Jong Min Kim

Samsung Medical Center, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (354)1434.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Phase change memory (PCM) is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation non-volatile memory devices due to its high speed, excellent reliability, and outstanding scalability. However, the high switching current of PCM devices has been a critical hurdle to realize low-power operation. Although one solution is to reduce the switching volume of the memory, the resolution limit of photolithography hinders further miniaturization of device dimensions. In this study, we employed unconventional self-assembly geometries obtained from blends of block copolymers (BCPs) to form ring-shaped hollow PCM nanostructures with an ultra-small contact area between a phase-change material (Ge2Sb2Te5) and a heater (TiN) electrode. The high-density (approximately 0.1 terabits per square inch) PCM nanoring arrays showed extremely small switching current of 2 − 3 µA. Furthermore, the relatively small reset current of the ring-shaped PCM compared to the pillar-shaped devices is attributed to smaller switching volume, which is well supported by electro-thermal simulation results. This approach may also be extended to other non-volatile memory device appli-cations such as resistive switching memory and magnetic storage devices, where the control of nanoscale geometry can significantly affect device performances.
    Chemistry of Materials 04/2015; 27(7):2673-2677. DOI:10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b00542 · 8.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are common in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study aimed to examine the feasibility and reliability of a CTO induced by a thin biodegradable polymer (polyglycolic acid) coated copper stent in a porcine femoral artery. Novel thin biodegradable polymer coated copper stents (9 mm long) were crimped on an angioplasty balloon (4.5 mm diameter × 12 mm length) and inserted into the femoral artery. Histopathologic analysis was performed 35 days after stenting. In five of six stented femoral arteries, severe in-stent restenosis and total occlusion with collateral circulation were observed without adverse effects such as acute stent thrombosis, leg necrosis, or death at 5 weeks. Fibrous tissue deposition, small vascular channels, calcification, and inflammatory cells were observed in hematoxylin-eosin, Carstair's, and von Kossa tissue stains; these characteristics were similar to pathological findings associated with CTOs in humans. The neointima volume measured by micro-computed tomography was 93.9 ± 4.04 % in the stented femoral arteries. CTOs were reliably induced by novel thin biodegradable polymer coated copper stents in porcine femoral arteries. Successful induction of CTOs may provide a practical understanding of their formation and application of an interventional device for CTO treatment.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 04/2015; 26(4):5506. DOI:10.1007/s10856-015-5506-3 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flexible memory is the fundamental component for data processing, storage, and radio frequency communication in flexible electronic systems. Among several emerging memory technologies, phase-change random-access memory (PRAM) is one of the strongest candidate for next-generation nonvolatile memories due to its remarkable merits of large cycling endurance, high speed, and excellent scalability. Although there are a few approaches for flexible phase-change memory (PCM), high reset current is the biggest obstacle for the practical operation of flexible PCM devices. In this paper, we report a flexible PCM realized by incorporating nanoinsulators derived from a Si-containing block copolymer (BCP) to significantly lower the operating current of the flexible memory formed on plastic substrate. The reduction of thermal stress by BCP nanostructures enables the reliable operation of flexible PCM devices integrated with ultrathin flexible diodes during more than 100 switching cycles and 1000 bending cycles.
    ACS Nano 03/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1021/acsnano.5b00230 · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    Jong Chul Ye, Jong Min Kim, Yoram Bresler
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    ABSTRACT: The multiple measurement vector problem (MMV) is a generalization of the compressed sensing problem that addresses the recovery of a set of jointly sparse signal vectors. One of the important contributions of this paper is to reveal that the seemingly least related state-of-art MMV joint sparse recovery algorithms - M-SBL (multiple sparse Bayesian learning) and subspace-based hybrid greedy algorithms - have a very important link. More specifically, we show that replacing the $\log\det(\cdot)$ term in M-SBL by a rank proxy that exploits the spark reduction property discovered in subspace-based joint sparse recovery algorithms, provides significant improvements. In particular, if we use the Schatten-$p$ quasi-norm as the corresponding rank proxy, the global minimiser of the proposed algorithm becomes identical to the true solution as $p \rightarrow 0$. Furthermore, under the same regularity conditions, we show that the convergence to a local minimiser is guaranteed using an alternating minimization algorithm that has closed form expressions for each of the minimization steps, which are convex. Numerical simulations under a variety of scenarios in terms of SNR, and condition number of the signal amplitude matrix demonstrate that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms M-SBL and other state-of-the art algorithms.
  • Nature Communications 02/2015; 6. DOI:10.1038/ncomms5292 · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of a single coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly; such patients often present with severe myocardial ischemia. We experienced the case of a 13-year-old girl with the right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery. She visited our Emergency Department owing to severe chest pain; her cardiac enzyme levels were elevated, but her initial electrocardiogram (ECG) was normal. Echocardiography showed normal anatomy and normal regional wall motion. When she presented with recurrent chest pain on admission, the ECG showed significant ST-segment elevation in the left precordial leads and inferior leads with ST-segment depression in aVR lead, suggesting myocardial ischemia, and her cardiac enzyme levels were also elevated. We performed coronary angiography that showed a single right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery without stenosis. We confirmed the presence of a single coronary artery using coronary computed tomography. In addition, the treadmill test that was performed showed normal results. She was discharged from the hospital without any medications but with a recommendation of a regular follow-up.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 01/2015; 58(1):37. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2015.58.1.37
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    ABSTRACT: Background To understand humoral responses elicited after xenotransplantation, we compared the induction of anti-non-Gal antibodies vs. anti-Gal antibodies in non-human primates (NHPs) after intraportal porcine islet transplantation (PITX).Methods Anti-Gal and anti-non-Gal IgGs were analyzed in serial plasma samples of NHP recipients after PITX by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic Gal and by flow cytometry using α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) porcine endothelial cells, respectively. Anti-non-Gal IgG was detected in some recipients after PITX. The specificity of anti-non-Gal IgG was investigated by two-dimensional electrophoresis of the protein extract from GTKO porcine endothelial cells, Western blot analysis of recipient pre- and post-PITX plasma, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, revealing albumin, a non-glycosylated protein in the serum supplement of the islets solution, as a putative antigen for anti-non-Gal IgG. The binding of IgG antibodies to human albumin (HA), bovine albumin (BA), porcine albumin (PA), and Gal was compared by ELISA in pre- and post-PITX plasma samples of 30 NHP recipients subjected to intraportal PITX, which were grouped according to the use of CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus.ResultsOne of the immunoblot-matched spots was identified as BA by mass spectrometry. By ELISA, the plasma used in the immunoblot analysis revealed strong IgG binding to BA and PA, but not to HA. Anti-PA, anti-BA, and anti-Gal antibodies in NHP recipients 1 month after PITX were detected in 5 (100%), 3 (60%), and 5 (100%), respectively, of the 5 recipients receiving various immunosuppression (IS) without CD40-CD154 blockade (group I) and in 0 (0%), 0 (0%), and 4 (16%), respectively, of the 25 recipients receiving IS with CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus (group II). This finding revealed significant differences between the groups (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0013, respectively). Interestingly, among 15 recipients achieving graft survival longer than 1 month in group II, anti-PA IgG was detected in only 1 recipient (6.7%) 180 days after PITX. However, an increase in anti-Gal IgG was detected in 7 recipients (46.7%) despite maintenance IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus. This result indicates that anti-Gal IgG is more frequently induced than anti-PA IgG (P = 0.0352). Moreover, induction IS with anti-CD154 and sirolimus suppressed anti-Gal IgG, but not anti-PA and anti-BA IgG, responses in sensitized recipients given a repeat transplantation.Conclusions In NHP recipients of PITX, anti-PA and anti-BA IgG antibodies are elicited by porcine serum included as a supplement in porcine islet preparation. IS including CD40-CD154 blockade and sirolimus suppresses these antibody responses in naïve recipients, but not in sensitized recipients. The elicitation of anti-xenogenic albumin antibodies, a humoral response to a model protein antigen, is distinct from that of anti-Gal antibodies, a response to carbohydrate antigen.
    Xenotransplantation 01/2015; 22(2). DOI:10.1111/xen.12152 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardioprotective effect of fimasartan, a new angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), was evaluated in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty swine were randomized to group 1 (sham, n=10), group 2 (no angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] or ARB, n=10), group 3 (perindopril 2 mg daily, n=10), group 4 (valsartan 40 mg daily, n=10), or group 5 (fimasartan 30 mg daily, n=10). Acute MI was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery for 50 min. Echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Iodine-123 meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan was done at 6 weeks for visualization of cardiac sympathetic activity. Left ventricular function and volumes at 4 weeks were similar between the 5 groups. No difference was observed in groups 2 to 5 in SPECT perfusion defect, matched and mismatched segments between SPECT and PET at 1 week and 4 weeks. MIBG scan showed similar uptake between the 5 groups. Pathologic analysis showed similar infarct size in groups 2 to 5. Infarct size reduction was not observed with use of fimasartan as well as other ACEI and ARB in a porcine model of acute MI.
    Journal of Hypertension 01/2015; 30(1):34-43. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.1.34 · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Jong Min Kim, Jin Chul Yang, Jin Young Park
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we developed a novel molecularly imprinted conducting polymer (MICP) system consisting of porous poly(pyrrole-co-pyrrole-3-carboxylic acid) copolymer matrices for the recognition of theophylline (THEO), a drug molecule. Various porous MICP (p-MICP) films were made using colloidal lithography and examined via gravimetric technique [e.g. gold quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs)]. They showed faster sensing response than a planar MICP film due to the increased THEO binding sites obtained from porous structures. Thus, this lithographical approach to MICP sensors can enable the rebind of a specific template to be increased to achieve improved sensor capacity.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 01/2015; 206:50–55. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2014.09.047 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polysaccharide, despite its effect, is hard to apply for coating on stent surface because its own properties such as insoluble in water, fragmentation and deactivation easily. The aim of this study was to optimize the coating conditions for fucoidan on a bare metal stent (BMS), and to evaluate the inhibitory effect of a fucoidan-coated stent on in-stent restenosis (ISR). Three different coating approaches were attempted (designated as multi-layer coating, single-layer coating, and dual coating). Unlike other approaches, it was hard to notice the irregular, blotched or the cracks area in the polymer on the BMS surface in dual coating group. And the release of fucoidan was continued to 24 h and inhibits smooth muscle cell proliferation, when compared to the control, with approximately 42.7% at 3 days and 51.3% at 7 days of culture. In animal study using rabbit iliac artery, histopathological restenosis area were smaller in fucoidan-coated group compared to BMS group (38.6%, p = 0.062 in 148. 9 μg/stent, and 40.6%, p = 0.048 in 250 μg/stent of fucoidan coating group at 4 weeks of post-implantation) and a lower degree of strut coverage were shown in the fucoidan-coated stent group, as compared to the BMS group. These results suggest that dual coating is an appropriate method for fucoidan coating on BMS, and its inhibitory effect can be utilized for the suppression of ISR.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2015; 78:348-356. DOI:10.1016/j.porgcoat.2014.07.013 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone regeneration of hydroxyapatite (HA)/alumina bilayered scaffold with a 3 mm passage-like medullary canal in a beagle tibia model. A porous HA/alumina scaffold was fabricated using a polymeric template-coating technique. HA/alumina scaffold dimensions were 10 mm in outer diameter, 20 mm in length, and with either a 3 mm passage or no passage. A 20 mm segmental defect was induced using an oscillating saw through the diaphysis of the beagle tibia. The defects of six beagles were filled with HA/alumina bilayered scaffolds with a 3 mm passage or without. The segmental defect was fixated using one bone plate and six screws. Bone regeneration within the HA/alumina scaffolds was observed at eight weeks after implantation. The evaluation of bone regeneration within the scaffolds after implantation in a beagle tibia was performed using radiography, computerized tomography (CT), micro-CT, and fluorescence microscopy. New bone successfully formed in the tibia defects treated with 3 mm passage HA/alumina scaffolds compared to without-passage HA/alumina scaffolds. It was concluded that the HA/alumina bilayered scaffold with 3 mm passage-like medullary canal was instrumental in inducing host-scaffold engraftment of the defect as well as distributing the newly formed bone throughout the scaffold at 8 weeks after implantation.
    BioMed Research International 01/2015; 2015:235108. DOI:10.1155/2015/235108 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of esophageal cancer remains clinically challenging because of the overall poor prognosis associated with the disease. The mortality rate associated with surgical treatment is high, and the majority of diagnosed patients are old. As such, surgery is not possible in many cases, even when the cancer has progressed to a resectable state. We present the case of an 82-year-old Korean man who presented to our institution with intermittent odynophagia. Esophageal cancer with submucosal invasion and metastasis to three regional lymph nodes was diagnosed. After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, his regional lymph nodes disappeared. Because of his poor pulmonary function, surgical treatment could not be performed. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was carried out instead, and endoscopic triamcinolone injections were performed serially. Neither recurrence nor abnormal symptoms such as dysphagia or regurgitation have developed for 36 months. The literature suggests that endoscopic submucosal dissection after chemoradiotherapy is a viable treatment modality in patients with esophageal cancer with a high surgical treatment risk.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 12/2014; 8(1):439. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-439
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of repeated steroid injection at subacromial bursa with different interval for patient with periarticular shoulder disorder. Group A (n=10) received subacromial bursa injection only on their first visit, group C (n=10) received the injection on their first visit and one week later, and group B (n=10) received the injection on their first visit and two weeks later. All injections were done with a combination of 40 mg (1.0 mL) of triamcinolone and 5.0 mL 0.5% lidocaine (6 mL total). We examined the active range of motion (AROM) of the shoulder joint, visual analogue scale (VAS), and shoulder disability questionnaire (SDQ) at baseline at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the initial injection. In VAS, comparing the changes in VAS between groups, group B showed significant improvements compared with group A or C at 4 weeks after the initial injection (p<0.05). In SDQ, comparing the changes in SDQ between the groups, group B and C showed more improvement than group A at 4 weeks after the initial injection, but these results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In AROM, comparing the changes in AROM of external rotation between groups, group B and C showed significant improvement compared with group A at 4 weeks after the initial injection (p<0.05). It may be more effective in pain relief for patients with periarticular disorder to receive subacromial bursa injections twice with 2-week interval, as opposed to once.
    12/2014; 38(6):805-11. DOI:10.5535/arm.2014.38.6.805
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    ABSTRACT: The directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) has been suggested as a promising nanofabrication solution. However, further improvements of both the pattern quality and manufacturability remain as critical challenges. Although the use of BCPs with a high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) has been suggested as a potential solution, this practical self-assembly route has yet to be developed due to their extremely slow self-assembly kinetics. In this study, it is reported that warm solvent annealing (WSA) in a controlled environment can markedly improve both the self-assembly kinetics and pattern quality. A means of avoiding the undesirable trade-off between the quality and formation throughput of the self-assembled patterns, which is a dilemma which arises when using the conventional solvent vapor treatment, is suggested. As a demonstration, the formation of well-defined 13-nm-wide self-assembled patterns (3σ line edge roughness of ≈2.50 nm) in treatment times of 0.5 min (for 360-nm-wide templates) is shown. Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) simulation results are provided to elucidate the mechanism of the pattern quality improvement realized by WSA.
    Advanced Functional Materials 11/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1002/adfm.201401529 · 10.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) is expected to complement conventional optical lithography due to its excellent pattern resolution and cost-effectiveness. Recent studies have shown that BCPs with a large Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ) are critical for a reduction of the thermodynamic defect density as well as an increase in pattern density. However, due to their slower self-assembly kinetics, high-χ BCPs typically necessitate solvent vapor annealing, which requires complex facilities and procedures compared to simple thermal annealing. Here, we introduce an immersion-triggered directed self-assembly (iDSA) process and demonstrate the combined advantages of excellent simplicity, productivity, large-area capability, and tunability. We show that the vapor-free, simple immersion of high-χ BCPs in a composition-optimized mixture of nonswelling and swelling solvents can induce the ultrafast (≤5 min) formation of nanoscale patterns with a pattern size ranging from 8-18 nm. Moreover, iDSA enables the reversible formation of seven different nanostructures from one sphere-forming BCP, demonstrating the outstanding controllability of this self-assembly route.
    ACS Nano 10/2014; 8(10). DOI:10.1021/nn504995c · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the science and technology roadmap (STR) for graphene, related two-dimensional (2d) crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, with impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. The roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphene Flagship and outlines the main targets and research areas as best understood at the start of this ambitious project. In this document we provide an overview of the key aspects of graphene and related materials (GRMs), ranging from fundamental research challenges to a variety of applications in a large number of sectors, highlithing the roadmap to take GRMs from a state of raw potential to a point where they might revolutionize multiple industries: from flexible, wearable and transparent electronics to high performance computing and spintronics.
    Nanoscale 09/2014; 7(11). DOI:10.1039/C4NR01600A · 6.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) is a promising candidate for future nonvolatile memories (NVM). Resistive switching (RS) in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure is generally assumed to be caused by the formation/rupture of nanoscale conductive filaments (CFs) under an applied electric field. The critical issue of ReRAM for practical memory applications, however, is insufficient repeatability of the operating voltage and resistance ratio. Here, we present an innovative approach to reliably and reproducibly control the CF growth in unipolar NiO resistive memory by exploiting uniform formation of insulating SiOx nanostructures from the self-assembly of a Si-containing block copolymer (BCP). In this way, the standard deviation (SD) of set and reset voltages was markedly reduced by 76.9% and 59.4%, respectively. The SD of high resistance state (HRS) also decreased significantly, from 6.3 x 10(7) Ω to 5.4 x 10(4) Ω. Moreover, we report direct observations of localized metallic Ni CF formation and their controllable growth using electron microscopy and discuss electro-thermal simulation results based on the finite element method (FEM) supporting our analysis results.
    ACS Nano 09/2014; 8(9). DOI:10.1021/nn503713f · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: •Presynaptic dopaminergic depletions have been reported in one case each of sCJD and variant CJD by image of presynaptic dopaminergic system.•This report is a CJD case which show relatively preserved presynaptic dopaminergic system despite the existence of rapidly progressive severe parkinsonism•Mechanism of parkinsonism in early CJD can be assumed to be involved post-synaptic dopaminergic system or non-dopaminergic system as well as presynaptic dopaminergic system.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2014; 343(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.05.027 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to investigate the effect of ward-to-cath lab blood pressure (BP) differences on long-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent (DES). There are limited data available on the association between PCI with DES and BP differences on long-term clinical outcomes. This study enrolled 994 patients who underwent PCI with DES from March 2003 to August 2007. Resting BP was measured in a ward environment before transfer to the cardiac catheterization lab (cath lab), and again when the patient was laid down on the cath lab table. Patients were divided into two groups according to the difference in ward-to-cath lab systolic BP. Large difference group (n = 383) was defined as the absolute systolic difference of >20 mmHg and small difference group (n = 424) as the absolute systolic difference of ≤20 mmHg. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke. A total of 807 patients (mean age 60 ± 10 years, 522 males) received follow-up for 5.1 ± 2.4 years. The rate of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the large difference group compared to the small difference group (6.6 vs. 2.8 %; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.43; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.83; p = 0.012). There were higher cardiac deaths seen in the large difference group compared to the small difference group (3.9 vs. 1.4 %; adjusted HR 2.84; 95 % CI 1.1-7.31; p = 0.031). Stroke (2.4 vs. 1.2 %, p = 0.125) and TVR (3.7 vs. 1.7 %, p = 0.051) had higher trends in the large difference group compared to the small difference group. The composite of primary endpoints (all-cause mortality, cardiac death, nonfatal MI and stroke) occurred more frequently in the large difference group compared to the small difference group (10.0 vs. 6.4 %; adjusted HR 1.71; 95 % CI 1.04-2.81; p = 0.033). A difference in ward-to-cath lab systolic BP of >20 mmHg may contribute to increased adverse outcomes in the form of all-cause mortality and cardiac deaths in patients undergoing PCI with DES.
    Heart and Vessels 07/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00380-014-0550-3 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Xenotransplantation 07/2014; 21(5). DOI:10.1111/xen.12113 · 1.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,434.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014–2015
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chung-Ang University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Daegu Fatima Hospital
      Yeoncheon Gun, South Korea
  • 2002–2015
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Bio and Brain Engineering
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2015
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Microbiology and Immunology
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1995–2015
    • Dong-A University
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • College of Medicine
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • University of Ulsan
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Cardiology
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Hyundai Motor Company
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ulsan University Hospital
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Engineering Science
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom
    • Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyonggi University
      • Department of Convergence Security
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Ottawa
      • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011–2014
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gachon University
      • Department of Electronic Engineering
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • Pukyong National University
      • Department of Marine Biology
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2009–2014
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • Department of Applied Physics
      • • Oriental Pharmaceutical Science Division
      • • Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
  • 1996–2014
    • Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
      Usan-ri, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
  • 2011–2013
    • Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center
      Whasung-Gun, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2009–2013
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Chungbuk National University
      • • Department of Veterinary Medicine
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Chinsen, North Chungcheong, South Korea
    • SAIT Polytechnic
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    • National Institute of Environmental Research
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2012
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Institute of Basic Science
      • • School of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000–2012
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1998–2012
    • Hanyang University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Division of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE)
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Division of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2011
    • Sejong University
      • Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Urology
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2006–2011
    • Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Bucheon, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2008–2010
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Division of Applied Life Science
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006–2008
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2006
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Information and Communications
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Osaka University
      • Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2001
    • Kosin University
      • College of Medicine
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 1992
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Pathology
      Goyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 1985–1987
    • Kyoto University
      • Division of Applied Life Sciences
      Kioto, Kyōto, Japan