Philippe Delagrange

Université du Droit et de la Santé Lille 2, Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France

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Publications (202)716.66 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb) is implicated as part of the mammalian brain's circadian system. Anatomical evidence suggests that the LHb receives extrinsic circadian timing cues from retinal ganglion cells and the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Intriguingly, some LHb neurones contain the molecular circadian clock, but it is unclear if and how intrinsic and extrinsic circadian processes influence neuronal activity in the mouse LHb. Here, using an in vitro brain slice preparation isolating the LHb from the SCN, we show through whole-cell patch-clamp recordings that LHb neurones exhibit heterogeneity in their resting state, but the majority spontaneously fire action potentials (APs). Discharge rate of APs varied from low firing in the early day to higher firing later in the day and was absent in LHb brain slices prepared from Cry1−/−Cry2−/− mice that lack a functional molecular clock. Low amplitude circadian oscillations in the molecular circadian clock were also monitored in LHb brain slices, but were absent in Cry1−/−Cry2−/− LHb brain tissue. A putative neurochemical output signal of the SCN, prokineticin 2 (PK2), inhibited some LHb neurones by elevating the frequency of GABA release in the LHb. Using multielectrode recordings in vivo, we found that LHb neurones sluggishly respond to retinal illumination, suggesting that they receive such information through polysynaptic processes. In summary, our results show for the first time that intrinsic circadian signals are important for regulating LHb neuronal state, while the SCN-derived signal PK2 is less influential. Moreover, we demonstrate that mouse LHb neurones have access to and can respond to visual input, but such signals are unlikely to be directly communicated to the LHb. Broadly, these findings raise the possibility that intrinsic circadian signals are likely to be influential in shaping LHb contributions to cognition and emotionality.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    The Journal of Physiology 09/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report herein the racemic resolution and pharmacological evaluation of naphthalenic ligand analogues of compound 3a. Propionamide 3b and fluoroacetamide 3c showed a good pharmacological profile towards MT1, MT2 and 5-HT2C. Hence, their enantiomers were successfully separated from racemates (±)-3a and (±)-3b and evaluated for their binding affinities and antidepressant activity. Binding results revealed that (−)-R-enantiomers were more potent than (+)-S-enantiomers. Furthermore, the (−)-R-enantiomers exhibited high binding affinities with partial agonist activity at melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor subtypes and antagonist activity at the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype. The R-fluoroacetamide 3c demonstrated the most potent binding affinity towards the 5-HT2C receptor subtype (pKi = 6.73 ± 0.02).
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 08/2014; 5(9). · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Short duration immobilization stress (IS) in younger rats is followed by a sleep rebound involving slow wave sleep (SWS) and, more particularly, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This rebound, expressing the ability of the brain to confront a stress challenge, is now accepted as a marker of the homeostasis. In older rats (24-25 months), however, an IS of 1h is not followed by a sleep rebound. To determine whether this impairment is reversible, we analyzed the effects of the antidepressant agomelatine, on stress-related sleep rebound in older animals. Older and younger (3-5 months) rats were equipped with electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes and polygraphic recordings were achieved under basal conditions with a digitized set-up. Older rats were pretreated with agomelatine (40mg/kg/day) for 3 days, with IS applied on the third day, whereas younger rats were only subjected to IS. Polygraphic recordings achieved under basal conditions confirmed the conventional impairments of the sleep/wake architecture in older animals, including decreased delta power, shortened REM sleep bouts, and modified sleep/wake circadian rhythms. Older rats pretreated with agomelatine for 3 days showed a reversal of the deficit observed in the beta-1, but not in the delta, EEG power band. Application of an IS to older rats after agomelatine pretreatment resulted in a REM sleep rebound in response to stress. These findings indicate that agomelatine, by improving beta-1 EEG power band and by inducing stress-related sleep rebound in older animals, contributes to the homeostasis maintenance.
    Neuroscience Letters 03/2014; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An original design and synthesis of fluorescent ligands for melatonin receptor studies is presented and consists in the fusion of the endogenous ligand with the fluorescent BODIPY core. Probes I-IV show high affinities for MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors and exhibit fluorescence properties compatible with cell observation.
    ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 02/2014; 5(2):158-161. · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Herein we describe the synthesis of novel tricyclic analogues issued from the rigidification of the methoxy group of the benzofuranic analogue of melatonin as MT1 and MT2 ligands. Most of the synthesized compounds displayed high binding affinities at MT1 and MT2 receptors subtypes. Compound 6b (MT1, Ki=0.07nM; MT2, Ki=0.08nM) exhibited with the vinyl 6c and allyl 6d the most interesting derivatives of this series. Functional activity of these compounds showed full agonist activity with EC50 in the nanomolar range. Compounds 6a (EC50=0.8nM and Emax=98%) and 6b (EC50=0.2nM and Emax=121%) exhibited good pharmacological profiles.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and PurposeMelatonin receptors have been extensively characterized regarding their affinity and pharmacology, mostly using 2-[125I]-melatonin as a radioligand. Although [3H]-melatonin has the advantage of corresponding to the endogenous ligand of the receptor, its binding has not been well described. Experimental ApproachWe characterized [3H]-melatonin binding to the hMT1 and hMT2 receptors expressed in a range of cell lines and obtained new insights into the molecular pharmacology of melatonin receptors. Key ResultsThe binding of [3H]-melatonin to the hMT1 and hMT2 receptors displayed two sites on the saturation curves. These two binding sites were observed on cell membranes expressing recombinant receptors from various species as well as on whole cells. Furthermore, our GTPγS/NaCl results suggest that these sites on the saturation curves correspond to the G-protein coupled and uncoupled states of the receptors, whose pharmacology was extensively characterized. Conclusions and ImplicationshMT1 and hMT2 receptors spontaneously exist in two states when expressed in cell lines; these states can be probed by [3H]-melatonin binding. Overall, our results suggest that physiological regulation of the melatonin receptors may result from complex and subtle mechanisms, a small difference in affinity between the active and inactive states of the receptor, and spontaneous coupling to G-proteins.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2014; 171(1). · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The human melatonin MT1 receptor-belonging to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)-plays a key role in circadian rhythm regulation and is notably involved in sleep disorders and depression. Structural and functional information at the molecular level are highly desired for fine characterization of this receptor; however, adequate techniques for isolating soluble MT1 material suitable for biochemical and biophysical studies remain lacking. Here we describe the evaluation of a panel of constructs and host systems for the production of recombinant human MT1 receptors, and the screening of different conditions for their solubilization and purification. Our findings resulted in the establishment of an original strategy using a mixture of Fos14 and CHAPS detergents to extract and purify a recombinant human MT1 from Pichia pastoris membranes. This procedure enabled the recovery of relatively pure, monomeric and ligand-binding active MT1 receptor in the near-milligram range. A comparative study based on extensive ligand-binding characterization highlighted a very close correlation between the pharmacological profiles of MT1 purified from yeast and the same receptor present in mammalian cell membranes. The high quality of the purified MT1 was further confirmed by its ability to activate its cognate Gαi protein partner when reconstituted in lipid discs, thus opening novel paths to investigate this receptor by biochemical and biophysical approaches.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e100616. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsic daily or circadian rhythms arise through the outputs of the master circadian clock in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) as well as circadian oscillators in other brain sites and peripheral tissues. SCN neurones contain an intracellular molecular clock that drives these neurones to exhibit pronounced day-night differences in their electrical properties. The epithalamic medial habenula (MHb) expresses clock genes, but little is known about the bioelectric properties of mouse MHb neurones and their potential circadian characteristics. Therefore, in this study we used a brain slice preparation containing the MHb to determine the basic electrical properties of mouse MHb neurones with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology, and investigated whether these vary across the day-night cycle. MHb neurones (n=230) showed heterogeneity in electrophysiological state, ranging from highly depolarised cells (~-25 to -30 mV) that are silent with no membrane activity or display depolarised low-amplitude membrane oscillations, to neurones that were moderately hyperpolarised (~40 mV) and spontaneously discharging action potentials. These electrical states were largely intrinsically regulated and were influenced by the activation of small calcium-activated potassium channels. When considered as one population, MHb neurones showed significant circadian variation in their spontaneous firing rate and resting membrane potential. However, in recordings of MHb neurones from mice lacking the core molecular circadian clock, these temporal differences in MHb activity were absent, indicating that circadian clock signals actively regulate the timing of MHb neuronal states. These observations extend on the extracellularly recorded rhythms seen in other brain areas and establish that circadian mechanisms can influence the membrane properties of neurones in extra-SCN sites. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that the MHb may function as an intrinsic secondary circadian oscillator in the brain, which can shape daily information flow in key brain processes, such as reward and addiction.
    The Journal of Physiology 11/2013; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Agomelatine is a naphthalenic analogue of melatonin that is in clinical use for the treatment of major depressive disorders. Interestingly, while agomelatine exhibits potent affinity for melatonin receptors, it binds with only moderate affinity to the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor. Optimization of agomelatine toward this target could further potentiate its clinical efficacy. To explore this hypothesis and to access derivatives in which a key point of agomelatine metabolism is blocked, a series of naphthalenic derivatives was designed and synthesized as novel analogues of agomelatine. Most of the prepared compounds exhibited good binding affinity at the melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor subtypes. Two compounds, an acetamide and an acrylamide derivative, exhibited good binding affinities at both the human melatonin (MT) receptors and the serotonin 5-HT2C receptor subtype, with pKi values of 7.96 and 7.95 against MT1 , 7.86 and 8.68 against MT2, and 6.64 and 6.44 against 5-HT2C , respectively.
    ChemMedChem 09/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sheep are gregarious mammals with complex social interactions. As such, they are very sensitive to social isolation and constitute a relevant animal model to study specifically the biological consequences of social stress. We examined previously the behavioral and endocrine responses in ewes isolated socially in the familiar conspecific withdrawal model (FCW) and showed that stressful responses increased and maintenance behaviors decreased, confirming that social isolation is a strong stressor in sheep. Melatonin synchronizes seasonal and circadian rhythms; and several studies reported its implication in cognitive processes as emotion. Here we investigated its role in the modulation of social stressful responses. Firstly, we studied ewes in the FCW model during the day (characterized by low melatonin levels) and the night (characterized by high melatonin levels). We found lower stressful responses (significant lower levels of cortisol plasma, number of foot pawings, of circling attempts) during the night as compared to the day. To investigate whether these effects were due to melatonin or to darkness, we submitted ewes to FCW during the night with lights on, a condition that suppresses melatonin secretion. Ewes infused with melatonin under these conditions showed decreased stressful responses (significant lower levels cortisol plasma, number of vocalizations, time spent with the head out of the cage) as compared to ewes infused with saline. These findings demonstrate that melatonin diminishes the endocrine and behavioral impact of social isolation in ewes and support the idea that melatonin has a calming effect in socially stressful situations.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 01/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin receptors have been studied for several decades. The low expression of the receptors in tissues led the scientific community to find a substitute for the natural hormone melatonin, the agonist 2-[125I]-iodomelatonin. Using the agonist, several hundreds of studies were conducted, including the discovery of agonists and antagonists for the receptors and minute details about their molecular behavior. Recently, we attempted to expand the panel of radioligands available for studying the melatonin receptors by using the newly discovered compounds SD6, DIV880, and S70254. These compounds were characterized for their affinities to the hMT1 and hMT2 recombinant receptors and their functionality in the classical GTPS system. SD6 is a full agonist, equilibrated between the receptor isoforms, whereas S70254 and DIV880 are only partial MT2 agonists, with Ki in the low nanomolar range while they have no affinity to MT1 receptors. These new tools will hopefully allow for additions to the current body of information on the native localization of the receptor isoforms in tissues.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(5):8948-8962. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-(Arylcyclopropyl)acetamides and N-(arylvinyl)acetamides or methyl ureas have been prepared as constrained analogues of melatonin. The affinity of these new compounds for chicken brain melatonin receptors and recombinant human MT(1) and MT(2) receptors was evaluated using 2-[(125)I]-iodomelatonin as radioligand. Strict ethylenic or cyclopropyl analogues of the commercialized agonist agomelatine (Valdoxan®) were equipotent to agomelatine in binding bioassays. However, the ethylenic analogue was more effective than the cyclopropyl one in the melanophore aggregation bioassay, but was still less potent than the disubstituted 2,7-dimethoxy-naphtalenic compounds.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • the Frontiers in Stress and cognition meeting: from Molecules to Behavior; 09/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Melatonin receptors have been described to activate different G protein-dependent signaling pathways, both in laboratory, heterologous, cellular models and in physiological conditions. Furthermore, the constitutive activity of G protein-coupled receptors has been shown to be key in physiological and pathological conditions. In the case of melatonin receptors, information is rather scare and concerns only MT1 receptors. In the present report, we show that the G protein-coupled melatonin receptors do have a constitutive, nonmelatonin-induced signaling activity using two cellular models of different origins, the Chinese hamster ovary cell line and Neuro2A, a neuroblastoma cell line. Furthermore, we show that this constitutive activity involves mainly Gi proteins, which is consistent with the common knowledge on the melatonin receptors. Importantly, we also describe, for the first time, inverse agonist properties for melatonin ligands. Although it is clear than more in-depth, biochemistry-based studies will be required to better understand by which pathway(s) the constitutively active melatonin receptors transfer melatonin information into intracellular biochemical events; our data open interesting perspectives for understanding the importance of the constitutive activity of melatonin receptors in physiological conditions.
