[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2014; 47(3):192-205. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid (GC) in excess promotes the redistribution of adipose tissue from peripheral to central sites of the body. In this study we characterized an experimental condition of prolonged GC excess and investigated its effect on the lipogenic metabolism in white adipose tissue.
Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into control (CON) and dexamethasone treated (DEX) groups. DEX group received dexamethasone (0.25 mg/kg/day) during 4 weeks, while CON group received saline. Animals were sacrificed and subcutaneous (SC), retroperitoneal (RP) and mesenteric (MS) fat pads were excised, weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation, morphometric cell analysis and incorporation of glucose into lipids.
The treatment effectively blocked hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as verified by a 58% decrease in plasma corticosterone levels and 19% atrophy in adrenal glands in DEX group. Animals from DEX group presented insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased insulin and leptin plasma levels and hypertrophied adipocytes. They showed increased lipogenesis in RP and MS depots, with increased incorporation of glucose into fatty acids of triacylglycerol. Increased activity of lipogenic enzymes ATP-citrate liase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic were only seen in the MS depot in DEX group, while gene expression of these enzymes was enhanced in SC and MS fat depots.
The adaptations promoted by GC treatment in adipose metabolism seemed to be mainly due to the increased activity of enzymes that supply the NADPH required for lipogenesis than to the increase in enzymes that more directly deal with fatty acid synthesis itself. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies showed that l-leucine supplementation reduces adiposity when provided before the onset of obesity. We studied rats that were exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks before they started to receive l-leucine supplementation. Fat mass was increased in l-leucine-supplemented rats consuming the HFD. Accordingly, l-leucine produced a hypothalamic pattern of gene expression that favors fat accumulation. In conclusion, l-leucine supplementation worsened the adiposity of rats previously exposed to HFD possibly by central mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we investigated whether palmitoleic acid, a fatty acid that enhances whole body glucose disposal and suppresses hepatic steatosis, modulates triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in adipocytes. For this, both differentiated 3T3-L1 cells treated with either palmitoleic acid (16:1n7, 200 µM) or palmitic acid (16:0, 200 µM) for 24h and primary adipocytes from wild type or PPARα deficient mice treated with 16:1n7 (300 mg/kg/day) or oleic acid (18:1n9, 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 10 days were evaluated for lipolysis, TAG and glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis and gene and protein expression profile. Treatment of differentiated 3T3-L1 cells with 16:1n7, but not 16:0, increased basal and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis, mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and protein content of ATGL and pSer660-HSL. Such increase in lipolysis induced by 16:1n7, which can be prevented by pharmacological inhibition of PPARα, was associated with higher rates of PPARα binding to DNA. In contrast to lipolysis, both 16:1n7 and 16:0 increased fatty acid incorporation into TAG and glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis from glucose, without affecting glyceroneogenesis and glycerokinase expression. Corroborating in vitro findings, treatment of wild type, but not PPARα deficient mice with 16:1n7 increased primary adipocytes basal and stimulated lipolysis and ATGL and HSL mRNA levels. In contrast to lipolysis, however, 16:1n7 treatment increased fatty acid incorporation into TAG and glycerol 3-phosphate synthesis from glucose in both wild type and PPARα deficient mice. In conclusion, palmitoleic acid increases adipocyte lipolysis and lipases by a mechanism that requires a functional PPARα.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2013; · 4.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptations to physical training are reversible with inactivity. Although significant reductions in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2Max) are observed following detraining, its consequences to the adipose tissue are poorly known. Our aim was therefore to investigate effects of discontinuing training (detraining) on the metabolism and adipocyte cellularity of rat periepididymal (PE) adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into 3 groups (studied for 12 weeks) under the following conditions: (1) trained (T) throughout the period; (2) detrained (D), trained (first 8 weeks) and detrained (last 4 weeks); and (3) age-matched sedentary (S). Training consisted of treadmill running sessions (1 h/day, 5 d/week, 50-60% VO2Max). The PE adipocyte size enlarged. The cross-sectional area (in µm(2)) was larger in D than in the T and S groups (3474 ± 68.8; 1945.7 ± 45.6; 2492.4 ± 49.08, respectively, p<0.05). Compared with T, the isolated adipose cells (D rats) showed a 48% increase in both basal and maximally insulin-stimulated lipogenesis and in isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis. A 15% reduction in apoptotic adipocytes was observed in groups T and D compared to S. The levels of adiponectin (3x) and PPAR-gamma (2x) gene expression were up-regulated in D vs. S. PREF-1 gene expression was 3-fold higher in T vs. S. From these results, we hypothesize that adipogenesis was stimulated in group D and accompanied by significant hypertrophy and increased lipogenic capacity of the adipocytes. And with the reduced fat cell apoptosis in D and T rats, it raises the possibility that these changes are obesogenic.
Journal of Applied Physiology 05/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Kinins participate in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes by mechanisms which are not fully understood. Kinin B1 receptor knockout mice (B1−/−) are leaner and exhibit improved insulin sensitivity.
Here we show that kinin B1 receptors in adipocytes play a role in controlling whole body insulin action and glucose homeostasis. Adipocytes isolated from mouse white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutively express kinin B1 receptors. In these cells, treatment with the B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin improved insulin signaling, GLUT4 translocation, and glucose uptake. Adipocytes from B1−/− mice showed reduced GLUT4 expression and impaired glucose uptake at both basal and insulin-stimulated states. To investigate the consequences of these phenomena to whole body metabolism, we generated mice where the expression of the kinin B1 receptor was limited to cells of the adipose tissue (aP2-B1/B1−/−). Similarly to B1−/− mice, aP2-B1/B1−/− mice were leaner than wild type controls. However, exclusive expression of the kinin B1 receptor in adipose tissue completely rescued the improved systemic insulin sensitivity phenotype of B1−/− mice. Adipose tissue gene expression analysis also revealed that genes involved in insulin signaling were significantly affected by the presence of the kinin B1 receptor in adipose tissue. In agreement, GLUT4 expression and glucose uptake were increased in fat tissue of aP2-B1/B1−/− when compared to B1−/− mice. When subjected to high fat diet, aP2-B1/B1−/− mice gained more weight than B1−/− littermates, becoming as obese as the wild types.
Thus, kinin B1 receptor participates in the modulation of insulin action in adipocytes, contributing to systemic insulin sensitivity and predisposition to obesity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intracellular peptides generated by the proteasome and oligopeptidases have been suggested to function in signal transduction and to improve insulin resistance in mice fed a high-caloric diet. The aim of this study was to identify specific intracellular peptides in the adipose tissue of Wistar rats that could be associated with the physiological and therapeutic control of glucose uptake. Using semiquantitative mass spectrometry and LC/MS/MS analyses, we identified ten peptides in the epididymal adipose tissue of the Wistar rats; three of these peptides were present at increased levels in rats that were fed a high-caloric Western diet (WD) compared with rats fed a control diet (CD). The results of affinity chromatography suggested that in the cytoplasm of epididymal adipose tissue from either WD or CD rats, distinctive proteins bind to these peptides. However, despite the observed increase in the WD animals, the evaluated peptides increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with palmitate. Thus, intracellular peptides from the adipose tissue of Wistar rats can bind to specific proteins and facilitate insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a product of low insulin sensibility and pancreatic β-cell insufficiency. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during the neonatal period by the fifth day of age develop the classic diabetic picture of hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, polyuria, and polydipsia aggravated by insulin resistance in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether the effect of long-term treatment with melatonin can improve insulin resistance and other metabolic disorders in these animals. At the fourth week of age, diabetic animals started an 8-wk treatment with melatonin (1 mg/kg body weight) in the drinking water at night. Animals were then killing, and the sc, epididymal (EP), and retroperitoneal (RP) fat pads were excised, weighed, and processed for adipocyte isolation for morphometric analysis as well as for measuring glucose uptake, oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids. Blood samples were collected for biochemical assays. Melatonin treatment reduced hyperglycemia, polydipsia, and polyphagia as well as improved insulin resistance as demonstrated by constant glucose disappearance rate and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance. However, melatonin treatment was unable to recover body weight deficiency, fat mass, and adipocyte size of diabetic animals. Adiponectin and fructosamine levels were completely recovered by melatonin, whereas neither plasma insulin level nor insulin secretion capacity was improved in diabetic animals. Furthermore, melatonin caused a marked delay in the sexual development, leaving genital structures smaller than those of nontreated diabetic animals. Melatonin treatment improved the responsiveness of adipocytes to insulin in diabetic animals measured by tests of glucose uptake (sc, EP, and RP), glucose oxidation, and incorporation of glucose into lipids (EP and RP), an effect that seems partially related to an increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthase. In conclusion, melatonin treatment was capable of ameliorating the metabolic abnormalities in this particular diabetes model, including insulin resistance and promoting a better long-term glycemic control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are serious side effects associated with the use of several second generation antipsychotics (SGA). The adipose tissue has been considered a direct SGA target involved in the development of these adverse effects. Recent studies, mainly using murine cells, have suggested that SGA increase both adipogenesis of preadipocytes and lipid accumulation in mature adipocytes. However, to date there has been little research comparing the effects of antipsychotics with different propensities to induce weight gain on human in vitro models of white adipose tissue neoformation and metabolism. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of antipsychotics either strongly associated with weight gain, such as the SGA clozapine and olanzapine, or not, such as the SGA ziprasidone and the classical antipsychotic haloperidol, on proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and lipogenesis in human mature adipocytes. Whereas ziprasidone induced elevated levels of cell death during adipogenesis and could not be investigated further, we observed that clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol had slight stimulatory effects on the transcriptional program of ADSCs adipogenesis. However, the observed changes in adipocyte-specific genes were not accompanied by a significant increase in triglyceride accumulation within differentiated adipocytes. Our data also showed that these three antipsychotics displayed inhibitory effects on the proliferation rates of undifferentiated ADSCs. Regarding mature adipocyte metabolism, we observed that olanzapine slightly inhibited insulin-stimulated lipogenesis at the highest concentration used, and haloperidol exerted the strongest inhibitory effects on both basal and insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. Taken together, our results suggest that a direct and potent effect of clozapine and olanzapine on adipose tissue biology is not an important mechanism by which these SGA induce metabolic disturbances in humans. On the other hand, the haloperidol-mediated downregulation of the lipogenic capacity of human adipose tissue may be a possible mechanism contributing to its lower propensity to induce serious metabolic side effects.
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 08/2011; 35(8):1884-90. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering that melatonin has been implicated in body weight control, this work investigated whether this effect involves the regulation of adipogenesis. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the absence or presence of melatonin (10(-3) m). Swiss-3T3 cells ectopically and conditionally (Tet-off system) over-expressing the 34 kDa C/EBPbeta isoform (Swiss-LAP cells) were employed as a tool to assess the mechanisms of action at the molecular level. Protein markers of the adipogenic phenotype were analyzed by Western blot. At 36 hr of differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, a reduction of PPARgamma expression was detected followed by a further reduction, at day 4, of perilipin, aP2 and adiponectin protein expression in melatonin-treated cells. Real-time PCR analysis also showed a decrease of PPARgamma (60%), C/EBPalpha (75%), adiponectin (30%) and aP2 (40%) mRNA expression. Finally, we transfected Swiss LAP cells with a C/EBPalpha gene promoter/reporter construct in which luciferase expression is enhanced in response to C/EBPbeta activity. Culture of such transfected cells in the absence of tetracycline led to a 2.5-fold activation of the C/EBPalpha promoter. However, when treated with melatonin, the level of C/EBPalpha promoter activation by C/EBPbeta was reduced by 50% (P = 0.05, n = 6). In addition, this inhibitory effect of melatonin was also reflected in the phenotype of the cells, since their capacity to accumulate lipids droplets was reduced as confirmed by the poor staining with Oil Red O. In conclusion, melatonin at a concentration of 10(-3 ) m works as a negative regulator of adipogenesis acting in part by inhibiting the activity of a critical adipogenic transcription factor, C/EBPbeta.
Journal of Pineal Research 09/2009; 47(3):221-7. · 7.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity is one of the major Public Health problems. Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The obesity results from the increase in size and number of the adipocytes. The balance between adipogenesis and adiposity determines the degree of obesity. Mature adipocytes secrete adipokines, such as TNFalpha, IL-6, leptine and adiponectin, and lipokine, the palmitoleic acid omega-7. The production of adipokines is increased in obesity, contributing to the onset of peripheral insulin resistance. The knowledge about the molecular events that regulate the differentiation of pre-adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes (adipogenesis) is important for the comprehension of the genesis of obesity. Activation of transcription factor PPARgamma plays an essential role in the adipogenesis. Certain fatty acids are PPARgamma ligands and can control adipogenesis. Moreover, some fatty acids act as signaling molecules regulating their differentiation into adipocytes or death. Accordingly, the lipid composition of the diet and PPARgamma agonists can regulate the balance between adipogenesis and death of adipocytes and, therefore, the obesity.
Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia 07/2009; 53(5):582-94. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of the in vitro circadian-like exposure to melatonin [in the presence or absence of insulin (Ins)] on the metabolism and clock gene expression in adipocytes. To simulate the cyclic characteristics of the daily melatonin profile, isolated rat adipocytes were exposed in a circadian-like pattern to melatonin added to the incubating medium for 12 hr (mimicking the night), followed by an equal period without melatonin (mimicking the day) combined or not with Ins. This intermittent incubation was interrupted when four and a half 24-hr cycles were fulfilled. At the end, either during the induced night (melatonin present) or the induced day (melatonin absent), the rates of lipolysis and D-[U-(14)C]-glucose incorporation into lipids were estimated, in addition to the determination of lipogenic [glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and fatty acid synthase (FAS)] and lipolytic (hormone sensitive lipase) enzymes and clock gene (Bmal-1b, Clock, Per-1 and Cry-1) mRNA expression. The leptin release was also measured. During the induced night, the following effects were observed: an increase in the mRNA expression of Clock, Per-1 and FAS; a rise in lipogenic response and leptin secretion; and a decrease in the lipolytic activity. The intermittent exposure of adipocytes to melatonin temporally and rhythmically synchronized their metabolic and hormonal function in a circadian fashion, mimicking what is observed in vivo in animals during the daily light-dark cycle. Therefore, this work helps to clarify the physiological relevance of the circadian pattern of melatonin secretion and its interactions with Ins, contributing to a better understanding of the adipocyte biology.
Journal of Pineal Research 08/2008; 45(4):422-9. · 7.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obesity and insulin resistance are highly correlated with metabolic disturbances. Both the excess and lack of adipose tissue can lead to severe insulin resistance and diabetes. Adipose tissue plays an active role in energy homeostasis, hormone secretion, and other proteins that affect insulin sensitivity, appetite, energy balance, and lipid metabolism. Rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes during the neonatal period develop the classic diabetic picture of hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, and insulin resistance in adulthood. Low body weight and reduced epididymal (EP) fat mass were also seen in this model. The aim of this study was to investigate the glucose homeostasis and metabolic repercussions on the adipose tissue following chronic treatment with antidiabetic drugs in these animals. In the 4th week post birth, diabetic animals started an 8-week treatment with pioglitazone, metformin, or insulin. Animals were then killed, EP fat pads were excised, and blood samples were collected for biological and biochemical assays. Pioglitazone and insulin treatments, but not metformin, reduced hyperglycemia, polydipsia, and polyphagia. Although all antidiabetic therapies improved insulin sensitivity, this was particularly noteworthy in the pioglitazone-treated rats. Furthermore, a recovery of adipose mass and insulin levels were observed in pioglitazone- and insulin-, but not metformin-treated animals. Treatments with insulin or pioglitazone were able to correct significantly, but not completely, the metabolic abnormalities, parallel to full recovery of adipose mass, indicating that not only the low insulin levels but also the lack of adipose tissue might play a significant role on the pathophysiology of this particular diabetes model.
Journal of Endocrinology 08/2008; 198(1):51-60. · 4.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of different sodium content diets on rat adipose tissue carbohydrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
Male Wistar rats were fed on normal- (0.5% Na(+); NS), high- (3.12% Na(+); HS),or low-sodium (0.06% Na(+); LS) diets for 3, 6, and 9 weeks after weaning. Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. An intravenous insulin tolerance test (ivITT) was performed in fasted animals. At the end of each period, rats were killed and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin determinations. The white adipose tissue (WAT) from abdominal and inguinal subcutaneous (SC) and periepididymal (PE) depots were weighed and processed for adipocyte isolation and measurement of in vitro rates of insulin-stimulated 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H]-glucose uptake (2DGU) and conversion of -[U-(14)C]-glucose into (14)CO(2).
After 6 weeks, HS diet significantly increased the BP, SC and PE WAT masses, PE adipocyte size, and plasma insulin concentration. The sodium dietary content did not influence the whole-body insulin sensitivity. A higher half-maximal effective insulin concentration (EC(50)) from the dose-response curve of 2DGU and an increase in the insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation rate were observed in the isolated PE adipocytes from HS rats.
The chronic salt overload enhanced the adipocyte insulin sensitivity for glucose uptake and the insulin-induced glucose metabolization, contributing to promote adipocyte hypertrophy and increase the mass of several adipose depots, particularly the PE fat pad.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The harvest of adipose tissue will be a promising labor marketing for plastic surgeons, since tissue banks will certainly choose fat as the easiest way to obtain a high-yield source of stem cells, as this type of tissue can produce al least five times more colony-forming units (CFUs) than bone marrow extracts. The aim of this study is to show what can be expected from fat tissues as an origin of adult stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells, and to evaluate the best areas to be elected as donor sites within the human body, all obtained by liposuction. The routine to obtain SVF cells by collagenase digestion of human adipose tissue samples was described. At the time of harvest, these cells displayed a viability of 92+/- 1% based on Trypan Blue exclusion, SVF cells were counted after 48 hours culture in Dulbecco ´s modified Eagle medium (DMEM) in a Neubauer counting chamber. The average yield of SVF cells was 7,2 +/- 1,3 x 103 cells per milliliter of liposuctioned tissue. As a conclusion, best strategies to obtain SVF cells are an important challenge nowadays. This study, although preliminary, showed that SVF may be easily obtained From liposuction. Comparison among different donor sites showed a 22% higher yield of SVF cells when fat tissue had been obtained from the trunk regions, when confronted with limbs.