Philippe Delagrange

Servier, Suresnes, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (196)747.93 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Inasmuch as the neurohormone melatonin is synthetically derived from serotonin (5-HT), a close interrelationship between both has long been suspected. The present study reveals a hitherto-unrecognized crosstalk mediated via physical association of melatonin MT2 and 5-HT2C receptors into functional heteromers. This is of particular interest in light of the "synergistic" melatonin agonist/5-HT2C antagonist profile of the novel antidepressant, agomelatine. A suite of co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and pharmacological techniques was exploited to demonstrate formation of functional MT2 and 5-HT2C receptor heteromers both in transfected cells and in human cortex and hippocampus. MT2/5-HT2C heteromers amplified the 5-HT-mediated Gq/PLC response and triggered melatonin-induced unidirectional trans-activation of the 5-HT2C protomer of MT2/5-HT2C heteromers. Pharmacological studies revealed distinct functional properties for agomelatine, which shows "biased signaling". These observations demonstrate the existence of functionally-unique MT2/5-HT2C heteromers, and suggest that the antidepressant agomelatine has a distinctive profile at these sites potentially involved in its therapeutic effects on major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Finally, MT2/5-HT2C heteromers provide a new strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2015; 290(18). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.559542 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antidepressant drugs are commonly prescribed treatments for anxiety disorders, and there is growing interest in understanding how these drugs impact fear extinction because extinction learning is pivotal to successful exposure-based therapy (EBT). A key objective within this domain is understanding how antidepressants alter the activation of specific elements of the limbic-based network that governs such fear processing. Chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine has been shown to reduce the acquisition of extinction learning in rats, yet the drug's acute influence on activation in prefrontal and amygdalar regions, and on extinction learning are not well understood. To assess its influence on cellular activation, rats were injected with tianeptine and Fos immunoreactivity was measured in these regions. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively altered Fos expression within subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in a bidirectional manner that varied in relation to ongoing activation within the capsular subdivision and its prefrontal and intra-amygdalar inputs. This pattern of results suggests that the drug can conditionally modulate the activation of CEA subdivisions, which contain microcircuits strongly implicated in fear processing. The effect of acute tianeptine was also examined with respect to the acquisition, consolidation and expression of fear extinction in rats. Acute tianeptine attenuated extinction learning as well as the recall of extinction memory, which underscores that acute dosing with the drug could alter learning during EBT. Together these findings provide a new perspective for understanding the mechanism supporting tianeptine's clinical efficacy, as well as its potential influence on CEA-based learning mechanisms.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 6 January 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2014.169.
    Molecular Psychiatry 01/2015; DOI:10.1038/mp.2014.169 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper we report the investigation of C-3 and β-acetamide positions of agomelatine analogues. Concomitant insertion of a hydroxymethyl in the β-acetamide position and aliphatic groups in C-3 position produced a positive effect on both melatonin (MT1, MT2) and serotonin (5-HT2C) binding affinities. In particular, the allyl 6b and ethyl 15a represented the more interesting compounds of this series. Furthermore, the introduction of methyl cycloalkyl groups (compounds 11a, 12a) exhibited no change in both MT2 and 5-HT2C binding affinities while a decrease of MT1 binding affinity occurred leading to an MT2 selectivity. Finally, the acetamide modulation has led to methyl thiourea 11h, with a weak MT2 selectivity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2014; 90C:822-833. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.12.021 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb) is implicated as part of the mammalian brain's circadian system. Anatomical evidence suggests that the LHb receives extrinsic circadian timing cues from retinal ganglion cells and the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Intriguingly, some LHb neurones contain the molecular circadian clock, but it is unclear if and how intrinsic and extrinsic circadian processes influence neuronal activity in the mouse LHb. Here, using an in vitro brain slice preparation isolating the LHb from the SCN, we show through whole-cell patch-clamp recordings that LHb neurones exhibit heterogeneity in their resting state, but the majority spontaneously fire action potentials (APs). Discharge rate of APs varied from low firing in the early day to higher firing later in the day and was absent in LHb brain slices prepared from Cry1−/−Cry2−/− mice that lack a functional molecular clock. Low amplitude circadian oscillations in the molecular circadian clock were also monitored in LHb brain slices, but were absent in Cry1−/−Cry2−/− LHb brain tissue. A putative neurochemical output signal of the SCN, prokineticin 2 (PK2), inhibited some LHb neurones by elevating the frequency of GABA release in the LHb. Using multielectrode recordings in vivo, we found that LHb neurones sluggishly respond to retinal illumination, suggesting that they receive such information through polysynaptic processes. In summary, our results show for the first time that intrinsic circadian signals are important for regulating LHb neuronal state, while the SCN-derived signal PK2 is less influential. Moreover, we demonstrate that mouse LHb neurones have access to and can respond to visual input, but such signals are unlikely to be directly communicated to the LHb. Broadly, these findings raise the possibility that intrinsic circadian signals are likely to be influential in shaping LHb contributions to cognition and emotionality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    The Journal of Physiology 09/2014; 592(22). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.280065 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report herein the racemic resolution and pharmacological evaluation of naphthalenic ligand analogues of compound 3a. Propionamide 3b and fluoroacetamide 3c showed a good pharmacological profile towards MT1, MT2 and 5-HT2C. Hence, their enantiomers were successfully separated from racemates (±)-3a and (±)-3b and evaluated for their binding affinities and antidepressant activity. Binding results revealed that (−)-R-enantiomers were more potent than (+)-S-enantiomers. Furthermore, the (−)-R-enantiomers exhibited high binding affinities with partial agonist activity at melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor subtypes and antagonist activity at the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype. The R-fluoroacetamide 3c demonstrated the most potent binding affinity towards the 5-HT2C receptor subtype (pKi = 6.73 ± 0.02).
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 08/2014; 5(9). DOI:10.1039/C4MD00149D · 2.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100616. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100616 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agomelatine behaves both as a potent agonist at melatonergic MT1 and MT2 receptors and as a neutral antagonist at 5-HT2C receptors. Accumulating evidence in a broad range of experimental procedures supports the notion that the psychotropic effects of agomelatine are due to the synergy between its melatonergic- and serotonergic effects. The recent demonstration of the existence of heteromeric complexes of MT1 and MT2 with 5-HT2C receptors at the cellular level may explain how these two properties of agomelatine translate into a synergistic action that, for example, leads to increases in proliferation, maturation and survival through modulation of multiple cellular pathways (increase in trophic factors, synaptic remodeling glutamate signaling) and key targets (early genes, kinases).The present review focuses on the pharmacological properties of this novel antidepressant. Its mechanism of action, strikingly different from that of conventional classes of antidepressants, opens perspectives toward a better understanding of the physiopathological bases underlying depression.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/bph.12720 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short duration immobilization stress (IS) in younger rats is followed by a sleep rebound involving slow wave sleep (SWS) and, more particularly, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This rebound, expressing the ability of the brain to confront a stress challenge, is now accepted as a marker of the homeostasis. In older rats (24-25 months), however, an IS of 1h is not followed by a sleep rebound. To determine whether this impairment is reversible, we analyzed the effects of the antidepressant agomelatine, on stress-related sleep rebound in older animals. Older and younger (3-5 months) rats were equipped with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes and polygraphic recordings were achieved under basal conditions with a digitized set-up. Older rats were pretreated with agomelatine (40mg/kg/day) for 3 days, with IS applied on the third day, whereas younger rats were only subjected to IS. Polygraphic recordings achieved under basal conditions confirmed the conventional impairments of the sleep/wake architecture in older animals, including decreased delta power, shortened REM sleep bouts, and modified sleep/wake circadian rhythms. Older rats pretreated with agomelatine for 3 days showed a reversal of the deficit observed in the beta-1, but not in the delta, EEG power band. Application of an IS to older rats after agomelatine pretreatment resulted in a REM sleep rebound in response to stress. These findings indicate that agomelatine, by improving beta-1 EEG power band and by inducing stress-related sleep rebound in older animals, contributes to the homeostasis maintenance.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2014; 566. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.02.044 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An original design and synthesis of fluorescent ligands for melatonin receptor studies is presented and consists in the fusion of the endogenous ligand with the fluorescent BODIPY core. Probes I-IV show high affinities for MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors and exhibit fluorescence properties compatible with cell observation.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 02/2014; 5(2):158-161. DOI:10.1021/ml4004155 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein we describe the synthesis of novel tricyclic analogues issued from the rigidification of the methoxy group of the benzofuranic analogue of melatonin as MT1 and MT2 ligands. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed high binding affinities at MT1 and MT2 receptors subtypes. Compound 6b (MT1, Ki=0.07nM; MT2, Ki=0.08nM) exhibited with the vinyl 6c and allyl 6d the most interesting derivatives of this series. Functional activity of these compounds showed full agonist activity with EC50 in the nanomolar range. Compounds 6a (EC50=0.8nM and Emax=98%) and 6b (EC50=0.2nM and Emax=121%) exhibited good pharmacological profiles.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2013.12.054 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and PurposeMelatonin receptors have been extensively characterized regarding their affinity and pharmacology, mostly using 2-[125I]-melatonin as a radioligand. Although [3H]-melatonin has the advantage of corresponding to the endogenous ligand of the receptor, its binding has not been well described. Experimental ApproachWe characterized [3H]-melatonin binding to the hMT1 and hMT2 receptors expressed in a range of cell lines and obtained new insights into the molecular pharmacology of melatonin receptors. Key ResultsThe binding of [3H]-melatonin to the hMT1 and hMT2 receptors displayed two sites on the saturation curves. These two binding sites were observed on cell membranes expressing recombinant receptors from various species as well as on whole cells. Furthermore, our GTPγS/NaCl results suggest that these sites on the saturation curves correspond to the G-protein coupled and uncoupled states of the receptors, whose pharmacology was extensively characterized. Conclusions and ImplicationshMT1 and hMT2 receptors spontaneously exist in two states when expressed in cell lines; these states can be probed by [3H]-melatonin binding. Overall, our results suggest that physiological regulation of the melatonin receptors may result from complex and subtle mechanisms, a small difference in affinity between the active and inactive states of the receptor, and spontaneous coupling to G-proteins.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2014; 171(1). DOI:10.1111/bph.12457 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic daily or circadian rhythms arise through the outputs of the master circadian clock in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as well as circadian oscillators in other brain sites and peripheral tissues. SCN neurones contain an intracellular molecular clock that drives these neurones to exhibit pronounced day-night differences in their electrical properties. The epithalamic medial habenula (MHb) expresses clock genes, but little is known about the bioelectric properties of mouse MHb neurones and their potential circadian characteristics. Therefore, in this study we used a brain slice preparation containing the MHb to determine the basic electrical properties of mouse MHb neurones with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, and investigated whether these vary across the day-night cycle. MHb neurones (n=230) showed heterogeneity in electrophysiological state, ranging from highly depolarised cells (~-25 to -30 mV) that are silent with no membrane activity or display depolarised low-amplitude membrane oscillations, to neurones that were moderately hyperpolarised (~40 mV) and spontaneously discharging action potentials. These electrical states were largely intrinsically regulated and were influenced by the activation of small calcium-activated potassium channels. When considered as one population, MHb neurones showed significant circadian variation in their spontaneous firing rate and resting membrane potential. However, in recordings of MHb neurones from mice lacking the core molecular circadian clock, these temporal differences in MHb activity were absent, indicating that circadian clock signals actively regulate the timing of MHb neuronal states. These observations extend on the extracellularly recorded rhythms seen in other brain areas and establish that circadian mechanisms can influence the membrane properties of neurones in extra-SCN sites. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the MHb may function as an intrinsic secondary circadian oscillator in the brain, which can shape daily information flow in key brain processes, such as reward and addiction.
    The Journal of Physiology 11/2013; 592(4). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2013.263319 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agomelatine is a naphthalenic analogue of melatonin that is in clinical use for the treatment of major depressive disorders. Interestingly, while agomelatine exhibits potent affinity for melatonin receptors, it binds with only moderate affinity to the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor. Optimization of agomelatine toward this target could further potentiate its clinical efficacy. To explore this hypothesis and to access derivatives in which a key point of agomelatine metabolism is blocked, a series of naphthalenic derivatives was designed and synthesized as novel analogues of agomelatine. Most of the prepared compounds exhibited good binding affinity at the melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor subtypes. Two compounds, an acetamide and an acrylamide derivative, exhibited good binding affinities at both the human melatonin (MT) receptors and the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype, with pKi values of 7.96 and 7.95 against MT1 , 7.86 and 8.68 against MT2, and 6.64 and 6.44 against 5-HT2C , respectively.
    ChemMedChem 11/2013; 8(11). DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201300294 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2013; 14(5):8948-8962. DOI:10.3390/ijms14058948 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep are gregarious mammals with complex social interactions. As such, they are very sensitive to social isolation and constitute a relevant animal model to study specifically the biological consequences of social stress. We examined previously the behavioral and endocrine responses in ewes isolated socially in the familiar conspecific withdrawal model (FCW) and showed that stressful responses increased and maintenance behaviors decreased, confirming that social isolation is a strong stressor in sheep. Melatonin synchronizes seasonal and circadian rhythms; and several studies reported its implication in cognitive processes as emotion. Here we investigated its role in the modulation of social stressful responses. Firstly, we studied ewes in the FCW model during the day (characterized by low melatonin levels) and the night (characterized by high melatonin levels). We found lower stressful responses (significant lower levels of cortisol plasma, number of foot pawings, of circling attempts) during the night as compared to the day. To investigate whether these effects were due to melatonin or to darkness, we submitted ewes to FCW during the night with lights on, a condition that suppresses melatonin secretion. Ewes infused with melatonin under these conditions showed decreased stressful responses (significant lower levels cortisol plasma, number of vocalizations, time spent with the head out of the cage) as compared to ewes infused with saline. These findings demonstrate that melatonin diminishes the endocrine and behavioral impact of social isolation in ewes and support the idea that melatonin has a calming effect in socially stressful situations.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 01/2013; 38(8). DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.011 · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ever since the idea arose that melatonin might promote sleep and resynchronize circadian rhythms, many research groups have centered their efforts on obtaining new melatonin receptor ligands whose pharmacophores include an aliphatic chain of variable length united to an N-alkylamide and a methoxy group (or a bioisostere), linked to a central ring. Substitution of the indole ring found in melatonin with a naphthalene or quinoline ring leads to compounds of similar affinity. The next step in this structural approximation is to introduce a quinoxaline ring (a bioisostere of the quinoline and naphthalene rings) as the central nucleus of future melatoninergic ligands.
    Molecules 12/2012; 17(7):7737-57. DOI:10.3390/molecules17077737 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-(Arylcyclopropyl)acetamides and N-(arylvinyl)acetamides or methyl ureas have been prepared as constrained analogues of melatonin. The affinity of these new compounds for chicken brain melatonin receptors and recombinant human MT(1) and MT(2) receptors was evaluated using 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as radioligand. Strict ethylenic or cyclopropyl analogues of the commercialized agonist agomelatine (Valdoxan®) were equipotent to agomelatine in binding bioassays. However, the ethylenic analogue was more effective than the cyclopropyl one in the melanophore aggregation bioassay, but was still less potent than the disubstituted 2,7-dimethoxy-naphtalenic compounds.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2012; 23(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.11.069 · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • the Frontiers in Stress and cognition meeting: from Molecules to Behavior; 09/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin receptors have been described to activate different G protein-dependent signaling pathways, both in laboratory, heterologous, cellular models and in physiological conditions. Furthermore, the constitutive activity of G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to be key in physiological and pathological conditions. In the case of melatonin receptors, information is rather scare and concerns only MT1 receptors. In the present report, we show that the G protein-coupled melatonin receptors do have a constitutive, nonmelatonin-induced signaling activity using two cellular models of different origins, the Chinese hamster ovary cell line and Neuro2A, a neuroblastoma cell line. Furthermore, we show that this constitutive activity involves mainly Gi proteins, which is consistent with the common knowledge on the melatonin receptors. Importantly, we also describe, for the first time, inverse agonist properties for melatonin ligands. Although it is clear than more in-depth, biochemistry-based studies will be required to better understand by which pathway(s) the constitutively active melatonin receptors transfer melatonin information into intracellular biochemical events; our data open interesting perspectives for understanding the importance of the constitutive activity of melatonin receptors in physiological conditions.
    Journal of Pineal Research 08/2012; 53(1):29-37. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00968.x · 7.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plasticity of excitatory synapses is an essential brain process involved in cognitive functions, and dysfunctions of such adaptations have been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression. Although the intracellular cascades that are altered in models of depression and stress-related disorders have been under considerable scrutiny, the molecular interplay between antidepressants and glutamatergic signaling remains elusive. Using a combination of electrophysiological and single nanoparticle tracking approaches, we here report that the cognitive enhancer and antidepressant tianeptine (S 1574, [3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-(c,f)-dibenzo-(1,2-thiazepine)-11-yl) amino]-7 heptanoic acid, sodium salt) favors synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons both under basal conditions and after acute stress. Strikingly, tianeptine rapidly reduces the surface diffusion of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) through a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent mechanism that enhances the binding of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin with PSD-95. This prevents corticosterone-induced AMPAR surface dispersal and restores long-term potentiation of acutely stressed mice. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence that a therapeutically used drug targets the surface diffusion of AMPAR through a CaMKII-stargazin-PSD-95 pathway, to promote long-term synaptic plasticity.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 26 June 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.80.
    Molecular Psychiatry 06/2012; 18(4). DOI:10.1038/mp.2012.80 · 15.15 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
747.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Servier
      Suresnes, Île-de-France, France
  • 2006–2012
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Innovative Drug Research Solutions
      Bhaganagar, Telangana, India
  • 1997–2010
    • Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
      • Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur le Médicament de Normandie (CERMN)
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2007–2008
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • University of Wollongong
      • School of Chemistry
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1995–2005
    • Iris Pharma
      Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2004
    • Institut Cochin
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003
    • Université d'Orléans
      • Institute of Organic and Analytical Chemistry
      Orléans, Centre, France
    • Université du Droit et de la Santé Lille 2
      • Laboratoire de Chimie Thérapeutiques 2
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 1996–2000
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Orsay, Île-de-France, France