    Journal of Pineal Research 08/2012; 53(1):29-37. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The plasticity of excitatory synapses is an essential brain process involved in cognitive functions, and dysfunctions of such adaptations have been linked to psychiatric disorders such as depression. Although the intracellular cascades that are altered in models of depression and stress-related disorders have been under considerable scrutiny, the molecular interplay between antidepressants and glutamatergic signaling remains elusive. Using a combination of electrophysiological and single nanoparticle tracking approaches, we here report that the cognitive enhancer and antidepressant tianeptine (S 1574, [3-chloro-6-methyl-5,5-dioxo-6,11-dihydro-(c,f)-dibenzo-(1,2-thiazepine)-11-yl) amino]-7 heptanoic acid, sodium salt) favors synaptic plasticity in hippocampal neurons both under basal conditions and after acute stress. Strikingly, tianeptine rapidly reduces the surface diffusion of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) through a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent mechanism that enhances the binding of AMPAR auxiliary subunit stargazin with PSD-95. This prevents corticosterone-induced AMPAR surface dispersal and restores long-term potentiation of acutely stressed mice. Collectively, these data provide the first evidence that a therapeutically used drug targets the surface diffusion of AMPAR through a CaMKII-stargazin-PSD-95 pathway, to promote long-term synaptic plasticity.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 26 June 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.80.
    Molecular Psychiatry 06/2012; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) has been proposed as a model of depression. However, most CSDS studies rely only on the analysis of stress-induced social avoidance. Moreover, the predictive validity of the model has been poorly analyzed, let alone its interaction with biological risk factors. Here, we explore the validity of CSDS as a depression model. Further, the effect of decreased vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), as a potential factor enhancing a depressive-like phenotype, was studied. Mice were exposed to CSDS (10 days) followed by saline, venlafaxine, fluoxetine, or tianeptine treatment (30 days). The battery of behaviors included motor activity, memory, anxiety, social interaction, helplessness, and anhedonic-like behavior. Moreover, the behavioral effect of CSDS in VGLUT1 heterozygous (VGLUT1+/-) mice was studied, as well as the regulation of VGLUT1 mRNA. CSDS induced anhedonia, helplessness, hyperactivity, anxiety, social avoidance, and freezing, as well as downregulation of VGLUT1 mRNA in the amygdala. Repeated venlafaxine showed antidepressant-like activity and both venlafaxine and tianeptine behaved as effective anxiolytics. CSDS-induced social avoidance was reverted by tianeptine. Fluoxetine failed to revert most of the behavioral alterations. VGLUT1+/- mice showed an enhanced vulnerability to stress-induced social avoidance. We suggest that CSDS is not a pure model of depression. Indeed, it addresses relevant aspects of anxiety-related disorders. Firstly, CSDS-induced anhedonia and social avoidance are not associated in this model. Moreover, CSDS might be affecting brain areas mainly involved in the processing of social behavior, such as the amygdala, where the glutamatergic mechanism could play a key role.
    Psychopharmacology 06/2012; 224(2):313-25. · 4.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GPR50, formerly known as melatonin-related receptor, is one of three subtypes of the melatonin receptor subfamily, together with the MT(1) and MT(2) receptors. By contrast to these two high-affinity receptor subtypes and despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, GPR50 does not bind melatonin or any other known ligand. Specific and reliable immunological tools are therefore needed to be able to elucidate the physiological functions of this orphan receptor that are still largely unknown. We have generated and validated a new specific GPR50 antibody against the ovine GPR50 and used it to analyse the neuroanatomical distribution of the GPR50 in sheep, rat and mouse whole brain. We demonstrated that GPR50-positive cells are widely distributed in various regions, including the hypothalamus and the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, in all the three species studied. GPR50 expressing cells are abundant in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus and the median eminence. In rodents, immunohistochemical studies revealed a broader distribution pattern for the GPR50 protein. GPR50 immunoreactivity is found in the medial preoptic area (MPA), the lateral septum, the lateral hypothalamic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the vascular organ of the laminae terminalis and several regions of the amygdala, including the medial nuclei of amygdala. Additionally, in the rat brain, GPR50 protein was localised in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the dorsal hippocampus. In mice, moderate to high numbers of GPR50-positive cells were also found in the subfornical organ. Taken together, these results provide an enlarged distribution of GPR50 protein, give further insight into the organisation of the melatoninergic system, and may lay the framework for future studies on the role of the GPR50 in the brain.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 05/2012; 24(5):798-808. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of our ongoing interest in developing new melatoninergic ligands bearing the same pharmacological profile as agomelatine, we focused our attention on this compound as a lead. Several chemical modifications have been performed on positions C-3 and 8 of the naphthalene ring determined as primary targets for the agomelatine metabolism. Herein we report the modulation of the positions C-3 and 7 in addition of the amide side chain because of this later prominent role in the affinity profile of such ligands. Synthesized compounds were then biologically evaluated at human cloned melatoninergic and serotoninergic receptors and showed different binding affinity and intrinsic activity profiles. Compounds bearing fluoroacetamide group (compounds 4 and 5) showed a high melatoninergic binding affinity particularly towards MT(1) receptor subtype. Thus, the fluoroacetamide 4 exhibited a good melatoninergic (MT(1)/MT(2)) binding affinity (70 pM) higher than the lead. Moreover, other compounds (10a, 10e, 16, 17 and 18) issued from these modulations behaved as MT(1) and MT(2) agonists and exhibited a sub-nanomolar binding affinity towards these receptors. However, only compounds 10e, 17 and 18 showed a sub-nanomolar binding affinity at 5-HT(2C) higher than the agomelatine.
    European journal of medicinal chemistry 03/2012; 49:310-23. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Novel conformationally restricted analogues of agomelatine were synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated at MT(1) and MT(2) melatoninergic receptors. Replacement of the N-acetyl side chain of agomelatine by oxathiadiazole-2-oxide (compound 3), oxadiazole-5(4H)-one (compound 4), tetrazole (compound 5), oxazolidinone (compound 7a), pyrrolidinone (compound 7b), imidazolidinedione (compound 12), thiazole (compounds 13 and 14) and isoxazole moieties (compound 15) led to a decrease of the melatoninergic binding affinities, particularly at MT(1). Compounds 7a and 7b exhibiting nanomolar affinity towards the MT(2) receptors subtypes have shown the most interesting pharmacological results of this series with the appearance of a weak MT(2)-selectivity.
    Molecules 01/2012; 18(1):154-66. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ever since the idea arose that melatonin might promote sleep and resynchronize circadian rhythms, many research groups have centered their efforts on obtaining new melatonin receptor ligands whose pharmacophores include an aliphatic chain of variable length united to an N-alkylamide and a methoxy group (or a bioisostere), linked to a central ring. Substitution of the indole ring found in melatonin with a naphthalene or quinoline ring leads to compounds of similar affinity. The next step in this structural approximation is to introduce a quinoxaline ring (a bioisostere of the quinoline and naphthalene rings) as the central nucleus of future melatoninergic ligands.
    Molecules 01/2012; 17(7):7737-57. · 2.43 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
716.66 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Université du Droit et de la Santé Lille 2
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
    • University of Tours
      Tours, Centre, France
  • 2009–2012
    • University of Lille Nord de France
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
    • Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
  • 1999–2012
    • Institut de France
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2003–2011
    • Université d'Orléans
      • Institute of Organic and Analytical Chemistry
      Orléans, Centre, France
  • 2007–2010
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2004–2006
    • Institut Cochin
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2005
    • University of Wollongong
      • School of Chemistry
      City of Greater Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia
  • 1995–2005
    • Iris Pharma
      Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1998–2003
    • University of Strasbourg
      • Faculty of Medicine
      Strasbourg, Alsace, France
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Biomedical Sciences
      Nottingham, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Université Paris-Sud 11
      • Faculté de Pharmacie
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1996
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 1993
    • Maritime Research Institute Netherlands
      Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands