V Colizzi

University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, Latium, Italy

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Publications (253)951.99 Total impact

  • AIDS (London, England) 07/2014; 28(11):1694-1696. · 6.56 Impact Factor
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    Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Parassitologia (SoIPa), Roma; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Viral and host factors can influence HIV-1 progression, among them Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) has shown the strongest effect. However, studies on the functional contribution of HLA in controlling HIV progression toward AIDS are limited by multiple issues, including the viral strain variability within the study subjects. In this study, in a cohort of children infected with a monophyletic strain (CRF02_AG) during an outbreak, we evaluated the HIV-1 Gag, Vif, Vpr, Tat and HCV E1/E2 (as control) proteins circulating in a cohort for the capability to be presented by the HLA molecules in the same population. A total of 70 Non-Progressors and 37 Progressors to AIDS were evaluated. In the presence of a constant capability of HIV-1 to mutate in the region containing epitopes of Gag protein, the number of epitopes recognised in silico by the combination of the HLA alleles along the Gag consensus sequence is significantly higher in the Non-progressors compared with Progressors (HLA-A: Non-progressors=1.532±1.211, Progressors=0.7714±1.031, p=0.0016; HLA-B: Non-progressors=1.556±1.298, Progressors=1.000±0.817, p=0.0319; HLA-DR: Non-progressors=13.30±9.488, Progressors=7.294±6.952, p=0.0006). Similar results were obtained with the other HIV-1 proteins Vif and Vpr, while no differences were obtained in the number of epitopes for HCV E1/E2 protein sequence or for the scrambled HIV-1 sequence. Finally, the results were confirmed also in a subgroup of subjects where both HLA typing and Gag's sequence were available. In conclusion, in absence of bias due to viral strain diversity, it is the overall fitting of the HLA molecules capable of better binding HIV-1 proteins in determining the major role in the control of HIV-1 replication and progression to AIDS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Immunology 06/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction: Poor infant feeding practices are common in Africa, resulting in physical and intellectual developmental impairments. Good feeding practices are crucial, especially in the first year of growth. HIV/AIDS has worsened the clinical and nutritional status of both mothers and their children, exacerbating high rates of malnutrition. The aim of this study was to assess by participative approach, the nutritional status of infants from mothers tested positive to HIV in the health district of Dschang. Methods: This is a cross sectional study with a period of recruitment of 2 years (2010-2012). Data Collection was done by the aim of a personal slip followed by training to strengthen the nutritional and hygienic capacity of targeted parents. Height and weight of infants were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Results: Significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) was noticed in height-for-age z-score (HAZ) of girls aged between 1 to 2 years compared to 1-year old girls as well as to boys of all ages, defining them as stunted. Furthermore, the weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) results indicate that both girls and boys of all age are in moderate state of malnutrition. The results of BMI thinness classified according to gender and age groups, indicates that most infants (68/130, 52.3%) showed grade 2 thinness predominantly in 2-years old both boys and girls. However, no participants fall within the normal category for age and sex, as well as overweight and obesity categories. Conclusion: Undernutrition exists among infants from mothers tested positive to HIV residing in Dschang, as most of the infants are underweight, and malnourished.
    The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. 05/2014; 18(91).
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: HLA polymorphisms within the peptide binding pocket have been associated with rapid and slow- progression to AIDS, suggesting that the capability to present efficiently HIV-1 epitopes is crucial for the infection control. To minimize the effects of genetic background due to population coming from different geographic area and viral strain variability in the cohort, an analysis of all the polymorphisms associated with the HLA-A, -B and -DR alleles has been performed in a cohort of children with a monophyletic HIV-1 infection (CRF02_AG) during an outbreak in Libya. Methods: High-resolution HLA-typing has been performed in 58 children infected with a monophyletic strain of HIV-1: 26 Long-Term Non-Progressors (LTNP), 9 Slow-Progressors (SP) and 23 Fast-Progressors (FP). HLA amino acid polymorphism frequency has been compared in the in FP respect to LTNP. Results: HLA-B resulted the most interesting locus of the study; 10 positions located in B- and F-pocket for peptide- binding have been found significant after Bonferroni’s correction: 11S (LTNP=7.69% FP=34.78% OR=0.156 P<0.05), 74D (LTNP=15.38%, FP=52.17%, OR=0.167; p<0.015) and 94T (LTNP=15.38%, FP=52.17%, OR=0.045; p<0.001), resulted associated with AIDS progression; 66N (LTNP=42.31% FP=8.7% OR=7.7; p<0.02), 80I (LTNP=80.77%, FP=34.78%, OR=7.86; p<0.036), 81A (LTNP=84.61%, FP=47.83%, OR=6; p<0.015), 82L (LTNP=88.46%, FP=47.83%, OR=7.86; p<0.006) and 83R (LTNP=88.46%, FP=47.83%, OR=7.86; p<0.006), has been associated with non-progression. Further, carrying Bw4-epitope resulted associated with LTNP (phenotype-frequency: LTNP=88.46%, FP=47.83%, OR=8.36; p<0.006), with homozygosis for Bw4 (LTNP=30.8%, FP=8.7%, p<0.05) associated with delayed progression and homozygosis for Bw6 (LTNP=11.5%, FP=52.1%, p<0.05) associated with fast progression to AIDS. Conclusion: The progression to AIDS might be in part determined by the binding capability of B-pocket and F-pocket of HLA-B and in part by the interaction of NK’s inhibitory receptor with HLA-B Bw4-epitope which regulate innate immune response and might have important implications for a better disease control
    Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 02/2014; · 6.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Malaria's prevalence during pregnancy varies widely in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mother-to-child malaria transmission during childbirth at St. Camille Medical Centre in the city of Ouagadougou. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-eight (238) women and their newborns were included in the study. Women consenting to participate in this study responded to a questionnaire that identified their demographic characteristics. Asymptomatic malaria infection was assessed by rapid detection test Acon (Acon Malaria Pf, San Diego, USA) and by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thick and thin smears from peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Birth weights were recorded and the biological analyses of mothers and newborns' blood were also performed. Results. The utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) were 86.6% and 84.4%, respectively. The parasitic infection rates of 9.5%, 8.9%, and 2.8% were recorded, respectively, for the peripheral, placental, and umbilical cord blood. Placental infection was strongly associated with the presence of parasites in the maternal peripheral blood and a parasite density of >1000 parasites/µL. Conclusion. The prevalence of congenital malaria was reduced but was associated with a high rate of mother-to-child malaria transmission.
    Malaria research and treatment. 01/2014; 2014:390513.
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    ABSTRACT: Alteration in the humoral immune response has been observed during HIV infection. The polymorphisms of enhancer HS1,2, member of the 3(') regulatory region of the Ig heavy chain cluster, may play a role in the variation of the humoral response leading to pathological conditions. To assess the role of the HS1,2 polymorphic variants in the progression of AIDS, the HS1,2-A allelic frequencies were investigated in a cohort of HIV infected pediatric subjects from a nosocomial outbreak with a monophyletic strain of HIV. From a total group of 418 HIV infected children in the outbreak cohort, 42 nonprogressors and 31 progressors without bias due to antiretroviral therapy were evaluated. HS1,2 allele (∗)1 has been associated with nonprogressors (allelic frequency: 51.19% versus 33.87% in progressors, OR 0.5, and P = 0.0437), while allele (∗)2 has been associated with progression (allelic frequency: 48.39% versus 30.95% in nonprogressors, OR 2.1, and P = 0.0393). Further, only subjects carrying allele (∗)2 in absence of allele (∗)1, either in homozygous condition for allele (∗)2 [nonprogressors 2/42 (4.76%), Progressors 7/31 (22.58%), OR 5.8, and P = 0.0315] or in combination with other allelic variants [nonprogressors 7/42 (16.67%), Progressors 13/31 (41.93%), OR 3.61, and P = 0.0321], have been associated with HIV progression to AIDS. In conclusion, while the HS1,2 allele (∗)1 has a protective effect on HIV progression when present, allele (∗)2 is associated with progression toward AIDS when allele (∗)1 is absent.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:637523. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e103999. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. P. falciparum (Pf) placental infection primes the fetal immune system and alters infant immunity. Mechanisms leading to these outcomes are not completely understood. We focused on Vγ2 Vδ2 cells, which are part of the immune response against many pathogens, including Pf. These unconventional lymphocytes respond directly to small, non-peptidic antigens, independent of MHC presentation. We wondered whether placental malaria (PM), which may increase fetal exposure to Pf metabolites, triggers a response by neonatal Vγ2 Vδ2 lymphocytes that can be a marker for the extent of fetal exposure to malarial antigens.Methods. Cord blood mononuclear cells were collected from 15 neonates born to mothers with Pf infection during pregnancy (8 with PM) and 25 unexposed neonates. Vγ2 Vδ2 cell phenotype, repertoire and proliferative responses were compared for Pf -exposed and unexposed newborns.Results. PM-exposed neonates had increased proportions of central memory Vγ2 Vδ2 cells in cord blood, with altered Vγ2 chain repertoire ex vivo and after stimulation.Conclusion. Our results suggest that PM affects phenotype and repertoire of neonatal Vγ2 Vδ2 lymphocytes. PM may lower the capacity for subsequent Vγ2 Vδ2 cell responses and impair natural resistance to infectious diseases or response to pediatric vaccination.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 12/2013; · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings has drastically reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, challenges in long-term ART, adherence and HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) itself, require monitoring to limit HIVDR emergence among ART-experienced populations, in order to ensure regimen efficacy. A longitudinal study was conducted from 2009-2011 in a cohort of 141 HIV-infected adult patients (aged >21) at the national social insurance centre hospital in Yaounde, Cameroon. As per-WHO HIVDR protocol, HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase genotyping was performed at baseline and at endpoint (12 months) on first-line ART using ViroSeq™ Genotyping kit. At baseline, a prevalence of 3.6% (5/139) HIVDR was observed [protease inhibitors M46I (1/5), G73A (1/5), L90LM (1/5); nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: M184V (1/5), T215F (1/5); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: K103N (1/5), Y181Y/C (2/5), M230ML (1/5)]. At endpoint, 54.0% (76) patients were followed-up, 9.2% (13) died, and 3.5% (5) transferred, 38.5% (47) lost to follow-up (LTFU). 69.7% (53/76) of those followed-up had viremia <40 copies/ml and 90.8% (69/76) <1000 copies/ml. 4/7 patients with viremia ≥1000 copies/ml harbored HIVDR (prevalence: 5.3%; 4/76), with M184V/I (4/4) and K103K/N (3/4) being the most prevalent mutations. LTFU was favored by costs for consultation/laboratory tests, drug shortages, workload (physician/patient ratio: 1/180) and community disengagement. Low levels of HIVDR at baseline and at endpoint suggest a probable effectiveness of ART regimens used in Cameroon. However the possible high rate of HIVDR among LTFUs limited the strengths of our findings. Evaluating HIVDR among LTFU, improving adherence, task shifting, subsidizing/harmonizing costs for routine follow-up, are urgent measures to ensure an improved success of the country ART performance.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72680. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African ethnomedicine is essentially based on the traditional use of vegetal extracts. Since these natural drugs have shown health giving properties, in the present study we increased further the scientific basis supporting these data. We investigated the effects, on murine B16F10 melanoma cells, of plant extracts that were directly obtained by a Cameroon 'traditional healer'. After a preliminary study on the antioxidant functions of these compounds, already abundant in literature, Moringa oleifera Lam., Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod and Aframomum melegueta K. Schum extracts were individually analyzed. We performed laboratory assessments on these medicinal preparations in order to clearly demonstrate their antineoplastic features. All the treatments caused in tumor cells a great reduction in growth and proliferation rate, cell cycle arrest, increase of p53, p21WAF1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 protein levels and induction of differentiation. These results, on the bioactivity and the biochemical characteristics of African plant extracts, may increase the comprehension of indigenous therapeutic practices and represent the first step for the indivi-duation of new inexpensive and natural drugs able to prevent and contrast cancer onset.
    International Journal of Oncology 07/2013; · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific γδ T cells represent an early innate defense known to play an important role in anti-mycobacterial immunity. We have investigated the immune functions of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from Broncho-Alveolar lavages (BAC) samples of active TB patients. We observed that BAC Vγ9Vδ2 T cells presented a strong down-modulation of CD3 expression compared with Vγ9Vδ2 T cells from peripheral blood. Furthermore, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells mainly showed a central memory phenotype, expressed high levels of NK inhibitory receptors and TEMRA cells showed low expression of CD16 compared to circulating Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Interestingly, the ability of BAC Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to respond to antigen stimulation was dramatically reduced, differently from blood counterpart. These observations indicate that γδ T cell functions are specifically impaired in situ by active TB, suggesting that the alveolar ambient during tuberculosis may affect resident γδ T cells in comparison to circulating cells.
    Cellular Immunology 05/2013; 282(2):106-112. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and limited access to genotyping assays in low-resource settings (LRS) are inevitably accompanied by an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR). The current study aims to evaluate early warning indicators (EWI) as an efficient strategy to limit the development and spread of preventable HIVDR in these settings, in order to sustain the performance of national antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout programmes. METHODS: Surveys were conducted in 2008, 2009 and 2010 within 10 Cameroonian ART clinics, based on five HIVDR EWIs: (1) Good prescribing practices; (2) Patient lost to follow-up; (3) Patient retention on first line ART; (4) On-time drug pick-up; (5) Continuous drug supply. Analysis was performed as per the World Health Organisation (WHO) protocol. RESULTS: An overall decreasing performance of the national ART programme was observed from 2008 to 2010: EWI1 (100% to 70%); EWI2 (40% to 20%); EWI3 (70% to 0%); EWI4 (0% throughout); EWI5 (90% to 40%). Thus, prescribing practices (EWI1) were in conformity with national guidelines, while patient adherence (EWI2, EWI3, and EWI4) and drug supply (EWI5) were lower overtime; with a heavy workload (median ratio [almost equal to]1/64 staff/patients) and community disengagement observed all over the study sites. CONCLUSIONS: In order to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in poor settings like Cameroon, continuous drug supply, community empowerment to support adherence, and probably a reduction in workload by task shifting, are the potential urgent measures to be undertaken. Such evidence-based interventions, rapidly generated and less costly, would be relevant in limiting the spread of preventable HIVDR and in sustaining the performance of ART programmes in LRS.
    BMC Public Health 04/2013; 13(1):308. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KIR3DL1 is among the most interesting receptors studied, within the killer immunoglobulin receptor (KIR) family. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I Bw4 epitope inhibits strongly Natural Killer (NK) cell's activity through interaction with KIR3DL1 receptor, while Bw6 generally does not. This interaction has been indicated to play an important role in the immune control of different viral infectious diseases. However, the structural interaction between the KIR3DL1 receptor and different HLA-B alleles has been scarcely studied. To understand the complexity of KIR3DL1-HLA-B interaction, HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4/Bw6 epitope and KIR3DL1∗001 allele in presence of different peptides has been evaluated by using a structural immunoinformatic approach. Different energy minimization force fields (ff) have been tested and NOVA ff enables the successful prediction of ligand-receptor interaction. HLA-B alleles carrying Bw4 epitope present the highest capability of interaction with KIR3DL1∗001 compared to the HLA-B alleles presenting Bw6. The presence of the epitope Bw4 determines a conformational change which leads to a stronger interaction between nonpolymorphic arginine at position 79 of HLA-B and KIR3DL1∗001 136-142 loop. The data shed new light on the modalities of KIR3DL1 interaction with HLA-B alleles essential for the modulation of NK immune-mediated response.
    BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:283805.
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to adults, the circulating Vγ2Vδ2 T cell population in cord blood is present at low levels and does not show the strong bias for Vγ2-Jγ1.2 rearrangements. These features may be due to limited exposure to stimulatory phosphoantigens, lack of T cell derived IL-2 or both. In cord blood mononuclear cell cultures, a single round of stimulation, using aminobisphosphonates to elevate phosphoantigen levels, resulted in expansion of adult-like Vγ2 chains and accumulation of memory cells with cytotoxic potential. Selection was similar using IL-2 or myeloid-derived IL-15. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells present in neonates are capable of generating potent immune responses even when relying on IL-15. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Immunology 11/2012; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HLA class I molecules play a role in the regulation of innate immune response. Therefore, the interaction of HLA class I molecules with different activating and inhibitory receptors leads to balancing the immune response. Among the different family of receptors, NK receptors KIR3DL1/S1 and LIR1, play a major role. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of amino acid polymorphic positions of HLA class I molecules interacting with NK receptors in HIV progression. In order to minimize the influence of viral variability, a cohort of children with a nosocomial monophyletic HIV-1 infection from the Benghazi Children Hospital has been evaluated. To assess the role of single amino acid positions, we translated all HLA alleles in the different amino acid position polymorphisms. Interestingly, the polymorphism Val 194 located in the α3-domain of HLA-B, resulted associated with LTNP (LTNP=73.08%, FP=34.78%; P<0.02). When Val is present at position 194, HLA-B is known to interact with the receptor LIR1 (ILT2/LILRB1/CD85j). Therefore, we analyzed the role of the polymorphism in position 194 in HLA-B/LIR1 interaction by homology molecular modeling. The change Val to Ile at position 194 alters significantly the network of interaction between the amino acid residues of HLA-B and LIR1. In conclusion, considering the limitation of the small population evaluated, polymorphisms outside the peptide binding region of the HLA class I molecule can play a key role in HIV progression through interaction with other immune-relevant receptors.
    Molecular Immunology 10/2012; 53(4):410-413. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles in 118 unrelated Libyans from Benghazi (Cyrenaica) were analyzed using high resolution typing and compared with other populations. Their relatedness has been tested by correspondence analyses and principal component analysis. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were A∗02:01:01:01 (15.7%), A∗01:01:01:01 (11.4%) and A∗03:01:01:01 (9.3%). For the HLA-B locus, the commonest allele was HLA-B∗50:01:01 (14.4%) followed by B∗51:01:01 (9.8%) and B∗08:01:01 (6.4%). For the HLA-DRB1 locus, the commonest was HLA-DRB1∗07:01:01:01(16.9%) followed by DRB1∗03:01:01:01 (13.6%) and DRB1∗13:02:01 (9.3%). The most frequent two-locus haplotypes were HLA-A∗02:01:01:01-B∗07:02:01 (3.0%) and HLA-B∗50:01:01-DRB1∗07:01:01:01 (9.6%), and three-locus haplotypes were HLA-A∗02:01:01:01-B∗50:01:01-DRB1∗07:01:01:01 (4.2%) and HLA-A∗11:01:01-B∗52:01:01:01-DRB1∗15:02:01 (2.5%). This study is the first on the HLA status of a Libyan population. The results, when compared to similar HLA data obtained previously from African and Mediterranean populations, indicate genetic influences from several ethnic groups. Moreover, the differences in the HLA allele frequencies between the Libyan population and others reveals that significant admixture has occurred between the original Berber inhabitants and neighbouring and more distant populations, even though a strong genetic Berber substratum remains. These data will be of value to future anthropological and disease association studies involving the Libyan population.
    Human immunology 10/2012; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    Retrovirology 09/2012; 9(2). · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) colony morphology was associated to the pathogen's virulence. We isolated a new MTB H37Rv smooth colony, which only appeared following human macrophages (MDM) infection. The new phenotype was Alcohol-Acid resistant, but devoid of a covering capsule and biofilm defective. We ascertained that there were no deletions in the Rv0096-Rv0101 PDIM Operon, but that its expression was repressed as compared to MTB wild type (wt). Its lipid composition displayed lower PDIM components and higher TAG as compared to wt. In MDM it induced the sigma factors sigB, sigI and sigL expression vs. synthetic medium culture, while it repressed other six sigma factors. It also induced, significantly more than wt, mprA, a mycobacterial persistence regulator. It was phagocytosed more than wt by MDM, where it grew significantly less, but persisted therein till 14 days infection. It induced significantly less IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-27 transcription than wt in infected MDM, while it increased the transcription of inducible NOS. It resided in mature, LAMP-3 positive phagolysosomes, where it never formed cords. This apparently "weaker" colony might represent an adaptive intracellular phenotype, whose infection may be less productive, but probably better equipped for a long lasting persistence in mildly activated host cells.
    Microbial Pathogenesis 07/2012; 53(3-4):135-46. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings is accompanied with an increasing risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), which in turn could compromise the performance of national ART rollout programme. In order to sustain the effectiveness of ART in a resource-limited country like Cameroon, HIVDR early warning indicators (EWI) may provide relevant corrective measures to support the control and therapeutic management of AIDS. A retrospective study was conducted in 2010 among 40 ART sites (12 Approved Treatment Centers and 28 Management Units) distributed over the 10 regions of Cameroon. Five standardized EWIs were selected for the evaluation using data from January through December, among which: (1) Good ARV prescribing practices: target = 100%; (2) Patient lost to follow-up: target ≤ 20%; (3) Patient retention on first line ART: target ≥ 70%; (4) On-time drug pick-up: target ≥ 90%; (5) ARV drug supply continuity: target = 100%. Analysis was performed using a Data Quality Assessment tool, following WHO protocol. THE NUMBER OF SITES ATTAINING THE REQUIRED PERFORMANCE ARE: 90% (36/40) for EWI(1), 20% (8/40) for EWI(2); 20% (8/40) for EWI(3); 0% (0/37) for EWI(4); and 45% (17/38) for EWI 5. ARV prescribing practices were in conformity with the national guidelines in almost all the sites, whereas patient adherence to ART (EWI(2), EWI(3), and EWI(4)) was very low. A high rate of patients was lost-to-follow-up and others failing first line ART before 12 months of initiation. Discontinuity in drug supply observed in about half of the sites may negatively impact ARV prescription and patient adherence. These poor ART performances may also be due to low number of trained staff and community disengagement. The poor performance of the national ART programme, due to patient non-adherence and drug stock outs, requires corrective measures to limit risks of HIVDR emergence in Cameroon.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36777. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
951.99 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2014
    • University of Rome Tor Vergata
      • Dipartimento di Biologia
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2011–2013
    • Chantal BIYA International Reference Centre for Research on HIV/AIDS Prevention and Management
      Jaúnde, Centre Region, Cameroon
    • Catholic University of the Sacred Heart
      • Institute of Microbiology
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2007–2013
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • Institute of Human Virology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of the Western Cape
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2012
    • Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1999–2011
    • National Research Council
      • Institute of Cell Biology IBC
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009
    • Institut National d'Hygiène du Maroc
      Rabat, Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaër, Morocco
  • 2001–2006
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • Institute of Human Virology
      Maryland City, Maryland, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Istituto Nazionale per le Malattie Infettive "L.Spallanzani"
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • Madhav Institute of Technology & Science Gwalior
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Gwalior, State of Madhya Pradesh, India
  • 2002
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1994–2002
    • Jagiellonian University
      • Polish-American Institute of Pediatrics
      Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
    • Università degli Studi Europea di Roma
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1998
    • Istituto Regina Elena - Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 1979–1997
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Biology
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1985–1993
    • Università degli studi di Palermo
      • Department of internal medicine and medical specialties (DIMIS)
      Palermo, Sicily, Italy
  • 1992
    • Istituto Dermatologico San Gallicano - Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 1987–1990
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      Roma, Latium, Italy