Peter Møller

Copenhagen University Hospital, København, Capital Region, Denmark

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Publications (181)716.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It has been hypothesised that positive associations between age and levels of oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA may be related to an age-dependent decline in DNA repair activity. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between age and repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We isolated PBMCs from subjects aged 18-83 years, as part of a health survey of the Danish population that focussed on lifestyle factors. The level of DNA repair activity was measured as incisions on potassium bromate-damaged DNA by the comet assay. There was an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity with a 0.65% decline in activity per year from age 18 to 83 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-1.14% per year). Univariate regression analysis also indicated inverse associations between DNA repair activity and waist-hip ratio (P < 0.05) and plasma concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin (P = 0.07). However, multivariate regression analysis only showed an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity (P < 0.05), indicating that the decline in repair activity was not mediated by metabolic risk factors. In summary, the results show an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity of oxidatively damaged DNA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Mutagenesis 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/mutage/gev031 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased risk of lung disease, cancer and cardiovascular disease especially in elderly and overweight subjects. The proposed mechanisms involve intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation and oxidation-induced DNA damage studied mainly in young normal-weight subjects. We performed a controlled cross-over, randomised, single-blinded, repeated-measure study where 60 healthy subjects (25 males and 35 females) with age 55-83 years and body mass index above 25kg/m(2) were exposed for 5h to either particle-filtered or sham-filtered air from a busy street with number of concentrations and PM2.5 levels of 1800/cm(3) versus 23 000/cm(3) and 3 µg/m(3) versus 24 µg/m(3), respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and assayed for production of ROS with and without ex vivo exposure to nanosized carbon black as well as expression of genes related to inflammation (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor), oxidative stress response (heme oxygenase (decycling)-1) and DNA repair (oxoguanine DNA glycosylase). DNA strand breaks and oxidised purines were assayed by the alkaline comet assay. No statistically significant differences were found for any biomarker immediately after exposure to PM from urban street air although strand breaks and oxidised purines combined were significantly associated with the particle number concentration during exposure. In conclusion, 5h of controlled exposure to PM from urban traffic did not change the gene expression related to inflammation, oxidative stress or DNA repair, ROS production or oxidatively damaged DNA in PBMCs from elderly overweight human subjects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.
    Mutagenesis 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/mutage/gev027 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 04/2015; 58:105. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.12.007 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Particulate air pollution increases risk of cancer and cardiopulmonary disease, partly through oxidative stress. Traffic-related noise increases risk of cardiovascular disease and may cause oxidative stress. In this controlled random sequence study, 18 healthy subjects were exposed for 3h to diesel exhaust (DE) at 276μg/m(3) from a passenger car or filtered air, with co-exposure to traffic noise at 48 or 75dB(A). Gene expression markers of inflammation, (interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase (decycling-1)) and DNA repair (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)) were unaltered in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). No significant differences in DNA damage levels, measured by the comet assay, were observed after DE exposure, whereas exposure to high noise levels was associated with significantly increased levels of hOGG1-sensitive sites in PBMCs. Urinary levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine were unaltered. In auxiliary ex vivo experiments whole blood was incubated with particles from the exposure chamber for 3h without effects on DNA damage in PBMCs or intracellular reactive oxygen species production and expression of CD11b and CD62L adhesion molecules in leukocyte subtypes. 3-h exposure to DE caused no genotoxicity, oxidative stress or inflammation in PBMCs, whereas exposure to noise might cause oxidatively damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    03/2015; 121. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2015.03.009
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24 and 37 weeks of age. Obese Zucker rats had more hepatic fat accumulation than their lean counterparts. Nevertheless, the obese rats had unaltered age-related level of hepatic oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) or human oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) sensitive sites as measured by the comet assay. There were decreasing levels of oxidatively damaged DNA with age in the liver of lean rats, which occurred concurrently with increased expression of Ogg1. The 37 week old lean rats also had higher expression level of Hmox1 and elevated levels of DNA strand breaks in the liver. Still, both strain of rats had increased protein level of HMOX-1 in the liver at 37 weeks. The external and lumen diameters of mesenteric arteries increased with age in obese Zucker rats with no change in media cross-sectional area, indicating outward re-modelling without hypertrophy of the vascular wall. There was increased maximal response to acetylcholine-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in both strains of rats. Collectively, the results indicate that obese Zucker rats only displayed a modest mesenteric vascular dysfunction, with no increase in hepatic oxidative stress-generated DNA damage despite substantial hepatic steatosis.
    PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0118773. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118773 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity.
    International journal of environmental research and public health 02/2015; 12(2):1667-1686. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120201667 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blueberries are a rich source of anthocyanins (ACNs) and phenolic acids (PA), which are hypothesized to protect against development of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of an ACN- and PA-rich fractions, obtained from a wild blueberry powder, on the capacity to counteract lipid accumulation in macrophages derived from monocytic THP-1 cells. In addition, we tested the capacity of pure ACNs and their metabolites to alter lipid accumulation. THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with fatty acids (500 μM oleic/palmitic acid, 2:1 ratio) and different concentrations (from 0.05 to 10 μg mL(-1)) of ACN- and PA-rich fractions, pure ACN standards (malvidin, delphinidin and cyanidin 3-glucoside), and metabolites (syringic, gallic and protocatechuic acids). Lipid accumulation was quantified with the fluorescent dye Nile red. Lipid accumulation was reduced at all concentrations of the ACN-rich fraction tested with a maximum reduction at 10 μg mL(-1) (-27.4 %; p < 0.0001). The PA-rich fraction significantly reduced the lipid accumulation only at the low concentrations from 0.05 µg mL(-1) to 0.3 µg mL(-1), with respect to the control with fatty acids. Supplementation with pure ACN compounds (malvidin and delphinidin-3-glucoside and its metabolic products (syringic and gallic acid)) reduced lipid accumulation especially at the low concentrations, while no significant effect was observed after cyanidin-3-glucoside and protocatechuic acid supplementation. The results demonstrated a potential role of both the ACN- and PA-rich fractions and single compounds in the lipid accumulation also at concentrations close to that achievable in vivo.
    European Journal of Nutrition 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0835-z · 3.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal genotoxic insults from oxidative stress constitute a putative molecular link between stress and depression on the one hand, and cognitive dysfunction and dementia risk on the other. Oxidative modifications to DNA are repaired by specific enzymes; a process that plays a critical role for maintaining genomic integrity. The aim of the present study was to characterize the pattern of cerebral DNA repair enzyme regulation after stress through the quantification of a targeted range of gene products involved in different types of DNA repair. 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either restraint stress (6h/day) or daily handling (controls), and sacrificed after 1, 7 or 21 stress sessions. The mRNA expression of seven genes (Ogg1, Ape1, Ung1, Neil1, Xrcc1, Ercc1, Nudt1) involved in the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA was determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HC). DNA repair gene expression in PFC exhibited a general trend towards an induction after acute stress and a decrease after subchronic exposure compared to control animals. After chronic stress, a normalization towards control levels was observed. A similar pattern was seen in HC, but with overall smaller effects and without the induction after acute stress. Nuclear DNA damage from oxidation as measured by the comet assay was unaffected by stress in both regions. We conclude that psychological stress have a dynamic influence on brain DNA repair gene expression; however, since we were unable to identify concurrent changes in DNA damage from oxidation, the down-stream consequences of this regulation, if any, remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 01/2015; 778. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.12.003 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Peter Møller, Maria Dusinska, Ulla Vogel
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 01/2015; 56(2). DOI:10.1002/em.21930 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to ambient air particles is associated with elevated levels of DNA strand breaks (SBs) and endonuclease III, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-sensitive sites in cell cultures, animals and humans. In both animals and cell cultures, increases in SB and in oxidatively damaged DNA are seen after exposure to a range of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), including carbon black, carbon nanotubes, fullerene C60, ZnO, silver and gold. Exposure to TiO2 has generated mixed data with regard to SB and oxidatively damaged DNA in cell cultures. Nanosilica does not seem to be associated with generation of FPG-sensitive sites in cell cultures, while large differences in SB generation between studies have been noted. Single-dose airway exposure to nanosized carbon black and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in animal models seems to be associated with elevated DNA damage levels in lung tissue in comparison to similar exposure toTiO2 and fullerene C60. Oral exposure has been associated with augmented DNA damage levels in cells of internal organs, although the doses have been typically very high. Intraveneous and intraperitoneal injection of ENMs have shown contradictory results dependent on the type of ENM and dose in each set of experiments. In conclusion, the exposure to both combustion-derived particles and ENMs is associated with increased levels of DNA damage in the comet assay. Particle size, composition and crystal structure of ENM are considered important determinants of toxicity, whereas their combined contributions to genotoxicity in the comet assay are yet to be thoroughly investigated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Mutagenesis 01/2015; 30(1):67-83. DOI:10.1093/mutage/geu035 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors.
    Oncotarget 12/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM) has been linked to decline in pulmonary function and cardiovascular events possibly through inflammation. Little is known about individual exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) inside and outside modern homes and associated health-related effects. Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC and PM2.5 were monitored in living rooms of 60 homes with 81 non-smoking subjects (30-75 years old), 59 of whom carried personal monitors both when at home and away from home. We measured lung function in terms of the FEV1/FVC ratio, microvascular function (MVF) and pulse amplitude by digital artery tonometry, blood pressure and biomarkers of inflammation including C-reactive protein, and leukocyte counts with subdivision in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in blood. PNC from personal and stationary home monitoring showed weak correlation (r = 0.15, p = 0.24). Personal UFP exposure away from home was significantly inversely associated with MVF (1.3% decline per interquartile range, 95% confidence interval: 0.1-2.5%) and pulse amplitude and positively associated with leukocyte and neutrophil counts. The leukocyte and neutrophil counts were also positively and pulse amplitude negatively associated with total personal PNC. Indoor PNC and PM2.5 showed positive association with blood pressure and inverse association with eosinophil counts. The inverse association between personal exposure away from home and MVF is consistent with adverse health effects of UFP from sources outside the home and might be related to increased inflammation indicated by leukocyte counts, whereas UFP from sources in the home could have less effect.
    Environmental Health 12/2014; 13(1):112. DOI:10.1186/1476-069X-13-112 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fatty acids exposure may increase sensitivity of intestinal epithelial cells to cytotoxic effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs). This study evaluated the synergistic effects of ZnO NPs and palmitic acid (PA) or free fatty acids (FFAs) mixture (oleic/PA 2:1) on toxicity to human colon epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The ZnO NPs exposure concentration dependently induced cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells showing as reduced proliferation and activity measured by 3 different assays. PA exposure induced cytotoxicity, and coexposure to ZnO NPs and PA showed the largest cytotoxic effects. The presence of FFAs mixture did not affect the ZnO NPs-induced cytotoxicity. Filtration of freshly prepared suspension of NPs through a 0.45-µm pore size membrane significantly reduced the cytotoxicity, indicating a role of concentration or size of particles in cytotoxic effects. The ZnO NPs and PA coexposure induced production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) but not intracellular ROS production, whereas FFAs mixture exposure did not induce mROS and inhibited intracellular ROS. Both ZnO NPs and fatty acids (PA and FFAs mixture) promoted lysosomal destabilization, which was not correlated with cytotoxicity. These results indicated that PA can enhance ZnO NPs-induced cytotoxicity probably by the augmentation of mROS production, whereas FFAs mixture did not affect ROS production. Synergistic effects between ZnO NPs and fatty acids may be important when considering NPs toxicity via oral exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.
    International Journal of Toxicology 11/2014; 34(1). DOI:10.1177/1091581814560032 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The importance of composition, size, crystal structure, charge and coating of metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) were evaluated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and/or THP-1 monocytic cells. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation were assessed because they are important in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The NMs used were five TiO2 NMs with different charge, size and crystal structure, coated and uncoated ZnO NMs and Ag which were tested in a wide concentration range. There were major differences between the types of NMs; exposure to ZnO and Ag resulted in cytotoxicity and increased gene expression levels of HMOX1 and IL8. The intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) expression were highest in TiO2 NM-exposed cells. There was increased adhesion of THP-1 monocytic cells onto HUVECs with Ag exposure. None of the NMs increased the intracellular ROS production. There were no major effects of the coating of ZnO NMs. The TiO2 NMs data on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression suggested that the anatase form was more potent than the rutile form. In addition, the larger TiO2 NM was more potent than the smaller for gene expression and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. The toxicological profile of cardiovascular disease-relevant biomarkers depended on composition, size and crystal structure of TiO2 NMs, whereas the charge on TiO2 NMs and the coating of ZnO NMs were not associated with differences in toxicological profile.
    Nanotoxicology 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/17435390.2014.980449 · 7.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The terms oxidative stress, free radical generation, and intracellular antioxidant protection have become part of everyday nanotoxicology terminology. In recent years, an ever increasing number of in vitro and in vivo studies have implicated disruptions to the redox balance and oxidative stress as one of the main contributors to nanomaterial (NM) induced adverse effects. One of the most important and widely investigated of these effects is genotoxicity. In general, systems that defend an organism against oxidative damage to DNA are very complex and include prevention of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, neutralizing ROS (scavengers), enzymatic nucleotide pool sanitation, and DNA repair. This review discusses the importance of the maintenance of the redox balance in this context before examining studies that have investigated engineered NM induced redox imbalance and genotoxicity. Furthermore, we identify data gaps, and highlight a number of issues that exist with the methodologies that are routinely utilized to investigate intracellular ROS production or anti-oxidant depletion. We conclude that for a large number of engineered NM types changes in the redox balance toward oxidative stress are normally associated with DNA damage. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 11/2014; 56(2). DOI:10.1002/em.21926 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The liver has a crucial role in metabolic homeostasis as well as being the principal detoxification centre of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of detrimental health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It has been shown that exposure via inhalation, intratracheal instillation or ingestion can result in NM translocation to the liver. Traditional in vitro or ex vivo hepatic nanotoxicology models are often limiting and/or troublesome (i.e. reduced metabolism enzymes, lacking important cell populations, unstable with very high variability, etc.).Methods In order to rectify these issues and for the very first time we have utilised a 3D human liver microtissue model to investigate the toxicological effects associated with a single or multiple exposure of a panel of engineered NMs (Ag, ZnO, MWCNT and a positively charged TiO2).ResultsHere we demonstrate that the repeated exposure of the NMs is more damaging to the liver tissue as in comparison to a single exposure with the adverse effects more significant following treatment with the Ag and ZnO as compared with the TiO2 and MWCNT NMs (in terms of cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, lipid peroxidation and genotoxicity).Conclusions Overall, this study demonstrates that the human microtissue model utilised herein is an excellent candidate for replacement of traditional in vitro single cell hepatic models and further progression of liver nanotoxicology.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 10/2014; 11(1):56. DOI:10.1186/s12989-014-0056-2 · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Generation of oxidatively damaged DNA by particulate matter (PM) is hypothesized to occur via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation. We investigated this hypothesis by comparing ROS production, inflammation and oxidatively damaged DNA in different experimental systems investigating air pollution particles. There is substantial evidence indicating that exposure to air pollution particles was associated with elevated levels of oxidatively damaged nucleobases in circulating blood cells and urine from humans, which is supported by observations of elevated levels of genotoxicity in cultured cells exposed to similar PM. Inflammation is most pronounced in cultured cells and animal models, whereas an elevated level of oxidatively damaged DNA is more pronounced than inflammation in humans. There is non-congruent data showing corresponding variability in effect related to PM sampled at different locations (spatial variability), times (temporal variability) or particle size fraction across different experimental systems of acellular conditions, cultured cells, animals and humans. Nevertheless, there is substantial variation in the genotoxic, inflammation and oxidative stress potential of PM sampled at different locations or times. Small air pollution particles did not appear more hazardous than larger particles, which is consistent with the notion that constituents such as metals and organic compounds also are important determinants for PM-generated oxidative stress and inflammation. In addition, the results indicate that PM-mediated ROS production is involved in the generation of inflammation and activated inflammatory cells can increase their ROS production. The observations indicate that air pollution particles generate oxidatively damaged DNA by promoting a milieu of oxidative stress and inflammation.
    Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 10/2014; 762. DOI:10.1016/j.mrrev.2014.09.001 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to particles from combustion of wood is associated with respiratory symptoms, whereas there is limited knowledge about systemic effects. We investigated effects on systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in humans who lived in a reconstructed Viking Age house, with indoor combustion of wood for heating and cooking. The subjects were exposed to high indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (700-3,600 µg/m(3) ), CO (10.7-15.3 ppm) and NO2 (140-154 µg/m(3) ) during a 1-week stay. Nevertheless, there were unaltered levels of genotoxicity, determined as DNA strand breaks and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 sensitive sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. There were also unaltered expression levels of OGG1, HMOX1, CCL2, IL8, and TNF levels in leukocytes. In serum, there were unaltered levels of C-reactive protein, IL6, IL8, TNF, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoproteins. The wood smoke exposure was associated with decreased serum levels of sICAM-1, and a tendency to decreased sVCAM-1 levels. There was a minor increase in the levels of circulating monocytes expressing CD31, whereas there were unaltered expression levels of CD11b, CD49d, and CD62L on monocytes after the stay in the house. In conclusion, even a high inhalation exposure to wood smoke was associated with limited systemic effects on markers of oxidative stress, DNA damage, inflammation, and monocyte activation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 10/2014; 55(8). DOI:10.1002/em.21877 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between exposure to airborne indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular and respiratory health in a population-based sample of 58 residences in Copenhagen, Denmark. Over a 2-day period indoor particle number concentrations (PNC, 10-300nm) and PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter<2.5μm) were monitored for each of the residences in the living room, and outdoor PNC (10-280nm), PM2.5 and PM10 (aerodynamic diameter<10μm) were monitored at an urban background station in Copenhagen. In the morning, after the 2-day monitoring period, we measured microvascular function (MVF) and lung function and collected blood samples for biomarkers related to inflammation, in 78 middle-aged residents. Bacteria, endotoxin and fungi were analyzed in material from electrostatic dust fall collectors placed in the residences for 4weeks. Data were analyzed using linear regression with the generalized estimating equation approach. Statistically significant associations were found between indoor PNC, dominated by indoor use of candles, and lower lung function, the prediabetic marker HbA1c and systemic inflammatory markers observed as changes in leukocyte differential count and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes, whereas C-reactive protein was significantly associated with indoor PM2.5. The presence of indoor endotoxin was associated with lower lung function and expression of adhesion markers on monocytes. An inverse association between outdoor PNC and MVF was also statistically significant. The study suggests that PNC in the outdoor environment may be associated with decreased MVF, while PNC, mainly driven by candle burning, and bioaerosols in the indoor environment may have a negative effect on lung function and markers of systemic inflammation and diabetes.
    Environment International 09/2014; 73C:372-381. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.08.019 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of products containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a major achievement of nanotechnology, although concerns regarding risk of toxic effects linger if the hazards associated with these materials are not thoroughly investigated. Exposure to CNTs has been associated with depletion of antioxidants, increased intracellular production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory signaling in cultured cells with primary function in the immune system as well as epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells. Pre-treatment with antioxidants has been shown to attenuate these effects, indicating a dependency of oxidative stress on cellular responses to CNT exposure. CNT-mediated oxidative stress in cell cultures has been associated with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products and oxidatively damaged DNA. Investigations of oxidative stress endpoints in animal studies have utilized pulmonary, gastrointestinal, intravenous and intraperitoneal exposure routes, documenting elevated levels of lipid peroxidation products and oxidatively damaged DNA nucleobases especially in the lungs and liver, which to some extent occur concomitantly with altered levels of components in the antioxidant defense system (glutathione, superoxide dismutase or catalase). CNTs are biopersistent high aspect ratio materials, and some are rigid with lengths that lead to frustrated phagocytosis and pleural accumulation. There is accumulating evidence showing that pulmonary exposure to CNTs is associated with fibrosis and neoplastic changes in the lungs, and cardiovascular disease. As oxidative stress and inflammation responses are implicated in the development of these diseases, converging lines of evidence indicate that exposure to CNTs is associated with increased risk of cardiopulmonary diseases through generation of a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant milieu in the lungs.
    Archive für Toxikologie 09/2014; 88(11). DOI:10.1007/s00204-014-1356-x · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
716.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Copenhagen University Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2001–2015
    • IT University of Copenhagen
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2014
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Biosciences and Nutrition
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2008–2014
    • National Research Centre for the Working Environment
      • Danish Nano Safety Centre
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Primary Care and Public Health
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Food Science and Microbiology DISTAM
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000–2008
    • National Institute of Public Health, Denmark
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1999
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark