[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal cutoff of the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) among Han adults in Xinjiang, which is located in the center of Asia, is unknown. We aimed to examine the relationship between different WHRs and cardiovascular risk factors among Han adults in Xinjiang, and determine the optimal cutoff of the WHR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 (ICAM‑1) is an important adhesion molecule that has a crucial role in lymphocyte migration and atherosclerosis pathogenesis activation. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between the rs5498 polymorphism of the ICAM‑1 gene and coronary heart disease (CHD). The rs5498 polymorphism of the ICAM‑1 gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction‑restriction fragment length polymorphism in 674 patients with CHD and 779 control subjects. The results showed that the frequency of the G allele was significantly higher in patients with CHD than that in controls (29.1 vs. 23.3%; P<0.001). The frequency of the AG+GG genotypes was higher in patients with CHD than that in controls (49.7 vs. 40.8%; P=0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that AG+GG was an independent risk factor for CHD (odds ratio, 1.919; 95% confidence intervals, 1.471‑2.503; P<0.001). For males, the frequencies of the G allele and AG+GG genotype were also higher in patients with CHD than those in control subjects (frequency of G allele, 29.9 vs. 22.7%; P<0.001; frequency of AG+GG genotype, 50.6 vs. 40.3%; P=0.001). For females, no significant differences in genotype or allele distribution were observed between the two groups. In conclusion, it was demonstrated in the present study that the rs5498 polymorphism of the ICAM‑1 gene was associated with CHD in males. Males with the G allele (AG and GG genotype) may therefore have a higher risk for CHD than those with the AA genotype.
Molecular Medicine Reports 07/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell activation and dysfunction are the foundation of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Endothelial cell activation is mediated by the level of gene transcription. Early growth response 3 (Egr3) is a critical determinant of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signalling in activated endothelial cells. If endothelial cells are excessively activated, it may lead to vasculopathic diseases, such as pathologic angiogenesis, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the Egr3 gene polymorphisms and CAD.
Lipids in Health and Disease 05/2014; 13(1):84. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: The nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulatory network of inflammation. The deletion variant allele of the NFKB1-94 insertion/deletion (ins/del) ATTG promoter polymorphism results in lower transcription levels of the p50 subunit, and the variant allele has been associated with several inflammatory diseases as well as with coronary artery disease (CAD) with inflammation playing an important part in the pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the human NFKB1 gene polymorphism and CAD in a Han and Uygur population of China. Methods: We used the following two independent case-control studies: a Han population (633 CAD patients and 616 control subjects) and a Uygur population (437 CAD patients and 356 control subjects). All participants were genotyped for the same one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs28362491) of the NFKB1 gene, that is, DD, ATTG deleted homozygote; ID, ATTG inserted and deleted heterozygote and II, ATTG inserted homozygote by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The distribution of the SNP (rs28362491) genotypes was significantly different between CAD and control participants in women of the Han (p=0.029) and the Uygur (p=0.032) populations, but not in men. Further, DD carriers of the SNP in the NFKB1 gene were more frequent in female CAD patients than in controls in both the Han (23.2% vs. 13.5%, p=0.009) and the Uygur (19.8% vs. 8.3%, p=0.012) population. The significant difference between DD and ID+II genotypes was retained after adjustment for covariates (for Han, odds ratio [OR]: 1.805, p=0.029 and for Uygur, OR: 3.192, p=0.011). Conclusions: The DD genotype of the SNP (rs28362491) in the NFKB1 gene may be considered a genetic marker of CAD in Han and Uygur women in China.
Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 05/2014; · 1.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study examined the association between uric acid levels and high blood pressure in a multiethnic study of Chinese children and adolescents.
The participants were divided into four different groups according to the uric acid quartiles. Three logistic regression models were conducted to investigate the relationship between the high blood pressure and uric acid levels. Model 1 adjusted age, sex and ethnicity. Model 2 adjusted age, sex, ethnicity, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose and waist circumference. Model 3 adjusted all the confounding factors in model 2 except the waist circumference and BMI. The concentrations of uric acid in high blood pressure participants and normotensive participants were compared with or without adjustment for confounding factors.
A total of 3778 participants aged 10-15 years from the Xinjiang Congenital Heart Disease Survey were included in the present study. The percentages of the high blood pressure in the four different uric acid quartiles were 7.4, 8.6, 9.6 and 11.8%, respectively. In model 1, 2 and 3 of the logistic regression, the participants in the third and fourth uric acid quartiles had significantly higher chance of suffering the high blood pressure when compared with the participants in the first uric acid quartile [odds ratio 1.608, 1.587, 1.597, P = 0.005, 0.015, 0.015, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the third quartile; odds ratio 1.981, 1.945, 1.810, P = 0.001, 0.002, 0.007, respectively, between participants in the first quartile and the fourth quartile). The concentrations of serum uric acid were 220.7 μmol/l in high blood pressure participants and 204.1 μmol/l in normotensive participants (P = 0.024). After adjustment for confounding factors, the concentrations of serum uric acid were 219.7 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in one model (P < 0.001) and 219.3 vs. 204.5 μmol/l in the other model (P < 0.001).
Among Chinese children and adolescents, increasing levels of serum uric acid are associated with high blood pressure.
Journal of Hypertension 02/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang, China.
Stratified sampling method was used to select a representative sample of the general population including Chinese Han, Uygur, and Kazak in this geographic area. Seven cities were chosen. Based on the government records of registered residences, one participant was randomly selected from each household. The eligibility criterion for the study was >= 35 years of age.
A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Han, 4,767 Uygur, and 4,094 Kazak), were randomly selected from 26 villages in 7 cities. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 52.72% in the all participants. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher in Han than that in the other two ethnic (58.58% in Han, 48.27% in Uygur, and 49.60% in Kazak, P < 0.000 ). The prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher in men than that in women (56.4% vs. 49.3%, P < 0.000). Among the participants with dyslipidemia, the proportion of those who aware, treat, control of dyslipidemia were 53.67%, 22.51%, 17.09% in Han, 42.19%, 27.78%, 16.20% in Uygur, 37.02%, 21.11%, 17.77% in Kazak.
Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in Xinjiang. The proportion of participants with dyslipidemia who were aware, treated, and controlled is unacceptably low. These results underscore the urgent need to develop national strategies to improve the prevention, detection, and treatment of dyslipidemia in Xinjiang.
Lipids in Health and Disease 01/2014; 13(1):4. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Acupuncture is frequently advocated as an adjunct treatment for essential hypertension. The aim of this review was to assess its adjunct effectiveness in treating hypertension. Methods. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP through November, 2012, for eligible randomized controlled trials that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture. Outcome measures were changes in diastolic (DBP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Results. A total of 4 randomized controlled trials were included. We found no evidence of an improvement with the fact that acupuncture relative to sham acupuncture in SBP change (n = 386; mean difference = -3.80 mmHg, 95% CI = -10.03-2.44 mmHg; I (2) = 99%), and an insignificant improvement in DBP change (n = 386; mean difference = -2.82 mmHg, 95% CI = -5.22-(-0.43) mmHg; I (2) = 97%). In subgroup analyses, acupuncture significantly improved both SBP and DBP in patients taking antihypertensive medications. Only minor acupuncture-related adverse events were reported. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with acupuncture significantly lowers blood pressure in patients taking antihypertensive medications. We did not find that acupuncture without antihypertensive medications significantly improves blood pressure in those hypertensive patients.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2014; 2014:279478. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been scarcely studied in Xinjiang, a multi-ethnic region.
Multi-ethnic, cross-sectional cardiovascular risk survey study in Xinjiang, including individuals of Uygur (n = 4695), Han (n = 3717) and Kazakh (n = 3196) ethnicities, aged 35-74 years. Analyses involved 11,608 participants with complete data enrolled between October 2007 and March 2010.
There were differences in age-standardized prevalence of CVD risk factors between the three groups (all P < 0.001). Hypertension, obesity and smoking rates were higher among Kazakh (54.6%, 24.5%, and 35.8%, respectively). Dyslipidemia prevalence was higher among Uygur (54.3%), and diabetes prevalence was higher among Hans (7.1%). Age-standardized prevalence of adverse CVD risk profiles was different across different ethnicities. Compared with the Han participants, the Uygur and Kazakh had more CVD risk factors (P < 0.001). Compared with the Han participants, the adjusted odds ratios of 1, 2, and >=3 risk factors profiles for Kazakh and Uygur participants were higher (all P < 0.001).
The present study showed the pervasive burden of CVD risk factors in all participant groups in the Xinjiang region. Three major ethnic groups living in Xinjiang had striking differences in the prevalence of major CVD risk factors and adverse risk profiles. Ethnic-specific strategies should be developed to prevent CVD in different ethnic groups, as well as to develop strategies to prevent future development of adverse CVD risk factors at a younger age.
Lipids in Health and Disease 12/2013; 12(1):185. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolemia, typically due to excessive cholesterol uptake, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for ∼50% of all deaths in developed societies. Although it has been shown that intestinal cholesterol absorption is mediated by vesicular endocytosis of the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, the mechanism of sterol-stimulated NPC1L1 internalization is still mysterious. Here, we identified an endocytic peptide signal, YVNXXF (where X stands for any amino acid), in the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail of NPC1L1. Cholesterol binding on the N-terminal domain of NPC1L1 released the YVNXXF-containing region of NPC1L1 from association with the plasma membrane and enabled Numb binding. We also found that Numb, a clathrin adaptor, specifically recognized this motif and recruited clathrin for internalization. Disrupting the NPC1L1-Numb interaction decreased cholesterol uptake. Ablation of Numb in mouse intestine significantly reduced dietary cholesterol absorption and plasma cholesterol level. Together, these data show that Numb is a pivotal protein for intestinal cholesterol absorption and may provide a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type IV collagen is important for the structural integrity and function of basement membranes. Basement membranes surround vascular smooth muscle cells in the media, COL4A1 is the most abundant component of type IV collagen in all Basement membranes. However, the relationship between COL4A1 genetic polymorphisms and coronary artery disease (CAD) remains unclear. We performed a case--control study to explore the association of COL4A1 genetic polymorphisms with CAD in Uygur population of China.
1095 Uygur people (727 men, 368 women) including 471 CAD patients and 624 controls were selected for the present study. Two SNPs (rs605143 and rs565470) were genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length (PCR-RFLP) method.
For total and men, the rs605143 was found to be associated with CAD by in a dominate model (p = 0.014, p = 0.013, respectively). The difference remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment (p = 0.036, p = 0.014, respectively). The rs565470 was also found to be associated with CAD in a recessive model for total and men (both p < 0.001), and the difference remained statistically significant after multivariate adjustment (P = 0.002, P = 0.001, respectively).
Both rs605143 and rs565470 of COL4A1gene are associated with CAD in Uygur population of China.
Lipids in Health and Disease 10/2013; 12(1):153. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To explore the distribution on K469E single nucleotide polymorphism of ICAM-1 gene among people with Uygur ethnicity, in Xinjiang and to analyze the correlation between ICAM-1 gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease.
245 patients with coronary heart disease patients and 377 healthy controls in Xinjiang Uygur population were studied. ICAM-1 gene K469E genotype located in exon 6 were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragments length polymorphism.
Distribution of genotypes in the two groups appeared to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). The distribution of genotypes showed significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.039)and the distributions of K and E allele also presented statistically significant difference (P = 0.031). Significant difference was also observed in males(P = 0.029 for genotype, P = 0.025 for allele)but not in females. After adjusted for confounding factors, results from logistic regression analysis indicated that KK genotype was a risk factor for CHD in Uygur male population (OR = 2.389, 95% CI:1.458-3.915, P = 0.001).
Genetic polymorphism of ICAM-1 K469E might increase the risk for coronary artery disease in males of Uygur patients in Xinjiang.
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi 10/2013; 34(10):1018-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: C5L2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), has been demonstrated to be a ligand for acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the association of a novel variation (901A > G) of C5L2 gene with coronary artery disease (CAD).
We identified a novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), (901G > A), in exon 2 using a polymerase chain reaction direct-sequencing method. This nucleotide change causes the amino-acid order from Arginine to glutaminate at codon 300. We analyzed the relationship between this SNP and CAD in two independent case--control studies: one was in a Han population (492 CAD patients and 577 control subjects) and the other was in a Uygur population (319 CAD patients and 554 control subjects).
The frequency of AG genotype in CAD subjects was less than that in the control subjects not only in Han (1.8% vs 8.6%, P < 0.001, OR = 0.143, 95% CI: 0.068 ~ 0.302) but also in Uygur population (0.9% vs 5.2%, P = 0.001, OR = 0.246, 95% CI: 0.072 ~ 0.837). After adjustment for known CAD risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking, age and gender, the difference remained significant.
The 901G > A polymorphism of C5L2 may be a genetic maker of CAD in the Han and Uygur population in western China.
Lipids in Health and Disease 09/2013; 12(1):139. · 2.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives. To estimate the current prevalence and epidemiology of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) among adult populations from different ethnic groups in Xinjiang province and to further establish a theoretical basis for developing personalized therapeutic strategies for hypertensive populations. Methods. To analyze the prevalence and risk factors of ISH in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang province, a cluster sampling method was adopted to conduct a cross-sectional study on people aged 35 years and older from the Han, Uygur and Kazakh populations in the Urumqi, Kelamayi, Hetian, Zhaosu, Fukang, Tulufan and Fuhai. Results. A total of 14,618 adults were surveyed with a response rate of 88.80%. The overall prevalence of ISH was 11.95% (men: 10.84% vs women: 12.92%); the prevalence of ISH in women was significantly higher (χ(2) = 15.06, p = 0.00) than that in men. The prevalence varied significantly with age (χ(2) = 822.71, p = 0.00) and increased in the elderly (χ(2) = 769.59, p = 0.00). A logistic regression analysis revealed that age, obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for ISH; patients with hypertension combined with obesity or diabetes are at a high risk of ISH. Conclusions. The prevalence of ISH in Xinjiang is higher than average and exhibits a gender difference. There is a trend of increased prevalence with increasing age. Populations with obesity, diabetes or dyslipidemia, and patients who have hypertension combined with obesity and/or diabetes, should be aware of early preventive interventions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to break the door-to-balloon time (DTBT) into constituent elements, and compared which components prolonged markedly. We identified the factors that significantly prolonged the DTBT in an underdeveloped area of China.
The patients were included from January 2008 to December 2010 in 301 consecutive patients presenting with STEMI in our hospital. We analysed the components of total DTB times, such as 'Diagnosis time', 'Cardiologist consultation time', 'Explain the patient's condition time', 'Transferring time', 'Preparation of the catheterisation laboratory (CL) time', and determined which factors significantly prolonged the DTBT potentially.
The median DTBT of all patients was 134 (98-186) min. The group was divided by the DTBT into two: ≤120 min and >120 min. In the ≤120 min group, more patients (68.1%) presented to our hospital during working hours (p=0.000), whereas in the >120 min group, more patients (63.2%) presented out of hours (p=0.000). More patients (49.3%) presented when the interventionist was on site (p=0.000) in the ≤120 min group. In the >120 min group, the times for consultation by the cardiologist and explaining the patient's condition to the family prolonged markedly, as compared to the ≤120 min group (p=0.000) when the interventionist was off-duty (OR=4.050, p=0.000) and presentation during non-working hours (OR=3.334, p=0.000) were significant predictors of >120 min DTB times.
In our centre, the time of consultation by the cardiologists and explaining the patient's condition to the family accounted for most of the delay in reperfusion. A lack of interventionists usually resulted in a delay during non-working hours in the CL. Several measures should be taken involving asking emergency department physicians to awake CL directly, sending the patients' information to the cardiologists, popularising medical knowledge to the citizens, and increasing the numbers of interventionists qualified to carry out primary percutaneous coronary intervention, should be developed to shorten the DTBT.
Emergency Medicine Journal 08/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Serum amyloid A (SAA) was reported to be associated with insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate the association of SAA genetic polymorphisms with plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic subjects. Methods: All participants (n=1220) were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2229338, rs12218, rs4638289, rs7131332 and rs11603089) of SAA gene were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results: In the present study, we found rs2229338, rs4638289 and rs12218 were significantly associated with plasma glucose levels in a dominate model, recessive model or additive model before and after multivariate adjustment (all p<0.05). These associations were not found in rs7131332 and rs11603089 before and after adjustment of key co-variants. Conclusions: The genetic polymorphisms of SAA1 were associated with plasma glucose levels in non-diabetic subjects.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 08/2013; · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to compare personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 phenotype with conventional antiplatelet therapy in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
A total of 600 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI randomly received a personalized antiplatelet therapy (group A; n=301) or conventional antiplatelet treatment (group B; n=299). For group A, antiplatelet therapy was performed according to CYP2C19 phenotype. For group B, the patients received conventional antiplatelet treatment without detected CYP2C19 genotype. The primary end point was compared between these two groups. This study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-TRC-11001807).
The primary end point occurred in 27 patients assigned to conventional treatment as compared with 8 patients assigned to personalized therapy (cumulative event rate, 9.03% vs. 2.66%; P<0.01). The composite rate of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 180days occurred in 3 and 18 patients in the two groups, respectively (cumulative event rate, 1.0% and 6.2%, P<0.01). The cumulative 180-day incidence of ST was significantly lower in group A than in group B (0.66% vs. 3.01%, P=0.032). The 180-day incidence of MI (0.33% vs. 3.01%, P=0.011) and death (0.33% vs. 2.34%, P=0.011) was fewer than that in control, respectively. We did not find the significant difference in bleeding events between the 2 groups.
Personalized antiplatelet therapy according to CYP2C19 genotype after PCI can significantly decrease the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events and the risk of 180-day ST in Chinese population.
International journal of cardiology 07/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor