[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The potato cyst nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) induces feeding sites (syncytia) in tomato and potato roots. In a previous study, 135 tomato genes up-regulated during G. rostochiensis migration and syncytium development were identified. Five genes (CYP97A29, DFR, FLS, NIK and PMEI) were chosen for further study to examine their roles in plant-nematode interactions. The promoters of these genes were isolated and potential cis regulatory elements in their sequences were characterized using bioinformatics tools. Promoter fusions with the β-glucuronidase gene were constructed and introduced into tomato and potato genomes via transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes to produce hairy roots. The analysed promoters displayed different activity patterns in nematode-infected and uninfected transgenic hairy roots.
Transgenic Research 01/2013; 22(3):557-569. · 2.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic embryogenesis (SE) in plants can be used as a model for studying genes engaged in the embryogenic transition of somatic cells. The CsSCARECROW (CsSCR) gene was previously identified among a panel of genes upregulated after the induction of SE in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The putative CsSCR protein contains conserved GRAS family domains and is extremely similar to AtSCR from Arabidopsis thaliana. SCR proteins are transcription factors involved in root radial patterning and are required for maintenance of the quiescent centre and differentiation of the endodermis. In comparison with other GRAS proteins from cucumber, phylogenetic analyses showed that CsSCR belongs to the SCR cluster. Increased CsSCR transcript accumulation was detected in somatic embryos and roots. Southern blot analysis and screening of the draft version of the cucumber genome confirmed the lack of close homologues in this species. CsSCR transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization in undifferentiated cells in the globular and heart stages of somatic embryogenesis, and in the endodermis of torpedo and cotyledonary stage somatic embryos, and developing primary and lateral roots. This localization was supported by the pattern of reporter gene activity driven by the CsSCR promoter in transgenic cucumber organs. These results suggest that CsSCR is likely to act in tissue radial organization during somatic embryogenesis and root development.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 01/2013; 35(5):1483-1495. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic embryogenesis is a method of plant regeneration, but it can also be used as a model to study plant development. A normalized library of cDNA fragments representing genes up-regulated after the induction of somatic embryogenesis in cucumber suspension cultures was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization technique. Candidate cDNA fragments (119) were classified according to their similarity to genes encoding known proteins and the presence of potential functional domains. Of the translation products with homology to known proteins, about 23% were possibly involved in metabolism, 13% represented proteins with a probable role in cellular communication and signal transduction, about 12% were likely to participate in protein synthesis, while around 10% were potential transcription factors. The genes corresponding to four of the cDNAs were subsequently analyzed in more detail: CsSEF2, CsSEM1 and CsSESTK1 encoding putative transcription factors or co-activators, and CsSECAD1 encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Full-length cDNAs were isolated and analyzed. RT-PCR confirmed the up-regulation of these genes after the induction of somatic embryogenesis and showed the presence of their transcripts in other tissues. The in situ localization of transcripts of the CsSEF2 and CsSEM1 genes demonstrated that signalling in somatic embryo tissues involving these factors is concentrated in the cotyledon primordia and roots.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2012; 50(1):54-64. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant parasitic nematodes infect roots and trigger the formation of specialized feeding sites by substantial reprogramming of the developmental process of root cells. In this article, we describe the dynamic changes in the tomato root transcriptome during early interactions with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism-based mRNA fingerprinting (cDNA-AFLP), we monitored 17 600 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected and uninfected tomato roots, 1-14 days after inoculation with nematode larvae. Six hundred and twenty-four TDFs (3.5%) showed significant differential expression on nematode infection. We employed GenEST, a computer program which links gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP and databases of cDNA sequences, to identify 135 tomato sequences. These sequences were grouped into eight functional categories based on the presence of genes involved in hormone regulation, plant pathogen defence response, cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation, cell wall modification, cellular signalling, transcriptional regulation, primary metabolism and allocation. The presence of unclassified genes was also taken into consideration. This article describes the responsiveness of numerous tomato genes hitherto uncharacterized during infection with endoparasitic cyst nematodes. The analysis of transcriptome profiles allowed the sequential order of expression to be dissected for many groups of genes and the genes to be connected with the biological processes involved in compatible interactions between the plant and nematode.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic embryos obtained in vitro are a form of vegetative reproduction that can be used in artificial seed technology, as well as a model to study the principles of plant development. In order to isolate the genes involved in somatic embryogenesis of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), we utilized the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). One of the obtained sequences was the CsSEF1 clone (Cucumis sativus Somatic Embryogenesis Zinc Finger 1), with a level of expression that sharply increased with the induction of embryogenesis. The full length cDNA of CsSEF1 encodes the putative 307 amino acid long protein containing three zinc finger motifs, two with CCCH and one with the atypical CHCH pattern. The CsSEF1 protein shows significant similarity to other proteins from plants, in which the zinc fingers arrangement and patterns are very similar. Transcripts of CsSEF1 were localized in the apical part of somatic embryos, starting as early as the polarity was visible and in later developmental stages marking the cotyledon primordia and procambium tissues. As a result of transferring an antisense fragment of CsSEF1 into Arabidopsis thaliana abnormalities in zygotic embryos and also in cotyledons and root development were observed.
Journal of Plant Physiology 02/2009; 166(3):310-323. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant genomes are dynamic structures having both the system to maintain and accurately reproduce the information encoded therein and the ability to accept more or less random changes, which is one of the foundations of evolution. Crop improvement and various uncontrolled stress factors can induce unintended genetic and epigenetic variations. In this review it is attempted to summarize factors causing such changes and the molecular nature of these variations in transgenic plants. Unintended effects in transgenic plants can be divided into three main groups: first, pleiotropic effects of integrated DNA on the host plant genome; second, the influence of the integration site and transgene architecture on transgene expression level and stability; and third, the effect of various stresses related to tissue handling, regeneration and clonal propagation. Many of these factors are recently being redefined due to new researches, which apply modern highly sensitive analytical techniques and sequenced model organisms. The ability to inspect large portions of genomes clearly shows that tissue culture contributes to a vast majority of observed genetic and epigenetic changes. Nevertheless, monitoring of thousands transcripts, proteins and metabolites reveals that unintended variation most often falls in the range of natural differences between landraces or varieties. We expect that an increasing amount of evidence on many important crop species will support these observations in the nearest future.
Journal of applied genetics 02/2006; 47(4):277-86. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In situ detection techniques allow specific nucleic acid sequences to be exposed in morphologically preserved tissue sections. In combination with immunocytochemistry, in situ detection can relate microscopic topological information to gene activity at the transcript or protein levels in specific tissues. The advantage of in situ methods over the conventional techniques (e.g., Northern blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR], or real-time PCR) is that they allow the investigation of the putative spatial distribution of nucleic acid products activity in a heterogeneous cell population. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for in situ RT-PCR detection of specific messenger RNA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), although this protocol can be used for any plant species, floral buds, and somatic embryo tissue sections on glass microscope slides. A successful in situ RT-PCR procedure requires the optimization of many conditions related to the tissue types used, for example, a cell's age, size, and composition, which may influence the detection of RT-PCR products, as well as specific transcript availability. Moreover, parameters, such as the fixation time, thermal cycling set-up, and the time of detection of RT-PCR products, also should be optimized. The importance of the other factors also is estimated in the protocol. In addition several types of controls that are necessary for a trustworthy in situ RT-PCR method are being discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somaclonal variation commonly occurs during in vitro plant regeneration and may introduce unintended changes in numerous plant characters. In order to assess the range of tissue-culture-responsive changes on the biochemical level, the metabolic profiles of diploid and tetraploid cucumber R1 plants regenerated from leaf-derived callus were determined. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used for monitoring of 48 metabolites and many significant changes were found in metabolic profiles of these plants as compared to a seed-derived control. Most of the changes were common to diploids and tetraploids and were effects of tissue culture. However, tetraploids showed quantitative changes in 14 metabolites, as compared to regenerated diploids. These changes include increases in serine, glucose-6P, fructose-6P, oleic acid and shikimic acid levels. Basing on this study we conclude that the variation in metabolic profiles does not correlate directly with the range of genome changes in tetraploids.
Journal of applied genetics 02/2006; 47(1):17-21. · 1.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work we show how three types of cucumber in vitro cultures – leaf callus culture, cytokinin dependent cell suspension and liquid culture of meristematic clumps – influence the metabolite profiles of plants in the first generative progeny. Based on this study we conclude that there exists a specific and inheritable metabolic fingerprint reflecting the history of previous generations, probably related to specific stress factors accompanying the passage through different types of culture. The leaf callus culture generated the highest heritable differences in metabolite content and was the most distinctly separated cluster in PCA analysis. The smallest number of variable metabolites characterizes the plants regenerated from cytokinin dependent cell suspension whereas the liquid culture of meristematic clumps induced slightly more changes. Changes induced by these two culture types were not as pronounced as in the case of leaf callus culture. However the plants after these types of culture were well separated from the control on PCA diagram. The highest changes were over 2-fold increases in cystin and galactose-6-P and over 2-fold decreases in aspartate, myo-inositol, hydroxylamine, phosphate and putrescine. These changes concerned the plants, which were one generation after the leaf callus culture. The possible nature of observed heritable changes is discussed.
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 08/2005; 82(3):349-356. · 3.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic profiles of five transgenic cucumber lines were compared taking into consideration their transgene integration sites. The plants analyzed were homozygous and contained transgenes integrated in a single locus on chromosomes I, II, III or IV. The transgenes were preferentially located in the euchromatic regions. Each of these locations possessed a specific metabolic profile. The number of altered compounds in the transgenic lines varied between 9 and 23 of the 47 metabolites identified. These alterations seem to be specific for each independent transgene integration. However, some changes are common: a decrease in the levels of phenylalanine, aspartate, ethanolamine and pipecolate, and an increase in the level of benzoic acid. The observed effects of transgene introduction are discussed in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Defined changes in the cell wall directed by many proteins accompany every morphogenetic process in plants. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase proteins (XTH; EC 184.108.40.206) have the potential to modify the hemicellulose matrix within the cell wall. Cs-XTH1 and Cs-XTH3 genes, which encode XTH proteins, were found among numerous genes that are differentially expressed after the induction of cucumber somatic embryogenesis. The expression of these genes increased during somatic embryogenesis. The Cs-XTH1 gene was localized on the second chromosome near the centromere region, whereas Cs-XTH3 was found in the middle of the fifth chromosome's longer arm. Northern blot hybridization showed that both genes were preferentially expressed in roots. We also observed higher accumulation of both transcripts in somatic embryos than in the proembryogenic mass. The localization of mRNA by in situ hybridization revealed that the Cs-XTH1 transcripts were largely accumulated in the presumptive cotyledon primordia of somatic embryos. The XTH gene family consists of a number of genes with a high degree of structural similarity. Screening a cucumber genomic library has identified other members of this gene family. The intron/exon structure, sequence similarities and the close chromosomal distance between some members suggest their common evolutionary origin. The involvement of XTH-related genes in somatic embryo formation is discussed.
Physiologia Plantarum 05/2004; 120(4):678-685. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic embryogenesis in cucumber cell suspension culture is a convenient tool to study differential gene expression, particularly during the early stages of this process. In this study, we used the cucumber somatic embryogenesis system to detect genes that were differentially transcribed during the induction of embryo development. We identified and cloned 120 candidate cDNA fragments from differential display gels. The selected cDNAs were confirmed by reverse northern, and 83 were sequenced. The obtained sequences represent 64 independent transcripts. The search for similarities in the databases gave a significant result in 16 cases. The potential involvement of these sequences in somatic embryogenesis is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolations of polymorphic sequences of two pairs of the NIL lines of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), which differ with respect to sex, were carried out using the subtraction hybridization methods of DSC (Differential Subtraction Chain) and GDDSC (Genetically Directed DSC). 266 DSC tags were isolated from the entire genome region, and 38 GDDSC tags were isolated from the region containing the sex genes. Based on the obtained results, the methods used may be considered highly effective. The attained sequences, like 11 AFLP clones obtained earlier [Witkowicz, J. et al. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 8 (2003) 375-381], were characterized by analyzing their hybridization with differential (dhaom) and subtractive cDNA libraries (cDNAsubtractom) from 1- to 2- mm floral buds of the same lines, and by the sequencing of 28 tags. A high average degree of homology was found to exist in the genpolom to dhom and cDNAsubtractom, particularly in the case of "dominant" (when the tester used was a line in which the sex of the plants was dependent upon the dominant allele). This indicates a significant share of coding sequences in the polymorphic genomic tags as well as their share in flower formation. Many of these sequences originate from the sex gene region. Analysis of the sequenced tags showed their interesting composition, including many organelle sequences which transferred into the nucleus, and coding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of in planta transformation protocols that avoid long culture under sterile conditions were developed for Arabidopsis thaliana. The most widely used methods are based on vacuum infiltration and floral dip. These methods were adapted for transformation
of other species as well. Successful in planta transformations of alfalfa, radish, pakchoi and petunia were reported recently. In this short review we present several modified
procedures originally developed for Arabidopsis thaliana and in some cases adapted to other species. We emphasize the crucial parameters involved in in planta transformation. We also describe here the studies attempting to shed light on the mechanisms and estimating the cellular
target of transformation, which may help in transforming new plant species.
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 01/2004; 26(4):451-459. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes an effective method of in situ RT-PCR (RT-ISPCR) that was developed to localize gene expression in plant tissues. This RT-PCR technique was performed on sectioned tissues of female buds of the cucumber GY3 inbred line. The CUS1 gene, encoding the MADS-box type (agamus-like) protein, the expression pattern of which was described earlier, was used as a marker gene for optimisation of steps in the in situ RT-PCR inside the cells. For the identification of RT-PCR products inside the cells of the female buds, they were fixed in FAA solution, embedded in Paraplast Plus and cut into 7 microm thick sections which were dewaxed by immersion in HistoClear and dehydrated with ethanol. They were washed in water, then in 0.02M HCl, 2xSSC and PBS buffer. In the next step of tissue pretreatment, the sections were digested with 1% pectinase. As shown, the pectinase treatment proved to be a crucial step in the tissue preparation procedure to get successful RT-PCR products. After washing in PBS buffer, the sections were digested with protease K followed by incubation with RNase-free DNase I, and subsequently washed in 2xSSC, 1xSSC and 0.5xSSC and finally in DEPC-treated water. Then the sections were covered with 50 microl of the RT-PCR reaction mixture supplemented with 0.5 microM digoxigenin dUTP and sealed with a coverslip. After amplification in situ the PCR products were identified with anti-digoxigenin antibody (Roche Molecular Biochemicals), conjugated with alkaline phosphatase. The data obtained showed that specific signals reflecting CUS1 gene expression were detected in the female flower buds of cucumber. The specificity of the in situ RT-PCR protocol was confirmed by dot blot hybridization of RT-PCR products with CUS1 cDNA probe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review presents recent data about cell wall involvement in plant embryogenesis. During plant development, the cell wall is subjected to precise regulation. During this process a bidirectional information exchange between the cell wall and the protoplast is observed. The cell wall also mediates in the cell-cell (apoplastic) and cell to cell (symplastic) information flow. Especially some products derived from the hydrolysis of specific cell wall compounds can act as short distance signal transduction molecules during the development. Oligosaccharins are a group of such products. Their activity and sources focused the researchers' attention on the biochemical composition of the cell wall and the activity of some cell wall enzymes. The dramatic influence on the embryo body shape has also the cell wall synthesis machinery, including vesicular secretion pathways. Moreover, the interplay between the turgor pressure and counteracting cell walls and neighbouring cells (in higher organisms) creates the specific mechanical forces influencing the development of the whole plant. We conclude that discovering factors which can influence cell wall physiology and architecture is crucial for a better understanding of plant embryogenesis. In this review we summarize some recent experimental data reporting plant cell wall involvement in embryogenesis, putting special emphasis on somatic embryogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potato cyst nematodes have evolved a sophisticated way to parasitise their host plants. They migrate intracellularly through the root, and an outer cortex cell is selected as a starting point for syncytium formation. The recruitment of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes by the nematode results in an expansion of the syncytium towards the vascular bundle via a so-called cortical bridge. A local accumulation of auxin is crucial for syncytium development.Analysis of cellulase expression patterns in tomato revealed that two auxin-inducible members (LECel7 and LE-Cel8) were speci cally up-regulated during the onset of syncytium development. Intriguingly, nodule formation in legumes starts in the cortex, proliferates towards the stele and is also accompanied by a local accumulation of auxin. This process is preceded by the expression of ENOD40. To see whether this gene is also essential for syncytium development, the role of ENOD40 was investigated in the non-legumes tomato and Arabidopsis upon cyst nematode infection. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that underlie syncytium induction more thoroughly, a high throughput approach is needed. cDNA-AFLP was used to monitor the expression of auxin-regulated genes in cyst nematode-infected tomato roots, and some preliminary results will be presented.