Mercedes Gil-Campos

Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Cordoue, Andalusia, Spain

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Publications (58)160.29 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The term «sweetener» refers to a food additive that imparts a sweet flavour and usually provides no or very low energy. It is used to sweeten foods, medicines and food supplements with no nutritional purposes. For years, no-calorie sweeteners have been used as substitutes for all or part of the sugar content in foods and beverages. In recent decades its consumption has risen to prevent tooth decay, or as an aid in weight control, obesity and diabetes and, in general, to achieve an optimal energy balance. However, consumption of sugary or sweetened food and soft drinks is high, making this situation of special interest in calorie intake and in the poor behavioural pattern of eating habits in children. In addition, questions remain among consumers about the risks to health associated with their use, whether they are artificial or natural. The «artificial sweeteners» are the group of greatest interest in research in order to demonstrate their safety and to provide firm data on their possible therapeutic effects. The aim of the present document is to increase information for paediatricians on the characteristics of different sweeteners, and to advise on the choice of sweeteners, based on their properties.
    Anales de Pediatría 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.anpedi.2015.02.013 · 0.72 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Molecular Sciences 04/2015; 16(4):7723-7737. DOI:10.3390/ijms16047723 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 is a probiotic strain originally isolated from human breast milk. Previous clinical studies in infants showed that the early administration of a milk formula containing this probiotic strain was safe and may be useful for the prevention of community-acquired infections. This is a 3 year follow-up study aimed to evaluate the long-term effects produced by the early consumption of an infant formula supplemented with L.fermentum CECT5716 (experimental group, EG) compared with a control formula without the probiotic (control group, CG). The infants included in this follow-up study had previously completed a 5-month randomized double-blind controlled trial (from 1 to 6 months of age) where the safety and tolerance of the probiotic formula was evaluated. The main outcome of the follow-up study was children's growth. Secondary outcomes were the incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases, parameters related with intestinal function and faecal microbiota. At 3 years, mean values of weight, length and head circumference were similar in children of the EG compared with the CG. No differences were observed on the incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases or disorders related with intestinal function. The pattern of faecal microbiota was also similar between both groups. In conclusion, this 3-year study shows that the early administration of the probiotic of L.fermentum CECT5716 in an infant formula is safe and does not produce measurable differences in children compared with a control formula. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Pharmacological Research 02/2015; 95-96. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2015.01.006 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical-site infection (SSI) after cervical neck dissection (CND) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) increases morbidity and delays adjuvant treatment. This study assessed changes in cytokines levels in postsurgical drainage fluid after CND and examined their predictive value for the early diagnosis of SSI. An observational prospective pilot study was conducted in 39 consecutively recruited patients with HNSCC undergoing CND who were treated at the authors' service within the past 2 years. Patients met the following inclusion criteria: no previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, closed-suction drainage, 30-day follow-up, prophylactic treatment with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and dexamethasone, no chronic inflammatory disease, and no previous neck surgery. Drainage samples were collected at postoperative days +1 and +3. Sample size was estimated based on SSI incidence after HNSCC surgery (∼15%; α risk, 0.05; β risk, 0.2; 2-sided test). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured. Patients were followed to detect SSI. Sensitivity, specificity, and prognostic values were calculated for each cytokine at days +1 and +3 to diagnose SSI. SSI was diagnosed in 6 of 39 patients. Bilateral CND, tracheostomy, surgery duration longer than 7 hours, HNSCC stage T3 or T4, and reconstruction with pedicled flaps versus microvascular flaps for advanced-stage tumors were considered risk factors for SSI. All cytokines except IL-10 showed statistical differences between patients with SSI and those without SSI. The best receiver operating characteristic curves yielded cutoff values at day +1 (TNF-α >14.5 pg/mL; sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 87.88%) and day +3 (IL-1β >115 pg/mL; sensitivity, 83.33%; specificity, 78.79%). Also, IL-2 levels higher than 6.5 pg/mL at day +1 (sensitivity, 83.33%; specificity, 69.7%) and day +3 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 69.7%) and IL-6 levels higher than 3,300 pg/mL at day +3 (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 60.61%) yielded adequate diagnostic profitability. The results of this study suggest that the assessment of cytokine levels in drainage fluid soon after CND could provide a novel method for the early detection of SSI. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2015; 73(6). DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2014.12.023 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to evaluate the use of a continuous metabolic syndrome (MetS) score and to assess the associations of this score with risk biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial damage and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prepubertal children. A total of 677 prepubertal children (295 obese, 146 overweight, and 236 normal-weight) were recruited. MetS traits, markers of inflammation, endothelial damage and CVD risk were measured, and a continuous MetS score was calculated, consisting of the sum/5 of the standardised scores of the MetS components. The continuous MetS score was significantly associated with active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (r = 0.406, p < 0.001), adiponectin (r = -0.212, p < 0.001), resistin (r = 0.263, p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = 0.254, p < 0.001), tumour necrosis factor alpha (r = 0.120, p = 0.003), myeloperoxidase (r = 0.188, p < 0.001) and sE-selectin (r = 0.278, p < 0.001). Children in the normal-weight, overweight and obese groups with MetS totalled 0 (0%), 1 (0.7%) and 24 (8.7%), respectively, whereas the at-risk children identified using the continuous MetS score in each group totalled 2 (0.85%), 17 (11.6%) and 167 (56.6%), respectively. The association of the continuous MetS score with specific risk biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial damage and CVD supports its use in the early identification of children at increased risk of metabolic dysfunction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2015; 66(2-3):72-9. DOI:10.1159/000369981 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Altered expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) have been observed in obesity in human and animal studies. We aimed to study 59 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for GPX1-7 genes and to characterize their association with prepubertal childhood obesity and its associated biomarkers. Methods: This case-control study included 193 obese and 191 normal-weight prepubertal Spanish children, in whom anthropometry, biochemical parameters, adipokines, antioxidant enzyme erythrocyte activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and cardiovascular risk were measured. The genotype analysis was performed in the Illumina platform. PLINK and SPSS were used for statistical analyses. Results: We found SNPs rs757228 and rs8103188 (GPX4) to be negatively associated and rs445870 (GPX5) and rs406113 (GPX6) to be positively associated with obesity in children. The variant rs2074451 (GPX4) increased GPX activity in erythrocytes. Although we did not find significant differences in erythrocyte GPX activity between obese and normal-weight children, GPX activity was found to be positively and significantly correlated with blood pressure, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Conclusions: The GPX variants rs757228, rs8103188, rs445870 and rs406113 were associated with prepubertal childhood obesity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity was not altered in obese prepubertal Spanish children. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics 12/2014; 7(3):130-142. DOI:10.1159/000368833 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, anthropometric characteristics and metabolic abnormalities in children with early-onset (< 10 years) and of very-early-onset obesity (< 5 years). We also evaluate the diagnostic ability using the dentition of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to different criteria. Methods: It is a retrospective, case-control, cross-Sectional, multicenter study. A total of 10 Pediatric Endocrinology Units in different Spanish hospitals were involved. A group of 469 children with early-onset obesity and another group of 30 children with very early-onset obesity were studied. The control group consisted of 224 healthy children younger than 10 years. Anthropometric and analytical determination of carbohydrates metabolism parameters and the lipid profile were performed. Results: The presence of metabolic alterations associated with obesity in children and adolescents in Spain is remarkable, either on their own, or encompassed within the definition of MS. This prevalence increases substantially when considering the peripheral resistance to insulin action as a diagnostic criterion. It also shows how children who could not be diagnosed with MS according to the definition provided by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) due to age below 10 years, these alterations are already present in a remarkable percentage. In fact, metabolic abnormalities are already present in the very-early-onset obese children (<5 years). Conclusion: In Spanish children there are metabolic alterations associated with obesity in the infant-juvenile stages alone or encompassed within the dentition of MS, and are already present at earlier ages.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 10/2014; 30(4):787-93. DOI:10.3305/nh.2014.30.4.7661 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lung recruitment manoeuvres in neonates during anaesthesia are not performed routinely due to concerns about causing barotrauma, haemodynamic instability and oxidative stress.
