Ary A Hoffmann

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (306)1236.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Chironomids from the genus Chironomus are widely used in laboratory ecotoxicology, but are prone to inbreeding depression, which can compromise test results. The standard Chironomus test species (C. riparius, C. dilutus and C. yoshimatsui) are also not cosmopolitan, making it difficult to compare results between geographic regions. In contrast, the chironomid Paratanytarsus grimmii is cosmopolitan, and not susceptible to inbreeding depression because it reproduces asexually by apomictic parthenogenesis. However, there is no standardised culturing methodology for P. grimmii, and a lack of acute toxicity data for common pollutants (metals and pesticides). In this study, we developed a reliable culturing methodology for P. grimmii. We also determined 24-h first instar LC50s for the metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and the insecticide imidacloprid. By developing this culturing methodology and generating the first acute metal and imidacloprid LC50s for P. grimmii, we provide a basis for using P. grimmii in routine ecotoxicological testing.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00128-015-1578-5 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpine ecosystems are globally at risk from climate change. We use the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List Criteria for ecosystems to assess the risk of ecosystem collapse in Australian alpine snow patch herbfields. These ecosystems occur on both mainland Australia and Tasmania. They are restricted to steep, south-easterly slopes where snow pack persists well into the summer growing season. Consequently, they are rare, and have high conservation significance. We evaluated the risk of snow patch herbfield ‘ecosystem collapse’ against criteria that accounted for the ecosystem's restricted distribution, projected decline in the snowpack and increased rates of invasion by taller growing native species of shrub and grass. Our analyses revealed considerable uncertainty in estimates of risk based on some criteria, particularly those related to thresholds of ecosystem collapse caused by biotic change. On the basis of the IUCN Red List criteria, we conclude that the ecosystem is ‘endangered’. This is because of the restricted geographical distribution of the ecosystem, a substantial and highly likely decline in the abundance of snow (the principal abiotic driver of the ecosystem), and the prospect of invasion of much of the ecosystem by taller growing native shrubs and grasses. Our case study demonstrates the utility of the Red List methodology for assessing risks to biodiversity in rare ecosystems where changes to both abiotic factors and the relative dominance of native species constitute major threats. Our findings indicate the importance of snow patch herbfields as refugia for dwarf alpine plant species in the face of climate change, the need for continued monitoring, the removal of feral animals from the Australian Alps and scenario planning.
    Austral Ecology 06/2015; 40(4). DOI:10.1111/aec.12266 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Gang Ma, Ary A Hoffmann, Chun-Sen Ma
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    ABSTRACT: Organisms in natural environments experience diel temperature fluctuations rather than constant temperatures, including sporadic extreme conditions. Studies based mainly on model organisms have tended to focus on responses to average temperatures or short-term heat stress, which overlooks the potential impact of daily fluctuations including stressful daytime periods and milder nighttime periods. Here we focus on daily maximum temperatures, while holding nighttime temperatures constant, to specifically investigate high temperature effects on demographic parameters and fitness in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius). We then compared the observed effects of different daily maximum temperatures with predictions from constant temperature-performance expectations. Moderate daily maximum temperatures depressed aphid performance while extreme conditions had dramatic effects even when mean temperatures were below the critical maximum. Predictions based on daily average temperature underestimated negative effects of temperature on performance by ignoring daily maximum temperature, while predictions based on daytime maximum temperatures overestimated detrimental impacts by ignoring recovery under mild nighttime temperatures. Our findings suggest that daily maximum temperature will play an important role in regulating natural population dynamics and should be considered in predictions. These findings have implications for natural population dynamics particularly when considering the expected increase in extreme temperature events under climate change. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
    Journal of Experimental Biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1242/jeb.122127 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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  • Ian M. Smith, Ary A. Hoffmann, Linda J. Thomson
    Biological Control 04/2015; 87. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2015.04.004 · 1.87 Impact Factor
  • Melissa E. Carew, Ary A. Hoffmann
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    ABSTRACT: DNA barcoding has proven useful for identifying species, and there is increasing interest in this approach to determine species compositions for routine biological monitoring. Generally, DNA barcodes applied to taxa used for monitoring are clearly linked to species, but where taxa are closely related separation using DNA barcodes can be ambiguous. This raises challenges for monitoring, especially if closely related taxa are not recognised as separate species and these species have different environmental responses.Here we examine whether separation of closely related taxa with DNA barcodes is supported by other gene sequences and whether morphological and environmental differences occur among related species that cannot be easily separated. We selected six Chironomidae genera where initial neighbour-joining analysis of DNA barcodes produced monophyletic groups supported by high bootstraps (>95%), but groups were separated by low nucleotide divergence of 3–7%. Taxon separation based on DNA barcodes and mitochondrial cytochrome b (CytB) gene sequences were compared to delineations based on nuclear sequences from the carbomoylphosphate synthase-like gene region 1 (CAD1) and the zinc metalloproteinase (ZMP) gene.Species delineations with DNA barcodes were not always the same as those defined with nuclear sequences, morphological variation or differences in pollution and salinity tolerance. Morphological differences and some environmental differences were often in agreement with taxon separation based on nuclear CAD1 (and ZMP) sequences rather than DNA barcodes (and CytB variation).This study suggests that nuclear sequence data when used in combination with DNA barcodes can help separate closely related taxa into groups useful for routine biological monitoring.
