Are you Charles Craig?

Claim your profile

Publications (3)12.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: APV102002 was an open-label study comparing a dual-boosted HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) [fosamprenavir/lopinavir/ritonavir (FPV/LPV/RTV; 1400 mg/533 mg/133 mg twice daily)] and a high dose of FPV/RTV 1400 mg/100 mg twice daily (HD-FPV/RTV) versus the standard FPV/RTV 700 mg/100 mg twice-daily (STD-FPV/RTV) regimen for 24 weeks. Adult patients with prior failure to two or more PI-based regimens and on a failing PI regimen were randomized to STD-FPV/RTV (n = 24), HD-FPV/RTV (n = 25) or FPV/LPV/RTV (n = 25). The primary aim was to test week 24 superiority of HD-FPV/RTV and FPV/LPV/RTV over STD-FPV/RTV as measured by plasma HIV-1 RNA average area under the curve minus baseline (AAUCMB). There was no difference in the week 24 AAUCMB between the regimens. The proportion of patients with <50 copies/mL of plasma HIV RNA was 21%, 24% and 20%, respectively, by time to loss of virological response (TLOVR) analysis. High baseline drug resistance provided some explanation for the low efficacy. A lower baseline background drug resistance and higher fosamprenavir genotypic inhibitory quotient led to better antiviral responses. The plasma amprenavir trough concentartion (C(tau)) was 49% higher in the HD-FPV/RTV arm than in the STD-FPV/RTV arm and similar in the FPV/LPV/RTV and STD-FPV/RTV arms. The plasma lopinavir C(tau) was similar to historical data with standard LPV/RTV 400 mg/100 mg twice daily. All regimens were relatively well tolerated, although diarrhoea was more frequent in the HD-FPV/RTV and FPV/LPV/RTV arms, and hypertriglyceridaemia and increased total cholesterol were more common in the FPV/LPV/RTV arm. While the strategies of higher dose FPV/RTV and dual FPV/LPV/RTV were relevant at the time of study initiation, new therapies for antiretroviral-experienced patients make such strategies of limited interest. In addition, this study failed to demonstrate antiviral superiority of the HD-FPV/RTV or FPV/LPV/RTV regimen over the STD-FPV/RTV twice-daily regimen in highly treatment-experienced patients.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 06/2009; 64(2):398-410. · 5.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have described the presence of the L74V reverse transcriptase (RT) mutation in highly experienced individuals as a risk factor for reduced response to tenofovir and selection of the K65R mutation. This study examined whether, in the context of a first-line abacavir/lamivudine highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen, K65R might occur as a minority population where L74V was detected at virological failure. Four previously ART-naive individuals undergoing virological failure were selected, all receiving abacavir and lamivudine with either protease inhibitors or efavirenz and with virus displaying L74V and M184V or M184V alone following transient L74V emergence. Clonal analyses from plasma viral RNA were performed on samples taken at baseline and after virological failure. Clones were screened for the presence of K65R by real time K65R-selective PCR (K65R-sPCR). RT genes from clones displaying K65R were sequenced. At baseline, all clones were wild type at codon 65 by K65R-sPCR, except in one patient in which one of 720 clones exhibited K65R. At failure with M184V and L74V present by bulk sequencing, this K65R was retained in one of 855 clones assessed. One additional patient (M 184V alone by bulk sequencing) displayed K65R in one of 466 failure clones. Virological failure samples from the remaining two patients were wild type at codon 65 in all of 524 and 270 clones, respectively. Minority species harbouring K65R are uncommon and occur at very low population densities in patients experiencing virological failure on first-line abacavir/lamivudine-containing HAART.
    Antiviral therapy 02/2006; 11(6):701-5. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations selected or deselected during passage of human immunodeficiency virus strain HXB2 or resistant variants with tenofovir (TFV), abacavir (ABC), and lamivudine (3TC) differed depending on the drug combination and virus genotype. In the wild-type virus, TFV-ABC and TFV-3TC selected K65R (with reduced susceptibility to all three inhibitors) and then Y115F. TFV-containing regimens might increase K65R selection, which confers multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2004; 48(4):1413-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor