[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Termination of translation in eukaryotes is triggered by two polypeptide chain release factors, eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor (eRF1) and eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3. eRF1 is a three-domain protein that interacts with eukaryotic class 2 polypeptide chain release factor 3 via its C-terminal domain (C-domain). The high-resolution NMR structure of the human C-domain (residues 277-437) has been determined in solution. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal structure. The structure of the minidomain (residues 329-372), which was ill-defined in the crystal structure, has been determined in solution. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using (15)N-relaxation experiments, showed that the C-terminal tail 414-437 and the minidomain are the most flexible parts of the human C-domain. The minidomain exists in solution in two conformational states, slowly interconverting on the NMR timescale. Superposition of this NMR solution structure of the human C-domain onto the available crystal structure of full-length human eRF1 shows that the minidomain is close to the stop codon-recognizing N-terminal domain. Mutations in the tip of the minidomain were found to affect the stop codon specificity of the factor. The results provide new insights into the possible role of the C-domain in the process of translation termination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translation termination in eukaryotes is governed by the interaction of two, class 1 and class 2, polypeptide chain release factors with the ribosome. The middle (M) domain of the class 1 factor eRF1 contains the strictly conserved GGQ motif and is involved in hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA ester bond in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosome subunit. Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy was used to map the interaction interface of the M domain of human eRF1 with eukaryotic ribosomes. The protein was found to specifically interact with the 60S subunit, since no interaction was detected with the 40S subunit. The amino acid residues forming the interface mostly belong to long helix alpha1 of the M domain. Some residues adjacent to alpha1 and belonging to strand beta5 and short helices alpha2 and alpha3 are also involved in the protein–ribosome contact. The functionally inactive G183A mutant interacted with the ribosome far more weakly as compared with the wild-type eRF1. The interaction interfaces of the two proteins were nonidentical. It was concluded that long helix alpha1 is functionally important and that the conformational flexibility of the GGQ loop is essential for the tight protein–ribosome contact.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report NMR assignments of the protein backbone of the C-terminal domain (163 a.a.) of human class 1 translation termination factor eRF1. It was found that several protein loop residues exist in two slowly interconverting conformational states.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor is a three-domain protein involved in the termination of translation, the final stage of polypeptide biosynthesis. In attempts to understand the roles of the middle domain of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor in the transduction of the termination signal from the small to the large ribosomal subunit and in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis, its high-resolution NMR structure has been obtained. The overall fold and the structure of the beta-strand core of the protein in solution are similar to those found in the crystal. However, the orientation of the functionally critical GGQ loop and neighboring alpha-helices has genuine and noticeable differences in solution and in the crystal. Backbone amide protons of most of the residues in the GGQ loop undergo fast exchange with water. However, in the AGQ mutant, where functional activity is abolished, a significant reduction in the exchange rate of the amide protons has been observed without a noticeable change in the loop conformation, providing evidence for the GGQ loop interaction with water molecule(s) that may serve as a substrate for the hydrolytic cleavage of the peptidyl-tRNA in the ribosome. The protein backbone dynamics, studied using 15N relaxation experiments, showed that the GGQ loop is the most flexible part of the middle domain. The conformational flexibility of the GGQ and 215-223 loops, which are situated at opposite ends of the longest alpha-helix, could be a determinant of the functional activity of the eukaryotic class 1 polypeptide chain release factor, with that helix acting as the trigger to transmit the signals from one loop to the other.