Alessandra Bortolazzi

Rovigo General Hospital, Rovigo, Veneto, Italy

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Publications (18)59.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Heart rate (HR) has been found to be associated with target organ damage in hypertension but the predictive capacity of resting HR vs ambulatory HR in longitudinal studies is not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate whether clinic HR and ambulatory HR assessed at baseline were independent predictors of albumin excretion rate (AER) and microalbuminuria (MA) in the early stage of hypertension. The study was conducted in a cohort of 621 white stage 1 hypertensive subjects from the HARVEST never treated for hypertension (mean age 33.8 ± 8.4 years, 449 men). Clinic HR was the average of 6 readings. Clinic HR, daytime HR and night-time HR were included separately in linear (for AER) and logistic (for MA) regressions and were adjusted for baseline logAER, age, gender, body mass index, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and follow-up time. During a median follow-up of 8.5 years AER increased from a median value of 5.7 mg/24 h to 7.2 mg/24 h (p < 0.001 for log-transformed data), and 42 subjects developed MA (AER > = 30 mg/24 h). In both linear and logistic regressions average night-time HR was an independent predictor of final AER (p = 0.014) and MA (p = 0.007), whereas clinic HR and daytime HR were not associated with these outcomes (p = NS for both). Night-time HR was 62.6 ± 8.3 bpm in the 579 subjects who did not develop MA and was 66.6 ± 7.7 bpm in the 42 subjects who developed MA (p = 0.002). Baseline BMI was another independent predictor of final AER (p = 0.007) and final MA (p = 0.001) and its inclusion into the models slightly attenuated the association of night-time HR with AER (p = 0.029) and MA (p = 0.016). HR is an independent predictor of microalbuminuria in young persons screened for stage 1 hypertension suggesting that the chronic hemodynamic stress related to tachycardia may play a role in the development of renal damage in hypertension. In agreement with previous results, HR measured during sleep seems to be more representative of the overall hemodynamic load on the arteries than HR measured during waking hours or in the doctor's office.
    Journal of Hypertension 06/2015; 33 Suppl 1 - ESH 2015 Abstract Book:e33. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000467437.77375.cb · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether glomerular hyperfiltration is implicated in the development of microalbuminuria in hypertension is not well known. This prospective study investigated the relationship between changes in GFR and microalbuminuria in hypertension. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This study assessed 534 stage 1 hypertensive participants from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (n=386 men) without microalbuminuria at baseline, who were recruited from 1990 to 1995 and followed for a median of 8.5 years. Mean age was 33.9±8.6 years and mean BP was 146.6±10.5/94.0±5.0 mmHg. Creatinine clearance and 24-hour urinary albumin were measured at study entry and end. Participants were defined as normofilterers (normo) or hyperfilterers (hyper) according to whether GFR was <150 or ≥150 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), respectively. Participants were divided into four groups based on GFR changes from baseline to follow-up end: normo→normo (n=395), normo→hyper (n=31), hyper→hyper (n=61), and hyper→normo (n=47). RESULTS: Microalbuminuria progressively increased across the four groups and was 5.3% in normo→normo, 9.7% in normo→hyper, 16.4% in hyper→hyper, and 36.2% in hyper→normo (P<0.001). This association held true in a multivariable logistic regression in which several confounders, ambulatory BP, and other risk factors were taken into account (P<0.001). In particular, hyperfilterers whose GFR decreased to normal at study end had an adjusted odds ratio of 7.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.3-18.2) for development of microalbuminuria compared with participants with normal GFR throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis for a parabolic association between GFR and urinary albumin in the early stage of hypertension.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2012; 8(1). DOI:10.2215/CJN.03470412 · 5.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To examine the impact of overweight and obesity on development of target organ damage in the early stage of hypertension.SUBJECTS:Participants were 727 young-to-middle-age subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension and followed for 8 years.MEASUREMENTS:Ambulatory blood pressure (BP), albumin excretion rate and echocardiographic data were obtained at entry, every 5 years and/or before starting antihypertensive treatment.RESULTS:During the follow-up, hypertension needing treatment was developed by 54.7% of the subjects with normal weight, 66.6% of those with overweight and 73.0% of those with obesity (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that patients with obesity or overweight progressed to sustained hypertension earlier than those with normal weight (P<0.001). At study end, rate of organ damage was 10.7% in the normal weight, 16.4% in the overweight and 30.1% in the obese subjects (P<0.001). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, overweight (P=0.008) and obesity (P<0.001) were significant predictors of final organ damage. Inclusion of changes in 24-h BP and body mass index, and of baseline organ damage did not virtually modify these associations (P=0.002 and <0.001, respectively). Obesity was a significant predictor of both left ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.001) and microalbuminuria (P=0.015) with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 8.5 (2.7-26.8) and 3.5 (1.3-9.6), respectively.CONCLUSION:These data indicate that in hypertensive subjects obesity has deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system already at an early age. Preventive strategies addressed to achieve weight reduction should be implemented at a very early stage in young people with excess adiposity and high BP.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 6 March 2012; doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.32.
    International journal of obesity (2005) 03/2012; 37(2). DOI:10.1038/ijo.2012.32 · 5.39 Impact Factor
  • Artery Research 12/2011; 5(4):152. DOI:10.1016/j.artres.2011.10.019
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of high blood pressure (BP) on target organs (TO) in premenopausal women is not well known. The purpose of this study was to describe gender differences in TO involvement in a cohort of young-to-middle-aged subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension and followed for 8.2 years. Participants were 175 women and 451 men with similar age (range 18-45 years). Ambulatory BP at entry was 127.5±12.5/83.7±7.2 mm Hg in women and 131.9±10.3/81.0±7.9 mm Hg in men. Ambulatory BP, albumin excretion rate (AER), and echocardiographic data (n=489) were obtained at entry, every 5 years, and before starting antihypertensive treatment. Female gender was an independent predictor of final AER (p=0.01) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (p<0.001). At follow-up end, both microalbuminuria (13.7% vs. 6.2%, p=0.002) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (26.4% vs. 8.8%, p<0.0001) were more common among women than men. In a multivariable Cox analysis, after adjusting for age, lifestyle factors, body mass, ambulatory BP, heart rate, and parental hypertension, female gender was a significant predictor of time to development of microalbuminuria (p=0.002), with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.06, (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48-6.34) and of LVH (p=0.004), with an HR of 2.50 (1.33-4.70). Inclusion of systolic and diastolic BP changes over time in the models only marginally affected these associations, with HRs of 3.13 (1.50-6.55) and 3.43 (1.75-6.70), respectively. These data indicate that premenopausal women have an increased risk of hypertensive TO damage (TOD) and raise the question about whether early antihypertensive treatment should be considered in these patients.
    Journal of Women's Health 06/2011; 20(8):1175-81. DOI:10.1089/jwh.2011.2771 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We did a prospective study to investigate whether clinic heart rate (HR) and 24-h ambulatory HR were independent predictors of subsequent increase in body weight (BW) in young subjects screened for stage 1 hypertension. The study was conducted in 1,008 subjects from the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST) followed for an average of 7 years. Ambulatory HR was obtained in 701 subjects. Data were adjusted for lifestyle factors and several confounders. During the follow-up BW increased by 2.1 ± 7.2 kg in the whole cohort. Both baseline clinic HR (P = 0.007) and 24-h HR (P = 0.013) were independent predictors of BMI at study end. In addition, changes in HR during the follow-up either measured in the clinic (P = 0.036) or with 24-h recording (P = 0.009) were independent associates of final BMI. In a multivariable Cox regression, baseline BMI (P < 0.001), male gender (P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (BP) (P = 0.01), baseline clinic HR (P = 0.02), and follow-up changes in clinic HR (P < 0.001) were independent predictors of overweight (Ov) or obesity (Ob) at the end of the follow-up. Follow-up changes in ambulatory HR (P = 0.01) were also independent predictors of Ov or Ob. However, when both clinic and ambulatory HRs were included in the same Cox model, only baseline clinic HR and its change during the follow-up were independent predictors of outcome. In conclusion, baseline clinic HR and HR changes during the follow-up are independent predictors of BW gain in young persons screened for stage 1 hypertension suggesting that sympathetic nervous system activity may play a role in the development of Ob in hypertension.
    Obesity 03/2011; 19(3):618-23. DOI:10.1038/oby.2010.191 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension 01/2010; 28. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000379892.56468.3c · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of hypertension (HT) subtypes in young-to-middle-age subjects is unclear. We did a prospective study in 1,141 participants aged 18-45 years from the HARVEST study screened for stage 1 HT, and 101 nonhypertensive subjects of control during a median follow-up of 72.9 months. At baseline, 13.8% of the subjects were classified as having isolated systolic HT (ISH), 24.8% as having isolated diastolic HT (IDH), and 61.4% as having systolic-diastolic HT (SDH). All hypertensive groups developed sustained HT (clinic blood pressure > or =140/90 mm Hg from two consecutive visits occurring at least after > or =6 months of observation) more frequently than nonhypertensive subjects (P < 0.001 for all) with adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95%CI 2.9-9.2) among the SDH subjects, 2.6 (95%CI 1.5-4.5) among the IDH subjects, and 2.2 (95%CI 1.2-4.5) among the ISH subjects. When the definition of HT was based on ambulatory blood pressure (mean daytime blood pressure > or =135/85 mm Hg, n = 798), odds ratios were 5.1 (95%CI 3.1-8.2), 5.6 (95%CI 3.2-9.8), and 3.3 (95%CI 1.7-6.3), respectively. In the fully adjusted logistic model, the risk of ambulatory HT was smaller for the ISH than the IDH (P = 0.049) or SDH (P = 0.053) individuals. The present results indicate that young-to-middle-age subjects with ISH have a smaller risk of developing ambulatory HT than either subjects with SDH or IDH. Whether antihypertensive treatment can be postponed for long periods of time in young subjects with mild elevations of clinic systolic BP and low global cardiovascular risk should be examined in further studies.
    American Journal of Hypertension 03/2009; 22(5):531-7. DOI:10.1038/ajh.2009.21 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The longitudinal relationship between aerobic exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertension is not well known. We did a prospective study to investigate the long-term effect of regular physical activity on development of LV hypertrophy (LVH) in a cohort of young subjects screened for Stage 1 hypertension. We assessed 454 subjects whose physical activity status was consistent during the follow-up. Echocardiographic LV mass was measured at entry, every 5 years, and/or at the time of hypertension development before starting treatment. LVH was defined as an LV mass >/=50 g/m(2.7) in men and >/=47 g/m(2.7) in women. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 32 subjects developed LVH (sedentary, 10.3%; active, 1.7%, P = 0.000). In a logistic regression, physically active groups combined (n = 173) were less likely to develop LVH than sedentary group with a crude OR = 0.15 (CI, 0.05-0.52). After controlling for sex, age, family history for hypertension, hypertension duration, body mass, blood pressure, baseline LV mass, lifestyle factors, and follow-up length, the OR was 0.24 (CI, 0.07-0.85). Blood pressure declined over time in physically active subjects (-5.1 +/- 17.0/-0.5 +/- 10.2 mmHg) and slightly increased in their sedentary peers (0.0 +/- 15.3/0.9 +/- 9.7 mmHg, adjusted P vs. active = 0.04/0.06). Inclusion of changes in blood pressure over time into the logistic model slightly decreased the strength of the association between physical activity status and LVH development (OR = 0.25, CI, 0.07-0.87). Regular physical activity prevents the development of LVH in young stage 1 hypertensive subjects. This effect is independent from the reduction in blood pressure caused by exercise.
    European Heart Journal 12/2008; 30(2):225-32. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehn533 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whether heart rate predicts the development of sustained hypertension in individuals with hypertension is not well known. We carried out a prospective study to investigate whether clinic and ambulatory heart rates assessed at baseline and changes in clinic heart rate during 6 months of follow-up were independent predictors of subsequent blood pressure (BP). The study was conducted in a cohort of 1103 white, stage 1 hypertensive individuals from the HARVEST study, never treated for hypertension and followed-up for an average of 6.4 years. Data were adjusted for baseline BP, age, sex, body fatness, physical activity habits, parental hypertension, duration of hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and change of body weight from baseline. Clinic heart rate and heart rate changes during the first 6 months of follow-up were independent predictors of subsequent systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders (all P < 0.01). A significant interaction was found between sex (male) and baseline resting heart rate on final SBP (P = 0.017) and DBP (P < 0.001). The ambulatory heart rate and the heart rate white-coat effect did not add prognostic information to that provided by the clinic heart rate. Patients whose heart rate was persistently elevated during the study had a doubled fully adjusted risk (95% confidence interval 1.4-2.9) of developing sustained hypertension in comparison with subjects with a normal heart rate. Baseline clinic heart rate and heart rate changes during the first few months of follow-up are independent predictors of the development of sustained hypertension in young persons screened for stage 1 hypertension.
    Journal of Hypertension 09/2006; 24(9):1873-80. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000242413.96277.5b · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular 01/2006; 23(8):270–271. DOI:10.1016/S1889-1837(06)71653-1
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    ABSTRACT: Resting heart rate has been shown to predict the development of hypertension in general population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between heart rate and long-term changes in heart rate with changes in blood pressure in a cohort of young subjects with mild hypertension.The study was carried out in 1095 subjects who took part in the multicenter HARVEST study. Subjects 18 to 45 years old with diastolic blood pressure (BP) from 90 to 99 mm Hg and/or systolic BP between 140 and 159 mm Hg, who never took antihypertensive therapy, were enrolled. Ambulatory 24h BP was measured at baseline. Urinary epinephrine and nor-epinephrine were measured at entry from 24h urine collections (n=713) and were 25±38 mcg/24h and 91±80 mcg/24h, respectively. Subjects were seen every six months for clinic BP and heart rate assessment to determine which subjects reached the end-point (need for drug therapy according to current guidelines).Clinic BP at entry was 146±11/94±5 mmHg, and clinic heart rate was 75±10 bpm. During a mean follow-up of 78±32 months, BP declined by 2.3±13.9/0.6±9.3 mmHg, and heart rate decreased by 3.0±10.8 bpm. In the subjects divided into tertiles of changes in heart rate, BP decreased by 6.6±13.5/2.9±9.1 mmHg in the bottom heart rate tertile (-14.4 bpm) and increased by 2.3±13.9/1.0±9.6 mmHg in the top tertile (+8.5 bpm). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of changes in systolic BP were age (p=0.000), baseline heart rate (p=0.000), changes of heart rate over time (p=0.000), clinic systolic BP (p=0.000, negative association), 24h systolic BP (p=0.000), BMI (p=0.003), and gender (p=0.04). A similar model was obtained for changes in diastolic BP. Urinary catecholamines did not predict changes in BP in any model.These findings indicate that besides the resting heart rate also the changes in heart rate over time are predictive of development of more severe hypertension in young subjects with mildly elevated BP levels.
    American Journal of Hypertension 05/2005; 18(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.03.317 · 3.40 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Hypertension 01/2004; 22(Suppl. 2):S138. DOI:10.1097/00004872-200406002-00473 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the relative role of repeated clinic blood pressure (BP) measurement, mean 24h BP, and diurnal BP rhythm in predicting the development of sustained hypertension in subjects with borderline to mild hypertension.We studied prospectively 1062 (771 males), never treated, stage I young hypertensive subjects from the multicenter HARVEST study. All subjects underwent 24h ambulatory monitoring at baseline and repeated clinic BP measurement during the first six months of follow-up. Patients were classified as nondippers, dippers, or extreme dippers according to whether their night-time systolic BP fall was 20% daytime values, respectively. The independent prediction of clinic BP, of 24h BP and of the nondipper condition for outcome was tested in a multivariable Cox analysis controlling for possible confounders.During a mean (95%CL) follow-up of 68 (65-71) months, 236 subjects developed sustained hypertension (clinic diastolic BP permanently > 99 mmHg) and were started on antihypertensive treatment. At baseline, 329 subjects were classified as nondippers, 617 as dippers, and 116 as extreme dippers. The three groups were balanced for sex distribution, and had similar age (33±9, 33±8, and 32±8 years, respectively; n.s.) and baseline clinic BP (145±10/94±6, 146±11/94±6, and 146±11/94±5 mmHg, respectively; n.s.). Night-time systolic BP fall was 7±6, 20±4 and 32±5 mmHg, respectively, in the three groups. When only baseline data were used, mean 24h BP was the strongest predictor of outcome (p
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    ABSTRACT: It has been claimed that diastolic dysfunction is the earliest cardiac abnormality in hypertension, preceding the development of left ventricular (LV) structural abnormalities. To detect early signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement 722 subjects (533 men and 189 women), 18-45 years old, with stage I hypertension, were studied by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Blood pressure was measured by 24-h ambulatory monitoring. Ninety-five normotensive individuals of similar age and gender distributions were studied as controls. Significant, though modest, changes of LV mass and geometry were found in the participants in comparison with the normotensive controls. The increment was +10.4 g/m2 for LV mass index, +1.8 mm for LV wall thickness, and +0.032 for relative wall thickness. A slight increase in atrial filling peak velocity was found in the hypertensive subjects at Doppler analysis of transmitral flow, but the ratio of early to atrial velocity of LV diastolic filling did not differ between the two groups. In multiple regression analyses, which included age, body mass index, heart rate, smoking, and physical activity, 24-h mean blood pressure emerged as a significant predictor of LV mass index (men, P = .003; women, P = .04) and wall thickness (men, P = .03; women, P = .004) in the hypertensive subjects, whereas no index of diastolic filling was significantly associated with ambulatory blood pressure in either gender. The present data indicate that changes in LV anatomy are the earliest signs of hypertensive cardiac involvement. Left ventricular filling is affected only marginally in the initial phase of hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension 02/1998; 11(2):147-54. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: According to recent international guidelines the decision on whether to treat young subjects during the early phase of hypertension should be based not only on their office blood pressure but also on their ambulatory blood pressure and whether target organ damage has occurred. Few data on the prevalence of hypertensive complications in young subjects with mild hypertension are available. In the Hypertension and Ambulatory Recording Venetia Study (HARVEST), a multicenter trial conducted in northeast Italy, the percentage of young borderline-to-mild hypertensive subjects with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy was 4.5% and the percentage with concentric remodeling was 4%. Clear differences in cardiac size and geometric adjustment to ambulatory systolic pressure between the two sexes were found. The impact of blood pressure on the walls of the left ventricle and on the left ventricular mass was remarkable in women but weak in men. The assessment of left ventricular systolic function confirmed that many young mild hypertensive subjects have an increased ejective performance. The left ventricular contractility evaluated by midwall measurement was, however, found to be depressed in 9.2% of the HARVEST participants. Their left ventricular diastolic function was similar to that of 50 normotensive controls. The prevalence of microalbuminuria [albumin excretion rate (AER) > 30 mg/24 h) was 6.1%, only slightly higher than that found by other authors among normotensive subjects and much lower than that observed among patients with more severe hypertension. For our stage I hypertensives, however, the AER was correlated to the 24 h blood pressure with high statistical significance, whereas we found no relationship between the AER and left ventricular mass index either for all of the subjects taken together or for the men and women considered separately. The results suggest that renal and cardiac involvement do not occur in parallel during the initial phase of hypertension.
    Blood pressure monitoring 04/1997; 2(2):79-88. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to examine the association between albumin excretion rate (AER) and office and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), and other recognized cardiovascular risk factors in stage I hypertension. The study was carried out in 870 never-treated 18- to 45-year-old hypertensives (628 men, 242 women). Office and ambulatory BP, 24-h urinary collection for AER assessment, and echocardiographic left ventricular mass (n = 587) were obtained. AER was similar in men and women (12.3 v 12.5 mg/24 h) and was unrelated to age and body mass index. In 85.2% of the subjects, AER was < 16 mg/24 h, in 8.3% it was between 16 and 29 mg/24 h (borderline microalbuminuria), and in 6.1% it was >or= 30 mg/24 h (overt microalbuminuria). Office systolic BP was not different in the three groups, whereas 24-h systolic BP was higher in the subjects with microalbuminuria than in those with normal AER (P < .0001) and was similar in the two microalbuminuric groups. Office and 24-h diastolic BPs were higher in the subjects with overt microalbuminuria than in those with normal AER. Left ventricular mass was correlated to systolic (P < .0001) and diastolic (P = .01) 24-h BP, but was unrelated to AER. Family history for hypertension, smoking, coffee and alcohol intake, and physical activity habits did not influence AER. In a logistic regression analysis, 24-h systolic BP emerged as the only determinant of microalbuminuria (P < .0001). In conclusion, these results indicate that borderline levels of microalbuminuria may also be clinically relevant in stage I hypertension. Overweight and lifestyle factors do not appear to influence AER in these patients. Finally, the lack of correlation between AER and left ventricular mass suggests that renal and cardiac involvement do not occur in a parallel fashion in the initial phase of hypertension.
    American Journal of Hypertension 05/1996; 9(4 Pt 1):334-41. DOI:10.1016/0895-7061(95)00391-6 · 3.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

180 Citations
59.10 Total Impact Points


  • 2008–2012
    • Rovigo General Hospital
      Rovigo, Veneto, Italy
  • 1996–2002
    • University of Padova
      • Department of Medicine DIMED
      Padua, Veneto, Italy