Theodore Raphan

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Manhattan, New York, United States

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Publications (157)434.41 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) induces oscillations in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), i.e., vasovagal oscillations, as well as transient decreases in BP and HR, i.e., vasovagal responses, in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. We determined the characteristics of the vasovagal oscillations, assessed their role in the generation of vasovagal responses, and determined whether they could be induced by monaural as well as by binaural sGVS and by oscillation in pitch. Wavelet analyses were used to determine the power distributions of the waveforms. Monaural and binaural sGVS and pitch generated vasovagal oscillations at the frequency and at twice the frequency of stimulation. Vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses were maximally induced at low stimulus frequencies (0.025-0.05 Hz). The oscillations were attenuated and the responses were rarely induced at higher stimulus frequencies. Vasovagal oscillations could occur without induction of vasovagal responses, but vasovagal responses were always associated with a vasovagal oscillation. We posit that the vasovagal oscillations originate in a low frequency band that, when appropriately activated by strong sympathetic stimulation, can generate vasovagal oscillations as a precursor for vasovagal responses and syncope. We further suggest that the activity responsible for the vasovagal oscillations arises in low frequency, otolith neurons with orientation vectors close to the vertical axis of the head. These neurons are likely to provide critical input to the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex to increase BP and HR upon changes in head position relative to gravity, and to contribute to the production of vasovagal oscillations and vasovagal responses and syncope when the baroreflex is inactivated.
    Frontiers in Neurology 01/2014; 5:37.
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    ABSTRACT: Vasovagal responses (VVRs) are characterized by transient drops in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) and increased amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in the Mayer wave frequency range. Typical VVRs were induced in anesthetized, male, Long-Evans rats by sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS). VVRs were also produced by single sinusoids that transiently increased BP and HR, by 70-90° nose-up tilts, and by 60° tilts of the gravitoinertial acceleration vector using translation while rotating (TWR). The average power of the BP signal in the Mayer wave range increased substantially when tilts were >70° (0.91 g), i.e., when linear accelerations in the x-z plane were ≥0.9-1.0 g. The standard deviations of the wavelet-filtered BP signals during tilt and TWR overlaid when they were normalized to 1 g. Thus, the amplitudes of the Mayer waves coded the magnitude of the linear acceleration ≥1 g acting on the head and body, and the average power in this frequency range was associated with the generation of VVRs. These data show that VVRs are a natural outcome of stimulation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex and are not a disease. The results also demonstrate the usefulness of the rat as a small animal model for studying human VVRs.-Cohen, B., Martinelli, G. P., Raphan, T., Schaffner, A., Xiang, Y., Holstein, G. R., Yakushin, S. B. The vasovagal response of the rat: its relation to the vestibulosympathetic reflex and to Mayer waves.
    The FASEB Journal 03/2013; · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • Yongqing Xiang, Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan
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    ABSTRACT: Gain adaptation of the yaw angular vestibular ocular reflex (aVOR) induced in side-down positions has gravity-independent (global) and -dependent (localized) components. When the head oscillation angles are small during adaptation, localized gain changes are maximal in the approximate position of adaptation. Concurrently, polarization vectors of canal-otolith vestibular neurons adapt their orientations during these small-angle adaptation paradigms. Whether there is orientation adaptation with large amplitude head oscillations, when the head is not localized to a specific position, is unknown. Yaw aVOR gains were decreased by oscillating monkeys about a yaw axis in a side-down position in a subject-stationary visual surround for 2 h. Amplitudes of head oscillation ranged from 15° to 180°. The yaw aVOR gain was tested in darkness at 0.5 Hz, with small angles of oscillation (±15°) while upright and in tilted positions. The peak value of the gain change was highly tuned for small angular oscillations during adaptation and significantly broadened with larger oscillation angles during adaptation. When the orientation of the polarization vectors associated with the gravity-dependent component of the neural network model was adapted toward the direction of gravity, it predicted the localized learning for small angles and the broadening when the orientation adaptation was diminished. The model-based analysis suggests that the otolith orientation adaptation plays an important role in the localized behavior of aVOR as a function of gravity and in regulating the relationship between global and localized adaptation.
    Experimental Brain Research 06/2012; 220(2):165-78. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sixteen neurons, including vestibular-only (VO), eye-head velocity (EHV), and position-vestibular-pause (PVP) neurons sensitive to head tilt were recorded in the rostromedial and in superior vestibular nuclei. Projection of the otolith polarization vector to the horizontal plane (response vector orientation [RVO]) was determined before and after prolonged head orientation in side-down position. The RVO of VO neurons shifted toward alignment with the axis of gravity when the head was in the position of adaptation. PVP neurons had similar changes in RVO. There were also changes in RVO in some EHV neurons, but generally in directions not related to gravity. Modeling studies have suggested that the tendency to align RVOs with gravity leads to tuning of gravity-dependent angular vestibular ocular reflex (aVOR) gain changes to the position of adaptation. Thus, coding of orientation in PVP neurons would contribute significantly to the gravity-dependent adaptation of the aVOR.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 09/2011; 1233:214-8. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.
    The FASEB Journal 07/2011; 25(11):3765-74. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were studied in isoflurane-anesthetized Long-Evans rats during sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS) and sinusoidal oscillation in pitch to characterize vestibular influences on autonomic control of BP and HR. sGVS was delivered binaurally via Ag/AgCl needle electrodes inserted over the mastoids at stimulus frequencies 0.008-0.4 Hz. Two processes affecting BP and HR were induced by sGVS: 1) a transient drop in BP (≈15-20 mmHg) and HR (≈3 beat*s(-1)), followed by a slow recovery over 1-6 min; and 2) inhibitory modulations in BP (≈4.5 mmHg/g) and HR (≈0.15 beats*s(-1)/g) twice in each stimulus cycle. The BP and HR modulations were approximately in-phase with each other and were best evoked by low stimulus frequencies. A wavelet analysis indicated significant energies in BP and HR at scales related to twice and four times the stimulus frequency bands. BP and HR were also modulated by oscillation in pitch at frequencies 0.025-0.5 Hz. Sensitivities at 0.025 Hz were ≈4.5 mmHg/g (BP) and ≈0.17 beat*s(-1)/g (HR) for pitches of 20-90°. The tilt-induced BP and HR modulations were out-of-phase, but the frequencies at which responses were elicited by tilt and sGVS were the same. The results show that the sGVS-induced responses, which likely originate in the otolith organs, can exert a powerful inhibitory effect on both BP and HR at low frequencies. These responses have a striking resemblance to human vasovagal responses. Thus, sGVS-activated rats can potentially serve as a useful experimental model of the vasovagal response in humans.
    Experimental Brain Research 03/2011; 210(1):45-55. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the COR compensates for the loss of aVOR gain, independent of species, we studied cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys in which all six semicircular canals were plugged. Gains and phases of the aVOR and COR were determined at frequencies ranging from 0.02 to 6 Hz and fit with model-based transfer functions. Following canal plugging in a rhesus monkey, the acute stage aVOR gain was small and there were absent responses to thrusts of yaw rotation. In the chronic state, aVOR behavior was characterized by a cupula/endolymph time constant of ≈ 0.07 s, responding only to high frequencies of head rotation. COR gains were ≈ 0 before surgery but increased to ≈ 0.15 at low frequencies just after surgery; the COR gains increased to ≈ 0.4 over the next 12 weeks. Nine weeks after surgery, the summated aVOR + COR responses compensated for head velocity in space in the 0.5-3 Hz frequency range. The gains and phases continued to improve until the 35th week, where the combined aVOR + COR stabilized with gains of ≈ 0.5-0.6 and the phases were compensatory over all frequencies. Two cynomolgus monkeys operated 3-12 years earlier had similar frequency characteristics of the aVOR and COR. The combined aVOR + COR gains were ≈ 0.4-0.8 with compensatory phases. To achieve gains close to 1.0, other mechanisms may contribute to gaze compensation, especially with the head free. Thus, while there are individual variations in the time of adaptation of the gain and phase parameters, the essential functional organization of the adaption to vestibular lesions is uniform across these species.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/2011; 210(3-4):549-60. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated spatial responses of the aVOR to small and large accelerations in six canal-plugged and lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys. The aim was to determine whether there was spatial adaptation after partial and complete loss of all inputs in a canal plane. Impulses of torques generated head thrusts of ≈ 3,000°/s². Smaller accelerations of ≈ 300°/s² initiated the steps of velocity (60°/s). Animals were rotated about a spatial vertical axis while upright (0°) or statically tilted fore-aft up to ± 90°. Temporal aVOR yaw and roll gains were computed at every head orientation and were fit with a sinusoid to obtain the spatial gains and phases. Spatial gains peaked at ≈ 0° for yaw and ≈ 90° for roll in normal animals. After bilateral lateral canal nerve section, the spatial yaw and roll gains peaked when animals were tilted back ≈ 50°, to bring the intact vertical canals in the plane of rotation. Yaw and roll gains were identical in the lateral canal nerve-sectioned monkeys tested with both low- and high-acceleration stimuli. The responses were close to normal for high-acceleration thrusts in canal-plugged animals, but were significantly reduced when these animals were given step stimuli. Thus, high accelerations adequately activated the plugged canals, whereas yaw and roll spatial aVOR gains were produced only by the intact vertical canals after total loss of lateral canal input. We conclude that there is no spatial adaptation of the aVOR even after complete loss of specific semicircular canal input.
    Experimental Brain Research 02/2011; 210(3-4):583-94. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that motion sickness is produced by an integration of the disparity between eye velocity and the yaw-axis orientation vector of velocity storage. Disparity was defined as the magnitude of the cross product between these two vectors. OVAR, which is known to produce motion sickness, generates horizontal eye velocity with a bias level related to velocity storage, as well as cyclic modulations due to re-orientation of the head re gravity. On average, the orientation vector is close to the spatial vertical. Thus, disparity can be related to the bias and tilt angle. Motion sickness sensitivity was defined as a ratio of maximum motion sickness score to the number of revolutions, allowing disparity and motion sickness sensitivity to be correlated. Nine subjects were rotated around axes tilted 10 degrees-30 degrees from the spatial vertical at 30 degrees/s-120 degrees/s. Motion sickness sensitivity increased monotonically with increases in the disparity due to changes in rotational velocity and tilt angle. Maximal motion sickness sensitivity and bias (6.8 degrees/s) occurred when rotating at 60 degrees/s about an axis tilted 30 degrees. Modulations in eye velocity during OVAR were unrelated to motion sickness sensitivity. The data were predicted by a model incorporating an estimate of head velocity from otolith activation, which activated velocity storage, followed by an orientation disparity comparator that activated a motion sickness integrator. These results suggest that the sensory-motor conflict that produces motion sickness involves coding of the spatial vertical by the otolith organs and body tilt receptors and processing of eye velocity through velocity storage.