    Freshwater Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/fwb.12587 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal inversion polymorphisms are common in animals and plants and recent models suggest that alternative arrangements spread by capturing different combinations of alleles acting additively or epistatically to favour local adaptation. It is also thought that inversions typically maintain favoured combinations for a long time by suppressing recombination between alternative chromosomal arrangements. Here, we consider patterns of linkage disequilibrium and genetic divergence in an old inversion polymorphism in Drosophila melanogaster (In(3R)Payne) known to be associated with climate change adaptation and a recent invasion event into Australia. We extracted, karyotyped and sequenced whole chromosomes from two Australian populations so that changes in the arrangement of the alleles between geographically separated tropical and temperate areas could be compared. Chromosome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis revealed strong LD within the region spanned by In(3R)Payne. This genomic region also showed strong differentiation between the tropical and the temperate populations but no differentiation between different karyotypes from the same population, after controlling for chromosomal arrangement. Patterns of differentiation across the chromosome arm and in gene ontologies were enhanced by the presence of the inversion. These data support the notion that inversions are strongly selected by bringing together combinations of genes but it is still not clear if such combinations act additively or epistatically. Our data suggest that climatic adaptation through inversions can be dynamic, reflecting changes in the relative abundance of different forms of an inversion and ongoing evolution of allelic content within an inversion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Ecology 03/2015; 24(10). DOI:10.1111/mec.13161 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring biological responses in resident biota is a commonly used approach to monitoring polluted habitats. The challenge is to choose sensitive and, ideally, stressor-specific endpoints that reflect the responses of the ecosystem. Metabolomics is a potentially useful approach for identifying sensitive and consistent responses since it provides a holistic view to understanding the effects of exposure to chemicals upon the physiological functioning of organisms. In this study, we exposed the aquatic non-biting midge, Chironomus tepperi, to two concentrations of zinc chloride and measured global changes in polar metabolite levels using an untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and a targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of amine-containing metabolites. These data were correlated with changes in the expression of a number of target genes. Zinc exposure resulted in a reduction in levels of intermediates in carbohydrate metabolism (i.e., glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate and disaccharides) and an increase in a number of TCA cycle intermediates. Zinc exposure also resulted in decreases in concentrations of the amine containing metabolites, lanthionine, methionine and cystathionine, and an increase in metallothionein gene expression. Methionine and cystathionine are intermediates in the transsulfuration pathway which is involved in the conversion of methionine to cysteine. These responses provide an understanding of the pathways affected by zinc toxicity, and how these effects are different to other heavy metals such as cadmium and copper. The use of complementary metabolomics analytical approaches was particularly useful for understanding the effects of zinc exposure and importantly, identified a suite of candidate biomarkers of zinc exposure useful for the development of biomonitoring programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2015; 162. DOI:10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.03.009 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AHTEENSUU ET AL. highlight four issues with our proposed framework for guiding decisions to conserve species under climate change and suggest some ways forward. From the outset we stress that we presented a framework. By their very nature, frameworks are for building on and elaborating. We thus welcome the contribution of Ahteensuu et al.. Here we continue the conversation about how the framework might more easily translate into practice across a range of applications.Issue 1: Yes/No answers are often not appropriateFirstly, the primary purpose of the framework we presented was to bring together (in one place) the suite of actions currently being considered to conserve species under climate change and begin the task of identifying constraints on the decision problem that might affect allocation of resources to particular actions. Candidate constraints included the likelihood of success, cost of implementation and likely co-benefits to non-target species (in addition to perceived vulner ...
    Climatic Change 03/2015; 129(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s10584-014-1312-z · 4.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of climate change on biodiversity are increasingly well documented, and many methods have been developed to assess species' vulnerability to climatic changes, both ongoing and projected in the coming decades. To minimize global biodiversity losses, conservationists need to identify those species that are likely to be most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. In this Review, we summarize different currencies used for assessing species' climate change vulnerability. We describe three main approaches used to derive these currencies (correlative, mechanistic and trait-based), and their associated data requirements, spatial and temporal scales of application and modelling methods. We identify strengths and weaknesses of the approaches and highlight the sources of uncertainty inherent in each method that limit projection reliability. Finally, we provide guidance for conservation practitioners in selecting the most appropriate approach(es) for their planning needs and highlight priority areas for further assessments.
    Nature Climate Change 02/2015; 5(3):215-224. DOI:10.1038/nclimate2448 · 15.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated global temperatures are expected to alter vegetation dynamics by interacting with physiological processes, biotic relationships and disturbance regimes. However, few studies have explicitly modeled the effects of these interactions on rates of vegetation change, despite such information being critical to forecasting temporal patterns in vegetation dynamics. In this study, we build and parameterize rate-change models for three dominant alpine life forms using data from a 7-year warming experiment. These models allowed us to examine how the interactions between experimental warming, the abundance of bare ground (a measure of past disturbance) and neighboring life forms (a measure of life form interaction) affect rates of cover change in alpine shrubs, graminoids and forbs. We show that experimental warming altered rates of life form cover change by reducing the negative effects of neighboring life forms and positive effects of bare ground. Furthermore, we show that our models can predict the observed direction and rate of life form cover change at burned and unburned long-term monitoring sites. Model simulations revealed that warming in unburned vegetation is expected to result in increased forb and shrub cover and decreased graminoid cover. In contrast, in burned vegetation, warming is predicted to slow post-fire regeneration in both graminoids and forbs and facilitate rapid expansion in shrub cover. These findings illustrate the applicability of modeling rates of vegetation change using experimental data. Our results also highlight the need to account for both disturbance and the abundance of other life forms when examining and forecasting vegetation dynamics under climatic change.
    Oecologia 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00442-015-3261-2 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The management of livestock breeds and threatened natural population share common challenges, including small effective population sizes, high risk of inbreeding, and the potential benefits and costs associated with mixing disparate gene pools. Here, we consider what has been learnt about these issues, the ways in which the knowledge gained from one area might be applied to the other, and the potential of genomics to provide new insights. Although there are key differences stemming from the importance of artificial versus natural selection and the decreased level of environmental heterogeneity experienced by many livestock populations, we suspect that information from genetic rescue in natural populations could be usefully applied to livestock. This includes an increased emphasis on maintaining substantial population sizes at the expense of genetic uniqueness in ensuring future adaptability, and on emphasizing the way that environmental changes can influence the relative fitness of deleterious alleles and genotypes in small populations. We also suspect that information gained from cross-breeding and the maintenance of unique breeds will be increasingly important for the preservation of genetic variation in small natural populations. In particular, selected genes identified in domestic populations provide genetic markers for exploring adaptive evolution in threatened natural populations. Genomic technologies in the two disciplines will be important in the future in realizing genetic gains in livestock and maximizing adaptive capacity in wildlife, and particularly in understanding how parts of the genome may respond differently when exposed to population processes and selection.
    Frontiers in Genetics 02/2015; 6(38). DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00038
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    ABSTRACT: To cope with the increasing and less predictable temperature forecasts under climate change, many terrestrial ectotherms will have to migrate or rely on adaptation through plastic or evolutionary means. Studies suggest that some ectotherms have a limited potential to change their upper thermal limits via evolutionary shifts, but research has mostly focused on adult life stages under laboratory conditions. Here we use replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster and a nested half sib/full sib quantitative genetic design to estimate heritabilities and genetic variance components for egg-to-adult viability under both laboratory and semi-natural field conditions, encompassing cold, benign and hot temperatures in two separate populations. The results demonstrated temperature-specific heritabilities and additive genetic variances for egg-to-adult viability. Heritabilities and genetic variances were higher under cold and benign compared to hot temperatures when tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Tendencies towards lower evolutionary potential at higher temperatures were also observed under semi-natural conditions although the results were less clear in the field setting. Overall the results suggest that ectotherms that already experience temperatures close to their upper thermal tolerance limits have a restricted capacity to adapt to higher temperatures by evolutionary means. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Evolution 02/2015; 69(3). DOI:10.1111/evo.12617 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    01/2015; 2(1). DOI:10.1186/s40665-014-0009-x
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    Ary A Hoffmann, Perran A Ross, Gordana Rašić
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    ABSTRACT: Wolbachia are endosymbionts found in many insects with the potential to suppress vector borne diseases, particularly through interfering with pathogen transmission. Wolbachia strains are highly variable in their effects on hosts, raising the issue of which attributes should be selected to ensure that the best strains are developed for disease control. This depends on their ability to suppress viral transmission, invade host populations, persist without loss of viral suppression, and not interfere with other control strategies. The potential to achieve these objectives is likely to involve evolutionary constraints; viral suppression may be limited by the ability of infections to spread due to deleterious host fitness effects. However, there are exceptions to these patterns in both natural infections and in novel associations generated following interspecific transfer, suggesting that pathogen blockage, deleterious fitness effects and changes to reproductive biology might be at least partly decoupled to achieve ideal infection attributes. The stability of introduced Wolbachia and its effects on viral transmission remain unclear, but rapid evolutionary changes seem unlikely. Although deliberate transfers of Wolbachia across species remain particularly challenging, the availability of strains with desirable attributes should be expanded, taking advantage of the diversity available across thousands of strains in natural populations.
    Evolutionary Applications 01/2015; DOI:10.1111/eva.12286 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Climate warming is expected to increase the exposure of insects to hot events (involving a few hours at extreme high temperatures). These events are unlikely to cause widespread mortality but may modify population dynamics via impacting life history traits such as adult fecundity and egg hatching. These effects and their potential impact on population predictions are still largely unknown. In this study, we simulated a single hot event (maximum of 38°C lasting for 4 h) of a magnitude increasingly found under field conditions and examined its effect in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta. This hot event had no impact on the survival of G. molesta adults, copulation periods or male longevity. However, the event increased female lifespan and the length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis. In contrast, exposure of males to this event markedly reduced the net reproductive value. Male heat treatment delayed the onset of oviposition in the females they mated with, as well as causing a decrease in the duration of oviposition period and lifetime fecundity. Both male and female stress also reduced egg hatch. Our findings of hormetic effects on female performance but concurrent detrimental effects on egg hatch suggest that hot events have unpredictable consequences on the population dynamics of this pest species with implications for likely effects associated with climate warming.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e116339. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116339 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Integrated pest management in Australian winter grain crops is challenging, partly because the timing and severity of pest outbreaks cannot currently be predicted, and this often results in prophylactic applications of broad spectrum pesticides. We developed a simple model to predict the median emergence in autumn of pest populations of the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor, a major field crop and pasture pest in southern Australia. Previous data and observations suggest that rainfall and temperature are critical for post-diapause egg hatch. We evaluated seven models that combined rainfall and temperature thresholds derived using three approaches against previously recorded hatch dates and 2013 field records. The performance of the models varied between Western Australia and south-eastern Australian States. In Western Australia, the key attributes of the best fitting model were more than 5 mm rain followed by mean day temperatures of below 20.5 °C for 10 days. In south-eastern Australia, the most effective model involved a temperature threshold reduced to 16 °C. These regional differences may reflect adaptation of H. destructor in south-eastern Australia to varied and uncertain temperature and rainfall regimes of late summer and autumn, relative to the hot and dry Mediterranean-type climate in Western Australia. Field sampling in 2013 revealed a spread of early hatch dates in isolated patches of habitat, ahead of predicted paddock scale hatchings. These regional models should assist in monitoring and subsequent management of H. destructor at the paddock scale.
    Enperimental and Applied Acarology 12/2014; 65(3). DOI:10.1007/s10493-014-9876-x · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Aston L. Arthur, Ary A. Hoffmann, Paul A. Umina
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA key component for spray decision-making in IPM programmes is the establishment of economic injury levels (EIL) and economic thresholds (ET). We aimed to establish an EIL for the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) on canola.ResultsComplex interactions between mite numbers, feeding damage and plant recovery were found, highlighting the challenges in linking H. destructor numbers to yield. A guide of 10 mites per plant was established at the 1st true leaf stage; however simple relationships were not evident at other crop development stages, making it difficult to establish reliable EILs based on mite number. Yield was however strongly associated with plant damage and plant densities, reflecting the impact of mite feeding damage and indicating a plant-based alternative for establishing thresholds for H. destructor. Drawing on data from multiple field trials, we show that plant densities below 30–40 per m2 could be used as a proxy for mite damage when reliable estimates of mite densities are not possible.Conclusion This plant-based threshold provides a practical tool that avoids the difficulties of accurately estimating mite densities. The approach may be applicable to other situations where production conditions are unpredictable and interactions between pests and plant hosts are complex.
    Pest Management Science 12/2014; DOI:10.1002/ps.3952 · 2.74 Impact Factor
  • Aston L. Arthur, Ary A. Hoffmann, Paul A. Umina
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    ABSTRACT: Development of sampling techniques to effectively estimate invertebrate densities in the field is essential for effective implementation of pest control programs, particularly when making informed spray decisions around economic thresholds. In this article, we investigated the influence of several factors to devise a sampling strategy to estimate Halotydeus destructor Tucker densities in a canola paddock. Direct visual counts were found to be the most suitable approach for estimating mite numbers, with higher densities detected than the vacuum sampling method. Visual assessments were impacted by the operator, sampling date, and time of day. However, with the exception of operator (more experienced operator detected higher numbers of mites), no obvious trends were detected. No patterns were found between H. destructor numbers and ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, or soil surface conditions, indicating that these factors may not be of high importance when sampling mites during autumn and winter months. We show further support for an aggregated distribution of H. destructor within paddocks, indicating that a stratified random sampling program is likely to be most appropriate. Together, these findings provide important guidelines for Australian growers around the ability to effectively and accurately estimate H. destructor densities.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 12/2014; 107(6). DOI:10.1603/EC14021 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia blocks the transmission of dengue virus by its vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is currently being evaluated for control of dengue outbreaks. Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that results in the developmental failure of offspring in the cross between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. This increases the relative success of infected females in the population, thereby enhancing the spread of the beneficial bacterium. However, Wolbachia spread via CI will only be feasible if infected males are sufficiently competitive in obtaining a mate under field conditions. We tested the effect of Wolbachia on the competitiveness of A. aegypti males under semi-field conditions. In a series of experiments we exposed uninfected females to Wolbachia-infected and uninfected males simultaneously. We scored the competitiveness of infected males according to the proportion of females producing non-viable eggs due to incompatibility. We found that infected males were equally successful to uninfected males in securing a mate within experimental tents and semi-field cages. This was true for males infected by the benign wMel Wolbachia strain, but also for males infected by the virulent wMelPop (popcorn) strain. By manipulating male size we found that larger males had a higher success than smaller underfed males in the semi-field cages, regardless of their infection status. The results indicate that Wolbachia infection does not reduce the competitiveness of A. aegypti males. Moreover, the body size effect suggests a potential advantage for lab-reared Wolbachia-males during a field release episode, due to their better nutrition and larger size. This may promote Wolbachia spread via CI in wild mosquito populations and underscores its potential use for disease control.
    PLoS neglected tropical diseases 12/2014; 8(12):e3294. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003294 · 4.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,236.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2015
    • University of Melbourne
      • • Department of Zoology
      • • Department of Genetics
      • • Centre for Environmental Stress and Adaptation
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Victoria University Melbourne
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2013
    • James Cook University
      • School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences
      Townsville, Queensland, Australia
    • Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
      • State Key Lab for Biology of Plant Disease & Insect Pests
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2006–2013
    • Monash University (Australia)
      • School of Biological Sciences, Clayton
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • University of Western Australia
      • School of Animal Biology
      Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2011
    • University of Chicago
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 1994–2011
    • La Trobe University
      • • Department of Genetics
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2009–2010
    • C.E.S.A.R.
      Arrecife, Pernambuco, Brazil
  • 2008
    • University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
      Urbana, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • Aarhus University
      • Department of Ecology and Genetics
      Aars, Region North Jutland, Denmark
  • 2004
    • Bogor Agricultural University
      • Faculty of Agriculture
      Bogor, Provinsi Banten, Indonesia
  • 2000
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Lincoln, NE, United States