[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve Flammulina velutipes strains originating from Poland were identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. Based on the sequences obtained, the genomic relationship of the analyzed strains was determined. All F. velutipes strains were also characterized using Biolog FF MicroPlates to obtain data on C-substrate utilization and mitochondrial activity. The ability to decompose various substrates differed among the F. velutipes strains up to five times. The highest catabolic activities were characteristic for only two strains with capabilities to decompose up to 22 carbon sources. The correlation between carbon repression and laccase production by F. velutipes was analyzed based on glucose assimilation by these strains. Moreover, the influence of metal ions (Cu2+, Cd2+), veratric and ferulic acids, and temperature on laccase activities in the analyzed strains was determined. The results obtained proved that all the inducers influenced laccase expression in almost all the analyzed strains. However, the degree of induction depended not only on the strain used but also on the day of the induction.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2014; · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) covalently biphenylated are used for the construction of cathodes in a flow biobattery and in flow biofuel cell. Zinc covered with a hopeite layer is the anode in the biobattery and glassy carbon electrode covered with bioconjugates of single-walled carbon nanotubes with glucose oxidase and catalase is the anode of the biofuel cell. The potentials of the electrodes are measured vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode under changing loads of the fuel cell/biobattery. The power density of the biobattery with biphenylated nanotubes at the cathode is ca. 0.6 mW cm−2 and the open circuit potential is ca. 1.6 V. In order to obtain larger power densities and voltages three biobatteries are connected in a series which leads to the open circuit potential of ca. 4.8 V and power density 2.1 mW cm−2 at 3.9 V under 100 kΩ load. The biofuel cell shows power densities of ca. 60 μW cm−2 at 20 kΩ external resistance but the open circuit potential for such biofuel cell is only 0.5 V. The biobattery showing significantly larger power densities and open circuit voltages are especially useful for testing novel cathodes and applications such as powering units for clocks and sensing devices.
Journal of Power Sources 03/2014; 249:263–269. · 5.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), an extracellular flavocytochrome produced by several wood-degrading fungi, was detected in the culture supernatant of the selective delignifier Pycnoporus sanguineus maintained on a cellulose-based liquid medium. Cellobiose dehydrogenase was purified as two active fractions: CDH1-FAD (flavin domain) (40.4 fold) with recovery of 10.9% and CDH1 (flavo-heme enzyme) (54.7 fold) with recovery of 9.8%. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was found to be 113.4kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.2, whereas these values for the FAD-domain were 82.7kDa and pI=6.7. The carbohydrate content of the purified enzymes was 9.2%. In this work, the cellobiose dehydrogenase gene cdh1 and its corresponding cDNA from fungus P. sanguineus were isolated, cloned, and characterized. The 2310bp full-length cDNA of cdh1 encoded a mature CDH protein containing 769 amino acids, which was preceded by a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. Moreover, both active fractions were characterized in terms of kinetics, temperature and pH optima, and antioxidant properties.
Enzyme and microbial technology. 12/2013; 53(6-7):427-37.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), an extracellular flavocytochrome produced by several wood-degrading fungi, was detected in the culture supernatant of the selective delignifier Pycnoporus sanguineus maintained on a cellulose-based liquid medium. Cellobiose dehydrogenase was purified as two active fractions: CDH1-FAD (flavin domain) (40.4 fold) with recovery of 10.9% and CDH1 (flavo-heme enzyme) (54.7 fold) with recovery of 9.8%. As determined by SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was found to be 113.4 kDa and its isoelectric point was 4.2, whereas these values for the FAD-domain were 82.7 kDa and pI = 6.7. The carbohydrate content of the purified enzymes was 9.2%. In this work, the cellobiose dehydrogenase gene cdh1 and its corresponding cDNA from fungus P. sanguineus were isolated, cloned, and characterized. The 2310 bp full-length cDNA of cdh1 encoded a mature CDH protein containing 769 amino acids, which was preceded by a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. Moreover, both active fractions were characterized in terms of kinetics, temperature and pH optima, and antioxidant properties.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology 09/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracellular α-(1 → 3)-glucanase (mutanase, EC 22.214.171.124) produced by Trichoderma harzianum CCM F-340 was purified to homogeneity by ultrafiltration followed by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and final chromatofocusing. The enzyme was recovered with an 18.4-fold increase in specific activity and a yield of 4.3%. Some properties of the α-(1 → 3)-glucanase were investigated. The molecular mass of the enzyme is 67 kDa, as estimated by SDS/PAGE, its isoelectric point 7.1, and the carbohydrate content 3%. The pH and temperature optima are 5.5 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme is stable over a pH range of 4.5-6.0 and up to 45°C for 1 h. The Km and Vmax under standard assay conditions are 0.73 mg/ml and 11.39 x 10(-2) µmol/min/mg protein, respectively. The enzyme activity is stimulated by addition of Mg(2+) and Na(+), and significantly inhibited by Hg(2+). The α-(1 → 3)-glucanase preparation preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of various streptococcal mutans and fungal α-(1 → 3)-glucans. The 20-residue N-terminal sequence of the enzyme is identical with those of other α-(1 → 3)-glucanases from the genus Trichoderma, and highly similar to those from other fungi. The purified α-(1 → 3)-glucanase was effective in preventing artificial dental plaque formation. The easy purification from fermentation broth and high stability, and the effective inhibition of oral biofilm accumulation make this α-(1 → 3)-glucanase highly useful for industrial and medical application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were equipped with aryl residues by chemical reactions. These insoluble materials were used to substitute classical soluble mediators, which help to transfer electrical charge between the conducting electrode and the redox active center of enzyme molecules. The effect of different aryl residues on the efficiency of the catalytic reduction of dioxygen in the presence of laccase was systematically studied using voltammetry and measuring the power output of a biofuel cell.
Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering 01/2013; 33(4):235–245. · 0.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laccases belong to the group of phenol oxidizes and constitute one of the most promising classes of enzymes for future use in various fields. For industrial and biotechnological purposes, laccases were among the first enzymes providing larger-scale applications such as removal of polyphenols or conversion of toxic compounds. The wood-degrading basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor C-139, reported in this study, is one of the high-laccase producers. In order to facilitate novel and more efficient biocatalytic process applications, there is a need for laccases with improved biochemical properties, such as thermostability or stability in broad ranges of pH. In this work, modifications of laccase isoforms by hydrophobization, hydrophilization, and polymerization were performed. The hydrophobized and hydrophilized enzyme showed enhanced surface activity and higher ranges of pH and temperatures in comparison to its native form. However, performed modifications did not appear to noticeably alter enzyme's native structure possibly due to the formation of coating by particles of saccharides around the molecule. Additionally, surface charge of modified laccase shifted towards the negative charge for the hydrophobized laccase forms. In all tested modifications, the size exclusion method led to average 80 % inhibition removal for hydrophilized samples after an hour of incubation with fluoride ions. Samples that were hydrophilized with lactose and cellobiose showed an additional 90 % reversibility of inhibition by fluoride ions after an hour of concluding the reaction and 40 % after 24 h. The hydrophobized laccase showed higher level of the reversibility after 1 h (above 80 %) and 24 h (above 70 %) incubation with fluoride ions. The addition of ascorbate to laccase solution before a fluoride spike resulted in more efficient reversibility of fluoride inhibitory effect in comparison to the treatments with reagents used in the reversed sequence.
Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 10/2012; · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pleurotus strains are the most important fungi used in the agricultural industry. The exact characterization and identification of Pleurotus species is fundamental for correct identification of the individuals and exploiting their full potential in food industry. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied for genomic fingerprinting of 21 Pleurotus isolates of Asian and European origin. Using one PstI restriction endonuclease and four selective primers in an AFLP assay, 371 DNA fragments were generated, including 308 polymorphic bands. The AFLP profiles were found to be highly specific for each strain and they unambiguously distinguished 21 Pleurotus sp. fungi. The coefficient of Jaccard's genome profile similarity between the analyzed strains ranged from 0.0 (Pleurotus sp. I vs. P. sajor-caju 237 and P. eryngii 238) to 0.750 (P. ostreatus 246 vs. P. ostreatus 248), and the average was 0.378. The AFLP-based dendrogram generated by the UPGMA method grouped all the Pleurotus fungi studied into two major clusters and one independent lineage located on the outskirt of the tree occupied by naturally growing Pleurotus species strain I. The results of the present study suggest the possible applicability of the AFLP-PstI method in effective identification and molecular characterization of Pleurotus sp. strains.
Current Microbiology 07/2012; 65(4):438-45. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the preparation of laccase/single-walled carbon nanotube bioconjugates, their application for the modification of electrodes and application of the electrodes as cathodes for the catalytic reduction of oxygen in a hybrid biofuel cell with Zn anode. Carbon nanotubes functionalized with aminoethyl residues, activated and reacted with laccase show high bioelectrocatalytic activity and are promising for the biofuel cell applications. The power density of the cell was 1mWcm-2 at working voltage of 0.8V. The open circuit voltage of this hybrid cell was as high as 1.5V.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) were covalently modified with anthracene and anthraquinone and used for the construction of cathodes for biocatalytic reduction of dioxygen. The nanotubes with aromatic groups casted onto the electrode increased the working surface of the electrode and enabled efficient direct electron transfer (DET) between the enzyme and the electrode. The aryl groups enter the hydrophobic pocket of the T1 center of laccase responsible for exchanging electrons with the substrate. Glassy carbon electrode covered with arylated SWCNT and coated with a layer of neutralized Nafion containing laccase was found to be a very efficient cathode in the hybrid battery. Zn wire covered with a Nafion film served as the anode. The cell parameters were determined: power density was 2 mW/cm(2) and the open circuit potential was 1.5 V.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have prepared vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) film electrodes for bioelectrocatalytic dioxygen reduction. The electrodes were prepared by a CNT-transfer technique attaching the as-grown VACNTs to an ITO electrode with a conductive CNT/epoxy glue. The VACNTs greatly enhance the active electrode area as shown by the substantial current increase of the slow electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide as well as the increase of the efficiency of the oxidation and reduction of the water-insoluble redox probe t-butylferrocene. Several methods for immobilisation of the multicopper enzyme laccase, both with and without mediator, were evaluated. Very high non-mediated catalytic dioxygen reduction current was measured using VACNTs functionalised with 1-pyrenesulfonic acid. The VACNT electrodes were successfully applied as cathode in a zinc–oxygen battery, reaching a power density of 275μWcm−2 at 1.5V with pyrene-functionalised VACNTs and 115μWcm−2 at 0.9V with syringaldazine as a mediator in oxygen saturated buffer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Applicability of poly-o-aminophenol (POAP) as a redox mediator for fungal laccase is investigated. Laccase has been entrapped by means of electrochemical polymerization. The obtained layers have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry, as well as by spectroscopic methods. The enzyme activity has been verified by the standard test using syringaldazine. Laccase immobilized in the POAP matrix catalyses oxygen reduction without any additional mediators. POAP is able to mediate the electron transfer between the enzyme active site and the electrode surface similarly to poly-o-phenylenediamine which has been studied previously, but its redox potential is shifted significantly towards positive values. The role of laccase in electrodeposition of POAP has been studied. It has been found that the presence of the enzyme influences the structure of electrodeposited films. Furthermore, laccase facilitates the electrodeposition. The monomer-o-aminophenol (OAP) belongs to typical laccase substrates. The polymer can be precipitated from the solution containing the monomer and laccase. The morphology of POAP formed by laccase differs from typical polymer samples synthesized chemically or electrochemically. It contains round