    Experimental Brain Research 07/2010; 204(2):207-22. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gait dysfunction and falling are major sources of disability for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). It is presently thought that the fundamental defect is an inability to generate normal stride length. Our data suggest, however, that the basic problem in PD gait is an impaired ability to match step frequency to walking velocity. In this study, foot movements of PD and normal subjects were monitored with an OPTOTRAK motion-detection system while they walked on a treadmill at different velocities. PD subjects were also paced with auditory stimuli at different frequencies. PD gait was characterized by step frequencies that were faster and stride lengths that were shorter than those of normal controls. At low walking velocities, PD stepping had a reduced or absent terminal toe lift, which truncated swing phases, producing shortened steps. Auditory pacing was not able to normalize step frequency at these lower velocities. Peak forward toe velocities increased with walking velocity and PD subjects could initiate appropriate foot dynamics during initial phases of the swing. They could not control the foot appropriately in terminal phases, however. Increased treadmill velocity, which matched the natural PD step frequency, generated a second toe lift, normalizing step size. Levodopa increased the bandwidth of step frequencies, but was not as effective as increases in walking velocity in normalizing gait. We postulate that the inability to control step frequency and adjust swing phase dynamics to slower walking velocities are major causes for the gait impairment in PD.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 03/2010; 103(3):1478-89. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a system for teaching C/C++ using a Lego™ NXT in a CSI college course on introductory programming. The programming of the NXT robot has been implemented using a C/C++ cross-compiler, which generates code that runs on an Open Source firmware platform, nxtOSEK. The system has built in commands and objects that run the motors and receive information from the sensors that are on the robots. The cross-compiler has been embedded in an Open Source Integrated Development Environment (IDE) Code::Blocks. The programming environment for the NXT has evolved from a previous development using the Lego™ RCX and has the advantage that it utilizes a Bluetooth interface, while the RCX uses a tower based infrared communication device. The NXT is more reliable and can be programmed to pair a specific interface with a particular robot, so that there is no cross-talk when different robots are utilized in a classroom setting. The IDE and robotic software executes on a virtual machine running under the freely available software, Sun™ VirtualBox. This allows for a uniform programming platform for Windows, MacOS, and Unix/Linux. The use of robots in CS1 affords science and engineering students the opportunity to learn sensory-motor based control, to work with an IDE early in their careers, and to gain experience with development and debugging tools that can be utilized throughout the students' academic and professional careers.
    Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science & Computer Engineering, FECS 2010, July 12-15, 2010, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA; 01/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the dependence of the roll angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR) on gravity or its gravity-dependent adaptive properties. To study gravity-dependent characteristics of the roll aVOR, monkeys were oscillated about a naso-occipital axis in darkness while upright or tilted. Roll aVOR gains were largest in the upright position and decreased by 7-15% as animals were tilted from the upright. Thus the unadapted roll aVOR gain has substantial gravitational dependence. Roll gains were also decreased or increased by 0.25 Hz, in- or out-of-phase rotation of the head and the visual surround while animals were prone, supine, upright, or in side-down positions. Gain changes, determined as a function of head tilt, were fit with a sinusoid; the amplitudes represented the amount of the gravity-dependent gain change, and the bias, the gravity-independent gain change. Gravity-dependent gain changes were absent or substantially smaller in roll (approximately 5%) than in yaw (25%) or pitch (17%), whereas gravity-independent gain changes were similar for roll, pitch, and yaw (approximately 20%). Thus the high-frequency roll aVOR gain has an inherent dependence on head orientation re gravity in the unadapted state, which is different from the yaw/pitch aVORs. This inherent gravitational dependence may explain why the adaptive circuits are not active when the head is tilted re gravity during roll aVOR adaptation. These behavioral differences support the idea that there is a fundamental difference in the central organization of canal-otolith convergence of the roll and yaw/pitch aVORs.
    Journal of Neurophysiology 09/2009; 102(5):2616-26. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During quadrupedal robot locomotion, there is pitch, yaw, and roll of the head and body due to the stepping. The head motion adversely affects visual sensors embedded in the robot's head. Mammals stabilize the head using a vestibulocollic reflex that detects linear and rotational acceleration. In this paper we describe the use of a machine learning algorithm that utilizes signals from an artificial vestibular system that has been embedded in the robot's head. Our approach can rapidly learn to compensate for the head movements that appear when no stabilization mechanism is present. The stabilization using a Sony Aibo robot occurs in only a few gait cycles.
    Robotics and Automation, 2009. ICRA '09. IEEE International Conference on; 06/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Otolith-only neurons were recorded extracellularly in the vestibular nuclei before and after cynomolgus monkeys were held on-side for up to 3 hr. The aim was to determine whether the polarization vectors of these neurons reorient toward the spatial vertical as do canal-otolith convergent neurons. Otolith input was characterized by tilting the animal 30 degrees from the upright position while positioning the head in different directions in yaw. This determined the response vector orientation (RVO), that is, the projection of the otolith polarization vector onto the head horizontal plane. Changes in the RVO of otolith-only neurons ranged from 2 degrees -16 degrees , which was on average considerably less than the changes previously noted in canal-otolith convergent vestibulo-only (VO) and vestibular plus saccade (VPS) neurons, which ranged up to 109 degrees. Some of the otolith-only neurons had marked sensitivity changes. These findings suggest that otolith-only neurons tend to maintain a head-fixed orientation during prolonged head tilts relative to gravity. In contrast, canal-convergent VO and VPS neurons optimize their response vector orientation to gravity when the head is oriented for prolonged periods.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 1164:367-71. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine whether accommodation to the relative motion of a target along the visual axis of one eye during fore-aft movement of the head could induce accurate vergence over a wide range of viewing distances and frequencies of oscillation, despite lack of vision in the second eye. This was compared to the vergence when both eyes viewed the target. Two rhesus monkeys were trained to fixate a visual target located 216-336 mm in front and along the visual axis of one eye, while being sinusoidally translated in the fore-aft direction. There was no movement of the seeing eye while the other eye converged, regardless of whether there was vision in the converged eye. Gain and phase of the convergence were determined based on the ratio of actual versus expected eye position if the target was accurately fixated. During translation at frequencies from 0.05 to 2 Hz, the eye converged on the target with an eye position gain of approximately 1, and a phase close to zero. When vision was occluded in the converging eye, gains of convergence were 0.6-0.8 Hz up to 2 Hz, and the phases remained close to zero. At low frequencies of fore-aft movement, when the acceleration was negligible, convergence was driven by accommodation in the seeing eye. At higher frequencies, vergence could also be driven by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (lVOR). Thus, vision in one nonmoving eye and the lVOR combine to generate convergence over a wide range of frequencies and viewing distances.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 1164:499-504. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    Mingjia Dai, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
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    ABSTRACT: Head movements in a rotating frame of reference are commonly encountered, but their long term effects on the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) are not well understood. To study this, monkeys were oscillated about a naso-occipital (roll) axis for several hours while rotating about a spatial vertical axis (roll-while-rotating, RWR). This induced oscillations in roll and pitch eye velocity and continuous horizontal (yaw) nystagmus. For several hours thereafter, simple roll in darkness induced horizontal nystagmus and pitch and roll oscillations. The rising and falling time constants of the horizontal velocity indicated that the nystagmus arose in velocity storage. The continuous nystagmus was correlated with a phase shift of vertical eye velocity from 90 degrees to 0 degrees re head position. As the phases reverted toward pre-adaptive values, the horizontal velocity declined. Similar yaw nystagmus and pitch and roll velocities were produced by oscillation in roll after adaptation with roll and horizontal optokinetic nystagmus (OKN), but not after adaptation with pitch-while-rotating (PWR). Findings were explained by a model that shifted the roll orientation vector of velocity storage toward the pitch axis during adaptation with RWR and Roll & OKN. This shift produced modulation in vertical eye velocity in the post adaptive state, which was approximately in phase with roll head position, generating horizontal nystagmus. Similar orientation changes to prolonged exposure to complex motion environments may be responsible for producing post-stimulus motion sickness and/or mal de debarquement.
