[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Contraction of guinea-pig isolated aorta induced by the prostaglandin E analogue sulprostone (1-400 nM) has a lower maximum response (40%) than that of phenylephrine or U-46619 (TP-receptor agonist). A prostanoid EP3-receptor subtype is involved based on agonist potency ranking: equi-effective molar ratios (EMR) are sulprostone (EC50 approximately equal to 23 nM) 1.0, SC-46275 0.11, misoprostol 2.2, gemeprost 3.3, PGE2 5.4, 17-phenyl PGE2 6.0, GR-63799 8.9. GR-63799, which contains a bulky ester group, is relatively more potent on neuronal EP3 preparations than on the aorta. ONO-AP-324, a relative of the non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetic series, behaves as an EP3 partial agonist on the aorta, inhibiting sulprostone responses but acting synergistically (in a similar manner to sulprostone) with phenylephrine; it may be a useful pharmacological tool for studying EP3-receptors. Sulprostone contractions are markedly suppressed in zero-Ca2+ bathing fluid containing either 2 mM EDTA or 50 microM EGTA, and by Cd2+ (500 microM), but are usually unaffected by nifedipine (0.3 microM) and verapamil (4.44 microM). Influx of Ca2+, but not through L-type Ca2+-channels, appears to be the major contractile mechanism. The guinea-pig aorta is a valuable addition to the vascular EP3 preparations available and may increase our knowledge of the mechanisms whereby Gi-coupled receptors mediate vasoconstriction (c.f. 5-HT1B/D- and alpha2-receptors). The possibility of certain EP3 agonists distinguishing EP3-receptor isoforms is discussed.
British Journal of Pharmacology 12/1998; 125(6):1288-96. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specific prostacyclin (IP) receptor agonist cicaprost relaxed human pulmonary artery preparations precontracted with phenylephrine [50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) approximately 0.6 nM], U-46619 (IC50 approximately 0.9 nM), and K+ (approximately 40% maximal relaxation); endothelium removal had little effect on relaxant activity. Ranking of relaxant potencies for prostacyclin and five of its analogs was 17 alpha, 20-dimethyl-delta 6,6a-6a-carba PGI1 (TEI-9063) > or = cicaprost > iloprost > prostacyclin > taprostene > benzodioxane prostacyclin > 15-deoxy-16 alpha-hydroxy-16 beta,20-dimethyl-delta 6,6a-6a-carba PGI1 (TEI-3356). The potency of the isocarbacyclin TEI-3356 may have been under-estimated because of its contractile (EP3 receptor agonist) activity. The potency ranking of four nonprostanoid prostacyclin mimetics was 3-[4-(4,5-diphenyl-2-oxazolyl)-5-oxazolyl]phenoxy] acetic acid (BMY 45778; IC50 approximately 2.5 nM) > > 2-[3-[2-(4, 5-diphenyl-2-oxazolyl)ethyl]phenoxy]acetic acid (BMY 42393) > octimibate > CU 23 (a novel diphenylindole). From IP receptor binding affinities obtained on human platelet membranes, it is suggested that the slightly shallower log concentration-response curves for BMY 45778, BMY 42393, and CU 23 may reflect the near-maximal receptor occupancy required for complete relaxation. A fifth nonprostanoid, CU 602, had much shallower log concentration-response curves than cicaprost against phenylephrine tone but not against U-46619 tone; this may indicate IP receptor partial agonism coupled with TP receptor antagonism. The relaxant actions of the nonprostanoid mimetics were more persistent than those of the prostacyclin analogs on washout of the organ bath; by the inhalation route, this type of compound may be retained within pulmonary tissue and thus afford greater pulmonary/systemic selectivity than currently used pulmonary vasodilators.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 04/1997; 29(4):525-35. · 2.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prostacyclin mimetics BMY 45778 (3-[4-(4,5-diphenyl-2-oxazolyl)-5-oxazolyl]phenoxy]acetic acid), BMY 42393 (2-[3-[2-(4,5-diphenyl-2-oxazolyl)ethyl]phenoxy]acetic acid) and EP 185 (rac 5-endo-(6'-carboxyhex-2'Z-enyl)-6-exo-(p-methoxyphenyl- phenyl-methylazino)-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene) inhibited rat neutrophil aggregation stimulated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (IC50 = 20, 462, and 1195 nM respectively). In contrast only BMY 45778 (1-10 microM) produced any significant inhibition (10-20%) of the spontaneous activity of rat colon. BMY 45778 (10 microM) also attenuated the inhibitory effect of the prostacyclin analogue cicaprost on rat colon, whereas BMY 42393 and EP 185 did not. BMY 45778 appears to be a low affinity partial agonist at prostacyclin receptors on rat colon and its low potency in rat colon compared with rat neutrophils suggests the presence of a different prostacyclin receptor located on enteric neurones.
European Journal of Pharmacology 06/1995; 278(3):265-9. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. The possibility that prostacyclin (IP-) receptor agonists inhibit spontaneous contractions of the rat isolated colon by activating enteric neurones has been investigated. Cicaprost was used as the test agonist because of its high stability, selectivity and potency (IC50 = 3.8 nM). 2. The Na+ channel blockers saxitoxin (STX, 1 nM) and tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM), whilst having little effect on resting spontaneous activity, virtually abolished the inhibitory actions of cicaprost (10 nM) and nicotine (3 microM); inhibitory responses to isoprenaline (20 nM) were not affected. Phentolamine (1 microM), propranolol (1 microM) and atropine (1 microM) had no effect on cicaprost inhibition. These data are compatible with release of inhibitory NANC transmitter(s) by cicaprost. 3. A transmitter role for nitric oxide was investigated. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 microM) inhibited the actions of both cicaprost (10 nM) and nicotine (3 microM) by 50-60%, but did not affect responses to isoprenaline (20 nM) or sodium nitroprusside (1-5 microM). The enantiomeric D-NAME (100 microM), which has negligible NOS inhibitory activity, had no effect on the action of cicaprost. 4. The involvement of purinergic transmitters was also investigated. Desensitization to the inhibitory action of ATP did not affect cicaprost responses. The P2x/P2y-receptor antagonist, suramin, at 300 microM blocked ATP responses, but not those due to adenosine; it did not affect cicaprost inhibition. The selective adenosine A1-receptor antagonist, DPCPX, used at a sufficiently high concentration (5 microM) to block adenosine A2-receptors, did not affect cicaprost inhibition. Apamin (25 nM), a blocker of calcium activated K+ channels on smooth muscle, abolished or markedly reduced the inhibitory actions of ATP and adenosine, and partially inhibited cicaprost and nicotine responses. The combination of L-NAME(100 microM) and apamin (25 nM) abolished cicaprost and nicotine responses.5. Investigation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as a potential transmitter showed that its inhibitory action on the colon (IC50 = 50 nM) was partially inhibited by TTX (1 microM). alpha-Chymotrypsin abolished the effect of VIP but had no effect on cicaprost inhibition. Attempts to inhibit VIP responses using peptide antagonists and by agonist desensitization were unsuccessful.6. KCI (40 mM) contracted the colon and abolished spontaneous activity. Under these conditions,isoprenaline, sodium nitroprusside and ATP induced relaxation, whereas cicaprost (10-3 10 nM) had no effect. Cicaprost inhibited both the tone and the spontaneous activity induced by the EP1/EP3-receptor agonist, sulprostone (8.6 nM) but not when either TTX (1 microM) or KC1 (40 mM) was also present. On KCl-treated preparations, the prostacyclin analogue, iloprost (10-500 nM), induced contraction,presumably due to activation of EP-receptors.7. It is concluded that IP-receptor agonists inhibit the contractility of rat colon by stimulating the release of at least two transmitters from NANC enteric neurones. Nitric oxide appears to be one of the transmitters. The second transmitter mechanism is apamin-sensitive; the experimental results do not support ATP, adenosine or VIP as transmitter candidates. However, further studies using more potent and selective receptor antagonists are required.
British Journal of Pharmacology 06/1995; 115(1):163-71. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. In 13 of 15 experiments, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and sulprostone (a prostanoid EP1/EP3-receptor agonist) contracted isolated rings of human pulmonary artery at low concentrations (> or = 5 and > or = 0.5 nM respectively). Tissue was obtained from patients undergoing surgery mainly for carcinoma of the lung. Characterization of the receptors involved was complicated by loss of sensitivity to the contractile PGE action over the experimental period. In contrast, contractile responses to KCl, phenylephrine and the specific thromboxane (TP-) receptor agonist, U-46619, did not decrease with time. 2. The relative contractile potencies for seven PGE analogues, measured during the first few hours after setting up the preparations, were as follows: sulprostone > misoprostol = gemeprost > or = PGE2 > or = GR 63799X > 17-phenyl-omega-trinor PGE2 > or = 11-deoxy PGE1. This ranking indicates that an EP3-receptor is involved. 3. The contractile action of sulprostone was not blocked by the TP-receptor antagonists, EP 169 and GR 32191, and the EP1-receptor antagonist, AH 6809. 4. In two experiments, PGE2 (50 nM) reduced basal tone and sulprostone was a weak contractile agent. Phenylephrine-induced tone was also inhibited by PGE2 (EC50 = 5-20 nM), 11-deoxy PGE1 and butaprost (a selective EP2-receptor agonist); the latter prostanoids were about 2 and 4 times less potent than PGE2 respectively. Interactions with phenylephrine were different in experiments where PGE2 alone was contractile: PGE2 induced contraction superimposed on the phenylephrine response and 11-deoxy PGE1 induced either further contraction or had no effect. Butaprost produced relaxation at high concentrations;this may not be an EP2 action since preparations were highly sensitive to relaxant actions of prostacyclin (IP-) receptor agonists (cicaprost and TEI-9063).5 The study has shown that in the majority of experiments on the human isolated pulmonary artery,the contractile EP3 system outweighed the relaxant EP2 system. However, in two experiments the reverse was true. It is not clear to what extent these differences are due to disease processes affecting the tissues.The findings are discussed in relation to the adverse cardiovascular responses occasionally encountered during treatment of postpartum haemorrhage with sulprostone, and more generally to the clinical use of EP-receptor agonists in man.
British Journal of Pharmacology 10/1994; 113(2):369-74. · 5.07 Impact Factor