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    ABSTRACT: Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) may induce significant metabolic and inflammatory anomalies, increasing the risk of obesity and CVD later in life. Similarly, alterations in the adipose tissue may lead to metabolic changes in children with a history of extra-uterine growth restriction (EUGR). These mechanisms may induce alterations in immune response during early life. The aim of the present study was to compare pro-inflammatory markers in prepubertal EUGR children with those in a reference population. A total of thirty-eight prepubertal children with a history of EUGR and a reference group including 123 healthy age- and sex-matched children were selected. Perinatal data were examined. In the prepubertal stage, the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers were measured in both groups. The serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein type 1 (MCP-1), neural growth factor, TNF-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 were determined. The plasma concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers CRP, HGF, IL-8, MCP-1 and TNF-α were higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group (P< 0·001). After adjustment for gestational age, birth weight and length, blood pressure values and TNF-α concentrations remained higher in the EUGR group than in the reference group. Therefore, further investigations should be conducted in EUGR children to evaluate the potential negative impact of metabolic, nutritional and pro-inflammatory changes induced by the EUGR condition.
    The British journal of nutrition 05/2014; 112(03):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S0007114514000920 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and specific biomarkers of inflammation, CVD risk and endothelial dysfunction in prepubertal obese children. Prospective, multicentre case-control study matched by age and sex. Children were recruited between May 2007 and May 2010 from primary-care centres and schools in three cities in Spain (Cordoba, Santiago de Compostela and Zaragoza). Four hundred and forty-six (223 normal weight and 223 obese) Caucasian prepubertal children aged 6-12 years. WHtR was higher in the obese than in the normal-weight children. Blood pressure, waist circumference, weight, height, insulin, plasma lipids, leptin, resistin, abnormal neutrophil and monocyte counts, C-reactive protein, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, myeloperoxidase, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, selectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels were higher in the obese than in the normal-weight group. Adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol were lower and glucose and metalloproteinase-9 showed no differences. Resistin, TNF-α and active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were associated with WHtR, a sensitive indicator of central obesity. Our results lead to the hypothesis that changes in biomarker levels of insulin resistance, inflammation and CVD risk before puberty might induce metabolic consequences of obesity in obese children before reaching adulthood.
    Public Health Nutrition 01/2014; 17(10):1-8. DOI:10.1017/S1368980013003285 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants in the FTO gene have been associated with obesity in children, but this association has not been shown with other biomarkers. We assessed the association of 52 FTO polymorphisms, spanning the whole gene, with obesity and estimated the influence of these polymorphisms on anthropometric, clinical and metabolic parameters as well as inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers among Spanish children. A multicentre case--control study was conducted in 534 children (292 obese and 242 with normal-BMI). Anthropometric, clinical, metabolic, inflammation and CVD risk markers were compared using the Student's t-test for unpaired samples. The genotype relative risk was assessed by comparing the obese and normal-BMI group, calculating the odds ratio. The association of each SNP with phenotypic parameters was analysed using either logistic or linear regression analysis. All anthropometric, clinical and metabolic factors as well as inflammatory and CVD risk biomarkers were higher in the obese than in the normal-BMI group, except adiponectin and HDL-c that were lower, and glucose, LDL-c, and metalloproteinase-9 that did not show difference. Four polymorphisms (rs9935401, rs9939609, rs9928094 and rs9930333) were positively associated with obesity and in linkage disequilibrium between each other; the haplotype including the risk alleles of these polymorphisms showed a high risk for obesity. The rs8061518 was negatively associated with obesity and the haplotype including this SNP and rs3826169, rs17818902 and rs7190053 showed a decreased risk for obesity. Additionally, the rs8061518 was associated with weight, diastolic blood pressure, insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, and active plasminogen inhibitor activator-1 after sex and age adjustment; however, after an additional BMI adjustment, this polymorphism remained associated only with leptin. We validated the previous reported association of genetic variability in intron 1 of the FTO gene with the risk of obesity and found no association with other related traits in this region of the gene. We have observed strong statistical evidence for an association of rs8061518 in intron 3 of the gene with decreased risk of obesity and low concentration of leptin.
    BMC Medical Genetics 12/2013; 14(1):123. DOI:10.1186/1471-2350-14-123 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because nutritional support in perinatal life has been associated with metabolic programming, children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) might display alterations in the adipocyte and in the secretion of adipokines. The aim of this study was to assess adiponectin, resistin, and leptin concentrations in prepubertal children with a history of EUGR, and to determine the potential correlation between these adipokines and metabolic parameters. This case-control study sample included 38 prepubertal children with a history of EUGR and a control group of 123 healthy children of similar age and sex. Anthropometric measures and blood pressure were assessed. Biochemical markers and blood adipokine concentrations (adiponectin, resistin, and leptin) were evaluated. Adiponectin concentration was significantly lower in the EUGR group compared with controls (EUGR: 11.49 ± 6.07 versus control: 25.72 ± 10.13 μg/mL), and resistin concentration was higher (EUGR: 20332.95 ± 6401.25 versus control: 8056.31 ± 3823.63 pg/mL), even after adjustment for gestational age, weight, and size at birth. Systolic blood pressure was associated with adipokines concentrations in the EUGR group (P < 0.001). In EUGR children adiponectin was associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.042), whereas resistin was associated with carbohydrate metabolism parameters (P < 0.001). Early postnatal malnutrition in EUGR children could program adipose tissue. Plasma adipokines can be measured in childhood to identify precocious changes that may be associated with a higher risk for metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease later in life.
    Nutrition 09/2013; 29(11-12). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.04.015 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Children undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT) often require parenteral nutrition (PN). This is a comparative study of plasma lipid profiles in BMT children after fish oil or soybean PN. Methods: A total of 14 children with BMT requiring PN for at least 10 days were recruited during 24 months. They were randomized to receive a lipid emulsion enriched with ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, or soybean oil. Clinical monitoring was performed. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of PN to analyze the lipid profile. Results: There were no complications associated with PN. The increase in TG levels was more pronounced after administration of an enriched ω3 emulsion and the decrease in cHDL and apo A was greater after administration of soybean. The ω3 group showed an increase in eicosapentaenoic and a decrease in arachidonic acids compared to the soybean group. Both groups showed similar levels of linolenic acid. Conclusion: PN with soybean or ω3 emulsions for 10 days is safe in children. However, research in children are necessary in order to examine the impact of the duration of PN and the type of lipid formula used, and determine their health benefits in relation to the fatty acid profile.
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 08/2013; 63(1-2):103-110. DOI:10.1159/000353210 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of oxidative stress is well known in the pathogenesis of acquired malnutrition. Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with an imbalance in oxidative stress/antioxidant system. Therefore, early postnatal environment and, consequently, extrauterine growth restriction might be associated with alterations in the antioxidant defense system, even in the prepubertal stage. This is a descriptive, analytical, and observational case-control study. The study included two groups; 38 Caucasian prepubertal children born prematurely and with a history of extrauterine growth restriction as the case group, and 123 gender- and age-matched controls. Plasma exogenous antioxidant (retinol, β-carotene, and α-tocopherol) concentrations were measured by HPLC; antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were determined in lysed erythrocytes by spectrophotometric techniques. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly lower in extrauterine growth restriction children than in controls (P < 0.001). Lower plasma retinol concentrations were found in the case group (P = 0.029), while concentrations of β-carotene and α-tocopherol were higher (P < 0.001) in extrauterine growth restriction prepubertal children as compared with controls. After correction by gestational age, birth weight, and length, statistically significant differences were also found, except for retinol. Prepubertal children with a history of extrauterine growth restriction present alterations in their antioxidant defense system. Knowing these alterations may be important in establishing pharmacological and nutritional treatments as this situation might be associated with higher metabolic disorders in adulthood.
    European Journal of Nutrition 08/2013; 53(2). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0569-8 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities have been observed in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress, such as CVD. However, its role in obesity has not been fully established. In the present study, we aimed (1) to genotype sixteen PON1 SNP, (2) to measure serum PON1 activities and (3) to correlate these findings with the incidence of childhood obesity and related traits. We conducted a case-control study of 189 normal-weight and 179 obese prepubertal children, and we measured four different PON1 activities: lactonase; paraoxonase; arylesterase; diazoxonase. Although none of these activities was significantly different between the obese and normal-weight children, lactonase activity was found to be positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and ApoA1 levels and negatively correlated with myeloperoxidase and fatty acid-binding protein 4 levels. Among the sixteen genotyped PON1 SNP, only the intronic SNP rs854566 exhibited a significant association with obesity (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·91; P= 0·016). This genetic variant was also associated with increased diazoxonase, lactonase and arylesterase activities and decreased paraoxonase activity. Other genetic variants exhibited different association patterns with serum activities based on their location within the PON1 gene, and SNP that were located within the promoter were strongly associated with lactonase, arylesterase and diazoxonase activities. The functional variant Q192R exhibited the greatest effect on paraoxonase activity (P= 5·88 × 10- 42). In conclusion, SNP rs854566 was negatively associated with childhood obesity and with increased serum PON1 activities in prepubertal children. We determined that lactonase is a reliable indicator of PON1 activities and should be included in future studies of PON1 function.
    The British journal of nutrition 06/2013; DOI:10.1017/S0007114513001967 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Catalase (CAT) is a peroxisomal antioxidant enzyme upregulated upon oxidative stress. Previous studies have found associations between some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the CAT promoter region in a variety of metabolic diseases. This is the first study to analyze the association of erythrocyte CAT activity and candidate CAT SNPs with childhood obesity. The association study showed a significant positive association of the promoter variant -844A/G with childhood obesity and biomarkers of obesity such as weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-Score and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, along with a tendency towards significance with insulin resistance biomarkers. In addition CAT erythrocyte activity was found to be significantly lower in obese children and it was significantly correlated with obesity and insulin resistance biomarkers. No association was found between erythrocyte CAT activity and the SNP -844A/G. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to fully understand the role of CAT activity and SNPs in the development of insulin resistance in the setting of obesity. We hypothesize that CAT plays a role in early metabolic complications of obesity.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 05/2013; DOI:10.1089/ars.2013.5386 · 7.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variants in the neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene have been associated with obesity and its traits. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NPY gene with obesity, metabolic syndrome features, and inflammatory and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers in Spanish children. We recruited 292 obese children and 242 normal-body mass index (BMI) children. Height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines, and inflammatory (PCR, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) and CVD risk biomarkers (MPO, MMP-9, sE-selectin, sVCAM, sICAM, and PAI-1) were analyzed. Seven SNPs in the NPY gene were genotyped. The results of our study indicate that anthropometric measurements, clinical and metabolic markers, adipokines (leptin and resistin), and inflammatory and CVD risk biomarkers were generally elevated in the obese group. The exceptions to this finding included cholesterol, HDL-c, and adiponectin, which were lower in the obese group, and glucose, LDL-c, and MMP-9, which did not differ between the groups. Both rs16147 and rs16131 were associated with the risk of obesity, and the latter was also associated with insulin resistance, triacylglycerols, leptin, and HDL-c. Thus, we confirm the association of rs16147 with obesity, and we demonstrate for the first time the association of rs16131 with obesity and its possible impact on the early onset of metabolic syndrome features, mainly triacylglycerols, in children.
    Peptides 04/2013; 45. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2013.04.007 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.
    Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 04/2013; 38(4):421-426. DOI:10.1139/apnm-2012-0219 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    Proceedings of The Nutrition Society 01/2013; 72(OCE1). DOI:10.1017/S0029665113000931 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Vitamin D and calcium play an important role in peak bone mass acquisition. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency in children is widespread, mainly during infancy and adolescent years. However, the vitamin D status at others ages is unsufficiently investigated. Objectives: To determine the vitamin D status in prepubertal, healthy South European girls, and to examine the relationship between serum vitamin D concentrations, sun exposure, physical activity and dietary intake. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 56 Caucasian; healthy and prepubertal girls aged 7-10 years. Dietary information, amount of sunlight exposure and activity were estimated. Blood samples were extracted in the first week of December. Results: Vitamin D intake was below the international recommended references. Mean serum vitamin D was 40.07 ± 10.49 ng/ml. No girl presented a level lower than 20 ng/ml; 25% had levels between 20-30 ng/ml and 75% above 30 ng/ml. We have not found differences in vitamin D levels from the girls who did sport and those who were sedentary. Conclusions: Vitamin D status is suitable for prepubertal girls living in the South of Spain at the beginning of winter. However, it is necessary to follow-up girls and check and adequate vitamin D intake, as well as sufficient sun exposure.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 12/2012; 27(6):1993-1998. · 1.25 Impact Factor