 300 (30-2000) robotic cases, respectively (P < 0.001). Construct validity: experts consistently outperformed residents with all three methods (P < 0.001). Cross-method validity: overall performance of inanimate tasks significantly correlated with virtual reality robotic performance (ρ = -0.7, P < 0.001) and in vivo robotic performance based on GEARS (ρ = -0.8, P < 0.0001). Virtual reality performance and in vivo tissue performance were also found to be strongly correlated (ρ = 0.6, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We propose the novel concept of cross-method validity, which may provide a method of evaluating the relative value of various forms of skills education and assessment. We externally confirmed the construct validity of each featured training tool.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To provide discussion on several recently published case series describing complete intracorporeal robotic cystectomy. Are we making a complex and expensive procedure more challenging or are there patient benefits to be realized from a complete minimally invasive approach? We discuss how effective and cost-efficient a complete intracorporeal approach is, review the updates and comment on the future direction of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).
Several centers have recently reported a series of RARC with intracorporeal urinary diversion. Baseline demographics, complication rates and oncological outcome data were comparable to previously published open radical cystectomy series, as well as robotic cystectomy with extracorporeal urinary diversion series. In centers experienced in robotics, comparable outcomes were achieved early in the series with no significant difference in lymph node yields, positive surgical margin rates or complication rates. However, operation times and patient's length of stay (LOS) continued to improve, suggesting that aspect of the learning curve is longer than previously thought. Benefits such as decreased blood loss and reduced LOS, commonly associated with minimally invasive surgery, were seen and while costs of RARC remain prohibitive, reducing operative times and LOS will improve cost analysis.
RARC with totally intracorporeal urinary diversion is technically feasible with good early and intermediate-term oncological and complication rate results. High-volume centers with expertise can deliver a complete intracorporeal robotic cystectomy with no increase in the complication rates or additional costs compared to RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion. Further long-term oncological and functional data and the results of prospective randomized controlled trials are both pending to confirm these findings.
Current opinion in urology 03/2013; 23(2):135-40. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We report the perioperative outcomes of robotic/laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for multiple tumors at a single operative session. Outcomes were compared with those of a matched pair cohort treated with partial nephrectomy for a single renal tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively maintained database from 2001 to 2010 and identified 33 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy for multiple tumors. They were matched 1 to 1 with 33 patients treated with partial nephrectomy for a single tumor. The multiple and single groups were matched for dominant tumor size (3.2 and 3.3 cm, p = 0.61), patient age (60 and 57 years, p = 0.59) and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (79.7 and 91.8 ml per minute/1.73 m(2), p = 0.11), respectively. RESULTS: A total 114 tumors were excised, including 81 in the multiple cohort. There was a median of 2 tumors per kidney (range 2 to 6). In the multiple and single tumor groups estimated blood loss (250 and 235 ml, p = 0.46) and warm ischemia time (19 and 30 minutes, respectively, p = 0.18) were similar. Median operative time (300 vs 217 minutes, p = 0.002) and hospital stay (3 vs 1 days, p = 0.005) were longer in the multiple group. There were 2 conversions to laparoscopic radical nephrectomy per group. Overall, complications developed in 11 (33%) vs 7 patients (21%) treated with partial nephrectomy for multiple vs single tumors (p = 0.40). Median estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge home was 62.8 vs 67.6 ml per minute/1.73 m(2) in the multiple vs single tumor groups (p = 0.53). Histology confirmed malignancy in 82% and 67% of patients, respectively (p = 0.26). One recurrent tumor in the multiple group had a focal positive margin. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic/laparoscopic partial nephrectomy can be safely performed for multiple ipsilateral tumors with perioperative outcomes similar to those in patients with a solitary tumor.
The Journal of urology 12/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robotic radical cystectomy (RC) for cancer is beginning to gain wider acceptance. Yet, the concomitant urinary diversion is typically performed extracorporeally at most centers, primarily because intracorporeal diversion is perceived as technically complex and arduous. Previous reports on robotic, intracorporeal, orthotopic neobladder may not have fully replicated established open principles of reservoir configuration, leading to concerns about long-term functional outcomes.
To illustrate step-by-step our technique for robotic, intracorporeal, orthotopic, ileal neobladder, urinary diversion with strict adherence to open surgical tenets.
From July 2010 to May 2012, 24 patients underwent robotic intracorporeal neobladder at a single tertiary cancer center. This report presents data on patients with a minimum of 3-mo follow-up (n=8).
We performed robotic RC, extended lymphadenectomy to the inferior mesenteric artery, and complete intracorporeal diversion. Our surgical technique is demonstrated in the accompanying video. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Baseline demographics, pathology data, 90-d complications, and functional outcomes were assessed and compared with patients undergoing intracorporeal ileal conduit diversion (n=7).
Robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion was successfully performed in 15 patients (neobladder: 8 patients, ileal conduit: 7 patients) with a minimum 90-d follow-up. Median age and body mass index were 68 yr and 27kg/m(2), respectively. In the neobladder cohort, median estimated blood loss was 225ml (range: 100-700ml), median time to regular diet was 5 d (range: 4-10 d), median hospital stay was 8 d (range: 5-27 d), and 30- and 90-d complications were Clavien grade 1-2 (n=5 and 0), Clavien grade 3-5 (n=2 and 1), respectively. This study is limited by small sample size and short follow-up period.
An intracorporeal technique of robot-assisted orthotopic neobladder and ileal conduit is presented, wherein established open principles are diligently preserved. This step-wise approach is demonstrated to help shorten the learning curve of other surgeons contemplating robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion.
European Urology 08/2012; 62(5):891-901. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluate the use of robotically manipulated transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) for real-time monitoring of prostate and periprostatic anatomy during robot-assisted prostatectomy (RAP). Ten patients with clinically organ-confined prostate cancer undergoing RAP underwent preoperative and real-time intraoperative biplanar TRUS evaluation using a robotically manipulated TRUS device (ViKY System; EndoControl Medical, Grenoble, France). Median patient age was 66 yr (range: 54-88), baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 5.3 (range: 1.3-17.9), and four patients (40%) had clinical high-grade and high-stage disease. Bilateral or unilateral nerve sparing was performed in nine patients (90%). Median time for ViKY System setup to insertion of the TRUS probe was 7 min (range: 4-12). Complete robotic TRUS evaluation was successful in all patients. Five patients (50%) had TRUS-visible hypoechoic lesions, confirmed cancerous on preoperative biopsy. Relevant intraoperative TRUS findings were relayed in real time to the robotic surgeon, particularly during dissection of the bladder neck and prostatic apex, during neurovascular bundle preservation, and when hypoechoic prostate lesions approximated nerve-preserving dissection. Negative margins were achieved in nine patients (90%), including cases where significant intraprostatic lesions abutted or extended through the prostate capsule. No complications occurred. We concluded that real-time robotic TRUS guidance during RAP is feasible and safe. Robotic TRUS can provide the console surgeon with valuable anatomic information, thus maximizing functional preservation and oncologic success.
European Urology 04/2012; 62(2):341-8. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Living donor nephrectomy is a unique surgical procedure in urological practice and must optimize the trifecta of: patient safety, minimal morbidity and successful graft function. The laparoscopic technique has become the gold standard over the last decade for harvesting the kidney from a living donor. Laparo-endoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an attempt to further enhance cosmetic benefits and reduce the morbidity for potential kidney donors. We have summarized and reviewed the literature of LESS-DN and described the techniques and outcomes.
Using the National Library of Medicine database, the English language literature was reviewed from 2006 to 2011. Keyword searches included LESS, Donor, Nephrectomy, Living, Single-site, e-NOTES, Mini-invasive, Laparoscopic, Single-port. Within the bibliography of selected references, additional sources were retrieved.
After Gill's description of the first four patients to undergo LESS-DN, we found five series published describing the surgical techniques of LESS-DN as well as the outcomes. We have outlined in detail the various techniques of the trans-umbilical LESS-DN and compared the outcomes with conventional LDN. We also briefly discuss new innovative techniques of LESS-DN.
LESS-DN is a safe albeit technically challenging alternative to LDN. LESS-DN appears to have comparable results to LDN in terms of graft function, patient morbidity, and cosmesis. Further long term results and the development in parallel with other LESS procedures is required before LESS-DN is to be considered a standard of care.
Archivos españoles de urología 04/2012; 65(3):318-28.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite numerous retrospective series of laparoendoscopic single site surgery, cohorts have generally been small and followup largely short-term. Therefore, we report intermediate term outcomes for patients undergoing reconstructive laparoendoscopic single site procedures at a single institution.
Upon review of our prospectively maintained laparoendoscopic single site urological database of 185 cases, 32 reconstructive procedures were identified including pyeloplasty (25), ileal interposition (3), ureteroneocystostomy (3) and retrocaval ureter repair (1). Perioperative data were reviewed, and clinical and radiographic success was noted.
Median followup was 24.4 months for pyeloplasty, 35 months for ileal interposition, 29.4 months for ureteroneocystostomy and 20 months for retrocaval ureter repair. At last followup 24 of 25 patients treated with pyeloplasty, 2 of 3 with ileal ureter, 3 of 3 with ureteroneocystostomy and 1 of 1 with retrocaval ureter reported being asymptomatic or improved after the procedure. Delayed incisional hernia repair was required in 1 patient. One death occurred during the followup period, remote from the date of surgery. No other complications were noted.
Intermediate term results after laparoendoscopic single site reconstructive procedures remain promising. Further followup of this patient population is required to ensure the durability of results. Prospective evaluation is also needed to assess if advantages exist for laparoendoscopic single site reconstructive procedures compared to standard minimally invasive approaches.
The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(5):1702-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the accuracy of the novel Urostation 3-dimensional transrectal ultrasound system (Koelis, La Tranche, France) for image based mapping biopsies in a prostate phantom. The system is capable of 1) registering the 3-dimensional location of each biopsy track in the 3-dimensional prostate volume data and 2) performing elastic image fusion of transrectal ultrasound with magnetic resonance imaging.
We used 3 CIRS-053 prostate phantoms containing 3 hypoechoic lesions to perform ultrasound guided biopsy and 3 CIRS-066 phantoms (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems, Norfolk, Virginia) containing 3 isoechoic but magnetic resonance imaging visible lesions to perform magnetic resonance fusion guided biopsy. Three targeted biopsies were done per lesion. Each biopsy tract was injected with gadolinium based magnetic resonance contrast mixed with india ink. Phantoms were then subjected to 1 mm slice magnetic resonance imaging and serial step sectioning to assess the accuracy of targeted biopsy.
A total of 27 ultrasound guided biopsies were targeted into 9 hypoechoic lesions. All 27 biopsies (100%) successfully hit the target lesion. For hypoechoic lesions mean ± SD procedural targeting error was 1.52 ± 0.78 mm and system registration error was 0.83 mm, resulting in an overall error of 2.35 mm. Of the 27 magnetic resonance fusion biopsies 24 (84%) hit the lesion. For isoechoic lesions mean procedural targeting error was 2.09 ± 1.28 mm, resulting in an overall error of 2.92 mm.
The novel, computer assisted, 3-dimensional transrectal ultrasound biopsy localization system achieved encouraging accuracy with less than 3 mm error for targeting hypoechoic and isoechoic lesions. The ability to register actual biopsy trajectory and perform elastic magnetic resonance/ultrasound image fusion is a significant advantage for future focal therapy application.
The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(3):1080-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a novel concept of zero ischemia anatomical robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
Our technique primarily involves anatomical vascular microdissection and preemptive control of tumor specific, tertiary or higher order renal arterial branch(es) using neurosurgical aneurysm micro-bulldog clamps. In 58 consecutive patients the majority (70%) had anatomically complex tumors including central (67%), hilar (26%), completely intrarenal (23%), pT1b (18%) and solitary kidney (7%). Data were prospectively collected and analyzed from an institutional review board approved database.
Of 58 cases undergoing zero ischemia robotic (15) or laparoscopic (43) partial nephrectomy, 57 (98%) were completed without hilar clamping. Mean tumor size was 3.2 cm, mean ± SD R.E.N.A.L. score 7.0 ± 1.9, C-index 2.9 ± 2.4, operative time 4.4 hours, blood loss 206 cc and hospital stay 3.9 days. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications (22.8%) were low grade (Clavien grade 1 to 2) in 19.3% and high grade (Clavien grade 3 to 5) in 3.5%. All patients had negative cancer surgical margins (100%). Mean absolute and percent change in preoperative vs 4-month postoperative serum creatinine (0.2 mg/dl, 18%), estimated glomerular filtration rate (-11.4 ml/minute/1.73 m(2), 13%), and ipsilateral kidney function on radionuclide scanning at 6 months (-10%) correlated with mean percent kidney excised intraoperatively (18%). Although 21% of patients received a perioperative blood transfusion, no patient had acute or delayed renal hemorrhage, or lost a kidney.
The concept of zero ischemia robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is presented. This anatomical vascular microdissection of the artery first and then tumor allows even complex tumors to be excised without hilar clamping. Global surgical renal ischemia is unnecessary for the majority of patients undergoing robotic and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy at our institution.
The Journal of urology 03/2012; 187(3):807-14. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? One area of particular growth for robotic surgery has been partial nephrectomy. Despite a perceived notion that robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is more easily adaptable compared to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, there is nonetheless an associated learning curve. Validated training models with a corresponding assessment method for robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy were previously unavailable. We have designed and validated a RAPN surgical model appropriate for resident and fellow training.
To evaluate the face, content and construct validities of a novel ex vivo surgical training model for robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN).
We prospectively identified participants as novice (not completed any robotic console cases), intermediate (at least one robotic console case but <100 cases), and expert (≥100 robotic console cases). Each participant performed a partial nephrectomy using the da Vinci Si Surgical System on an ex vivo porcine kidney with an embedded Styrofoam ball that mimics a renal tumour. Subjects completed a post-study questionnaire assessing training model realism and utility. Participants were anonymously judged by three expert reviewers using a validated laparoscopic assessment tool. Performance between groups was compared using the tukey-kramer test.
The 46 participants recruited for this study included 24 novices, nine intermediates, and 13 experts. Overall, expert surgeons rated the training model as 'very realistic' (median visual analogue score 7/10) (face validity). Experts also rated the model as an 'extremely useful' training tool for residents (median 9/10) and fellows (9/10) (content validity), although less so for experienced robotic surgeons (5/10). Experts outscored novices on overall performance (P = 0.0002) as well as individual metrics, including 'depth perception,''bimanual dexterity,''efficiency,''tissue handling,''autonomy,''precision,' and 'instrument and camera awareness' (P < 0.05) (construct validity). Experts similarly outperformed intermediates in most metrics (P < 0.05).
Our novel ex vivo RAPN surgical model has demonstrated face, content and construct validity. Future development of this model should include simulation of haemostasis management and renal reconstruction.
BJU International 02/2012; 110(6):870-4. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the increasing use of laparoscopic and robotic radical cystectomy (RC), there are perceived concerns about the adequacy of lymph node dissection (LND).
Describe the robotic and laparoscopic technique and the short-term outcomes of high extended pelvic LND (PLND) up to the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) during RC.
From January 2007 through September 2009, we performed high extended PLND with proximal extent up to the IMA (n=10) or aortic bifurcation (n=5) in 15 patients undergoing robotic RC (n=4) or laparoscopic RC (n=11) at two institutions.
We performed robotic extended PLND with the proximal extent up to the IMA or aortic bifurcation. The LND was performed starting from the right external iliac, obturator, internal iliac, common iliac, preaortic and para-aortic, precaval, and presacral and then proceeding to the left side. The accompanying video highlights our detailed technique.
Median age was 69 yr, body mass index was 26, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥ 3 was present in 40% of patients. All urinary diversions, including orthotopic neobladder (n=5) and ileal conduit (n=10), were performed extracorporeally.
All 15 procedures were technically successful without need for conversion to open surgery. Median operative time was 6.7h, estimated blood loss was 500 ml, and three patients (21%) required blood transfusion. Median nodal yield in the entire cohort was 31 (range: 15-78). The IMA group had more nodes retrieved (median: 42.5) compared with the aortic bifurcation group (median: 20.5). Histopathology confirmed nodal metastases in four patients (27%), including three patients in the IMA group and one patient in the aortic bifurcation group. Perioperative complications were recorded in six cases (40%). During a median follow-up of 13 mo, no patient developed local or systemic recurrence. Limitations of the study include its retrospective design and small cohort of patients.
High extended PLND during laparoscopic or robotic RC is technically feasible. Longer survival data in a larger cohort of patients are necessary to determine the proper place for robotic and laparoscopic surgery in patients undergoing RC for high-risk bladder cancer.
European Urology 02/2012; 61(2):350-5. · 10.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the concurrent and predictive validity of a novel robotic surgery simulator in a prospective, randomized study.
A total of 24 robotic surgery trainees performed virtual reality exercises on the da Vinci® Skills Simulator using the da Vinci Si™ surgeon console. Baseline simulator performance was captured. Baseline live robotic performance on ex vivo animal tissue exercises was evaluated by 3 expert robotic surgeons using validated laparoscopic assessment metrics. Trainees were then randomized to group 1-simulator training and group 2-no training while matched for baseline tissue scores. Group 1 trainees underwent a 10-week simulator curriculum. Repeat tissue exercises were done at study conclusion to assess performance improvement. Spearman's analysis was used to correlate baseline simulator performance with baseline ex vivo tissue performance (concurrent validity) and final tissue performance (predictive validity). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare group performance.
Groups 1 and 2 were comparable in pre-study surgical experience and had similar baseline scores on simulator and tissue exercises (p >0.05). Overall baseline simulator performance significantly correlated with baseline and final tissue performance (concurrent and predictive validity each r = 0.7, p <0.0001). Simulator training significantly improved tissue performance on key metrics for group 1 subjects with lower baseline tissue scores (below the 50th percentile) than their group 2 counterparts (p <0.05). Group 1 tended to outperform group 2 on final tissue performance, although the difference was not significant (p >0.05).
Our study documents the concurrent and predictive validity of the Skills Simulator. The benefit of simulator training appears to be most substantial for trainees with low baseline robotic skills.
The Journal of urology 12/2011; 187(2):630-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: • Robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) has emerged as an attractive minimally invasive nephron-sparing surgical option. However, on-going concerns about RPN include: (i) prolonged ischaemia time with potential implications on renal functional outcomes, and (ii) questions about the ability of RPN to address technically challenging hilar tumours. • Herein, we detail the technique and present initial perioperative outcomes of our novel technique of zero-ischaemia RPN for complex hilar tumours.
• Since May 2010, >100 patients underwent minimally invasive zero-ischaemia PN. Of these, 21 had procedure done robotically. Of these, seven patients had hilar tumours. RPN was offered to all patients irrespective of tumour or reno-vascular anatomy, contralateral kidney characteristics or renal function. • Data were prospectively collected and recorded in an Institutional Review Board-approved database. • We detail our zero-ischaemia RPN technique and present early perioperative outcomes.
• Zero-ischaemia RPN was successful in all cases without any hilar clamping. The median (range) tumour size was 4.1 (2.6-6.4) cm and the median RENAL score was 10 (8-10). • The warm ischaemia time was zero in all cases. • The median (range) operative time was 222 (150-330) min, estimated blood loss was 150 (100-500) mL, and the percentage kidney spared was 75 (50-90)%. The median hospital stay was 4 (3-6) days. • There were no intraoperative complications; two patients had postoperative complications (Clavien grade I and II). No patient had a postoperative haemorrhage, urological/renal complication or lost a kidney. All tumour specimens had negative surgical margins on pathology. • The median absolute decrease in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate at discharge was 0 (0.2-0.7) mg/dL (P = 0.4) and 5 (-16 to 29) mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (P = 0.8), respectively.
• Zero-ischaemia RPN for hilar tumours is safe and feasible and to our knowledge the first report in the literature. • Elimination of warm ischaemia may optimally preserve renal function. Prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm any renal functional advantages of clamp-free RPN. • Global renal ischaemia appears to be unnecessary during RPN for hilar tumours.
BJU International 09/2011; 108(6 Pt 2):948-54. · 3.05 Impact Factor