microstructures composed of nano-needles. Laccase is therefore a promising polymerization initiator for synthesis of nanostructured conducting polymers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were covalently modified with a redox mediator derived from 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), and implemented in the construction of electrodes for biocatalytic oxygen reduction. The procedure is based on: covalent bonding of mediator to nanotubes, placing the nanotubes directly on the carbon electrode surface and covering the nanostructured electrode with a Nafion film containing laccase as the biocatalyst. The modified electrode is stable and the problem of mediator (ABTS) leaking from the film is eliminated by binding it covalently to the nanotubes. Three different synthetic approaches were used to obtain ABTS-modified carbon nanotubes. Nanotubes were modified at ends/defect sites or on the nanotube sidewalls and characterized by Raman spectroscopy, TGA and electrochemistry. The accessibility of differently located ABTS units by the laccase active center and mediation of electron transfer were studied by cyclic voltammetry. The surface concentrations of ABTS groups electrically connected with the electrode were compared for each of the electrodes based on the charges of the voltammetric peaks recorded in the deaerated solution. The nanotube modification procedure giving the best parameters of the catalytic process was selected.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerrena unicolor was found to produce large amounts of extracellular laccase when grown aerobically on the optimized Lindenberg and Holm medium in fermenter culture with an automatic pH control. The laccase from this source was purified to homogeneity by a rapid procedure, using ion-exchange chromatography, affinity chromatography, and chromatofocusing. The enzymes isoforms were recovered with a 65- to 92-fold increase in specific activity and a yield for Ia1 = 6.7%; Ia2 = 27.5%; Ib = 9.7%; and IIa1 = 21%. The molecular mass of the purified enzymes proved to be 45, 47, 54, and 62 kD, respectively, as determined by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isoelectric points were in the range of 4.7 to 4.2, and the carbohydrate content in the purified enzymes was between 1.6 and 3.5%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nanostructured bioelectrodes were designed and assembled into a biofuel cell with no separating membrane. The glassy carbon electrodes were modified with mediator-functionalized carbon nanotubes. Ferrocene (Fc) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) diammonium salt (ABTS) bound chemically to the carbon nanotubes were found useful as mediators of the enzyme catalyzed electrode processes. Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger AM-11 and laccase from Cerrena unicolor C-139 were incorporated in a liquid-crystalline matrix-monoolein cubic phase. The carbon nanotubes-nanostructured electrode surface was covered with the cubic phase film containing the enzyme and acted as the catalytic surface for the oxidation of glucose and reduction of oxygen. Thanks to the mediating role of derivatized nanotubes the catalysis was almost ten times more efficient than on the GCE electrodes: catalytic current of glucose oxidation was 1 mA cm(-2) and oxygen reduction current exceeded 0.6 mA cm(-2). The open circuit voltage of the biofuel cell was 0.43 V. Application of carbon nanotubes increased the maximum power output of the constructed biofuel cell to 100 μW cm(-2) without stirring of the solution which was ca. 100 times more efficient than using the same bioelectrodes without nanotubes on the electrode surface.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10/2010; 398(4):1651-60. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrodes modified with sol-gel encapsulated laccase (isolated from Cerrenaunicolor) exhibiting mediated or mediatorless bioelectrocatalytic dioxygen reduction activity were inspected using confocal laser scanning microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. Potential-driven leaching of the redox mediator 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) from carbon ceramic electrodes covered by hydrophilic silicate-encapsulated laccase was detected during electrocatalytic action. Strongly non-homogeneous lateral distribution of the activity towards dioxygen reduction was found by redox competition mode of scanning electrochemical microscopy using a similar electrode with syringaldazine as redox mediator. Hydrogen peroxide formation at these electrodes is detected at potentials lower than 0.05V. It is ascribed to the electrochemical oxygen reduction at the carbon material while laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction occurs below 0.35V without hydrogen peroxide formation. The scanning electrochemical microscopy images of electrodes consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes non-covalently modified with pyrenesulfonate and laccase encapsulated in a sol-gel processed silicate film confirm direct electron transfer electrocatalysis in redox competition mode experiments and show that the enzyme is evenly distributed in the composite film. In conclusion scanning electrochemical microscopy proved to be useful for mapping of enzyme activity on different materials.