    Experimental Brain Research 06/2009; 195(4):553-67. · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The vestibular system plays an important role in controling gait, but where in the labyrinths relevant activity arises is largely unknown. After the semicircular canals are plugged, low frequency (0.01-2 Hz) components of the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) and angular vestibulo-collic reflex (aVCR) are lost, but high frequency (3-20 Hz) components remain. We determined how loss of low frequency canal afference affects limb and head movements during quadrupedal locomotion. Head, body, and limb movements were recorded in three dimensions (3-D) in a cynomolgus monkey with a motion detection system, while the animal walked on a treadmill. All six canals were plugged, reducing the canal time constants from approximately 4.0 sec to approximately 0.07 sec. Major changes in the control of the limbs occurred after surgery. Fore and hind limbs were held farther from the body, producing a broad-based gait. Swing-phase trajectories were inaccurate, and control of medial-lateral limb movement was erratic. These changes in gait were present immediately after surgery, as well as 15 months later, when the animal had essentially recovered. Thus, control of the limbs in the horizontal plane was defective after loss of the low-frequency semicircular canal input and never recovered. Cycle-averaged pitch and roll head rotations, and 3-D head translations were also significantly larger and more erratic after than before surgery. Head rotations in yaw could not be quantified due to intrusion of voluntary head turns. These findings indicate that the semicircular canals provide critical low frequency information to maximize the accuracy of stepping and stabilize the head during normal quadrupedal locomotion.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 1164:89-96. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During quadrupedal robot locomotion, there is pitch, yaw, and roll of the head and body due to the stepping. The head motion adversely affects visual sensors embedded in the robot's head. Mammals stabilize the head using a vestibulocollic reflex that detects linear and rotational acceleration. In this paper we describe the use of a machine learning algorithm that utilizes signals from an artificial vestibular system that has been embedded in the robot's head. Our approach can rapidly learn to compensate for the head movements that appear when no stabilization mechanism is present. The stabilization using a Sony Aibo robot occurs in only a few gait cycles.
    Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE international conference on Robotics and Automation; 05/2009
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    ABSTRACT: The cervico-ocular reflex (COR) has a low gain in normal animals. In this study, we determined whether COR gain increases were specific to the low/midband frequency range, which is the range over which the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) is compromised by plugging. The gain and phase of the yaw and pitch COR and aVOR were compared in normal monkeys and those with all six semicircular canals or only the lateral canal plugged. During experiments animals sat with the body fixed to a chair and the head fixed in space. The body was oscillated about body-yaw and body-pitch axes over a frequency range of 0.05-6 Hz, with amplitude <10 degrees. For normal animals, both yaw and pitch eye velocities were compensatory to the relative velocity of the head with respect to the body. The gains were 0.1-0.2 at frequencies below 1 Hz and decreased to zero as stimulus frequency increased above 1 Hz. Canal-plugged animals had COR gains close to 1.0 at low frequencies, decreasing to approximately 0.6 at 0.5 Hz and to 0.2 for stimulus frequencies above 3 Hz. The phase of eye velocity was 180 degrees relative to head-re-body velocity at frequencies below 0.5 Hz and shifted toward 270 degrees as frequencies were increased to 4 Hz. This study demonstrates that adaptation of COR gain is tuned to a frequency range at which the aVOR is compromised by the canal plugging.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/2009; 1164:60-7. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The angular vestibulo-ocular and opto-kinetic reflexes (aVOR and OKR) combine to provide compensation for head rotations in space to help maintain a steady image on the retina. We previously implemented an artificial angular vestibulo-ocular reflex with a fully articulated binocular control system in a quadruped robot head. In this paper, we describe the implementation of artificial opto-kinetic and linear vestibular ocular reflexes (OKR and lVOR) that use inputs from an artificial vestibular sensor and a binocular camera system to compensate for linear movements of the head and visual motion to stabilize images on the cameras. The object tracking algorithm was able to fixate a steady object in the camera's field of view during linear perturbations of the robot's head in space at low frequencies of movement (0.2-0.6 Hz), simulating the linear VOR. We implemented an algorithm that combines the linear VOR and OKR model and computes changes in relative pose of the cameras with respect to the object being tracked. The system provides compensatory angular movements of the Ocular Servo Module (OSM) to stabilize images as the robot is moved laterally.
    Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision, 2008. ICARCV 2008. 10th International Conference on; 01/2009

Publication Stats

4k Citations
434.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2013
    • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
      • Department of Neurology
      Manhattan, New York, United States
  • 1983–2012
    • City University of New York - Brooklyn College
      • Department of Computer and Information Science
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
    • Teikyo University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1985–2011
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2002
    • Tokyo Women's Medical University
      • Department of Otolaryngology
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2000
    • Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia