Chia-Hua Kuo

Taipei University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (188)225.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Impaired antioxidant system and structural changes in hippocampus are considered as key instigators of neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and tissue protective properties of Bacopa monniera whole-plant extract (BME) against aluminum (Al)- induced oxidative stress and hippocampus damage in rats. Male Wistar rats were evenly divided into four groups, nine in each and labeled as control, Al treated (10 mg/kg), BME administered (40 mg/kg) and combination of both Al plus BME (Al+BME) treated groups. After one month of treatment by oral administration, antioxidant status was determined, and structural changes in the hippocampus were evaluated by electron microscopy. Al-induced increased oxidative damage in the hippocampus was revealed by elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). This increased lipid peroxidation was associated with significantly decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). However, aluminum intoxicated rats treated with BME for 30 days showed significantly restored antioxidant enzyme activities along with decreased TBARS (P < 0.01). Further evidences from electron micrographs clearly indicated that Al-induced vacuolation, lipofuscin deposition and pyramidal cell degeneration in the hippocampus was attenuated with co-administration of the whole-plant extract. Our results demonstrate that structural derangement in hippocampus by aluminum is directly proportionate with increased lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, B. monniera treatment potentiates the antioxidant status and suppressed the tissue damage induced by Al-intoxication. These findings suggest that B. monniera whole-plant extracts can be considered as a possible remedy to counteract aluminum-associated neurological disorders.
    The Chinese journal of physiology. 10/2014; 57(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise training is considered a benefit to heart function, but the benefit in aging hearts remains unknown. Activation of the PI3K-Akt survival pathway and suppression of Fas/FADD/caspase-8 apoptotic signaling by exercise training in hearts from young subjects have been described in our previous studies. However, the mechanisms are still unclear and need to be explored in aging hearts. Thus, 18-month-old rats were used as a model and underwent swimming exercise training, resveratrol treatment (15 mg/kg/day), or exercise training with resveratrol treatment for 1 month. The results showed that heart function in each group improved. However, the 18-month-old rats in the exercise-only group experienced the slightly inevitable impact of increased TNF-α, cell apoptosis, and fibrosis. In the protein analysis, the PI3K-Akt pathway was slightly increased with exercise training and resveratrol treatment, but Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was only highly activated with resveratrol treatment in the aged rat hearts. Moreover, the exercise training plus resveratrol group benefited from SIRT1 and PI3K-Akt dual pathways and blocked FOXO3 accumulation. Our experimental results strongly suggest that resveratrol treatment improves the beneficial effects of exercise training in aging rat hearts.
    Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 10/2014; 36(5):9705.
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    ABSTRACT: Danggui (Radix Angelicae Sinensis) is an herb often used in Traditional Chinese medicine. It is used to promote blood flow and has been used in the treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in animal models. Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play important roles in mediating cardiovascular diseases, and may cause cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate whether Danggui has protective effects on Ang II-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells and study the mechanisms involved.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 09/2014; 14(1):358. · 2.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dilong is an earthworm extract with a dense nutritional content, widely used in Chinese herbal medicine to remove stasis and stimulate wound healing. Earthworm extracts are traditionally used by indigenous people throughout the world. How this Dilong inhibits Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis is still unclear. This study investigates the Dilong extract effect on LPS-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. LPS (1 μg/ml) administration for 24 h induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells. Cell apoptosis was detected using MTT, LDH, TUNEL assay and JC-1 staining. Western blot analysis was used to detect pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins. Dilong extract totally blocked the LPS impact, leading to the activation of anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, stabilized the mitochondria membrane and down-regulated the extrinsic and intrinsic pro-apoptotic proteins, TNF-α, active caspase-8, t-Bid, Bax, active caspase-9 and active caspase-3. Dilong could potentially serve as a cardio protective agent against LPS-induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell apoptosis.
    Cardiovascular toxicology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Chen, Chung-Yu, Chien-Wen Hou, Jeffrey R. Bernard, Chiu-Chou Chen, Ta-Cheng Hung, Lu-Ling Cheng, Yi-Hung Liao, and Chia-Hua Kuo. Rhodiola crenulata- and Cordyceps sinensis-based supplement boosts aerobic exercise performance after short-term high altitude training. High Alt Med Biol 15:371-379, 2014.-High altitude training is a widely used strategy for improving aerobic exercise performance. Both Rhodiola crenulata (R) and Cordyceps sinensis (C) supplements have been reported to improve exercise performance. However, it is not clear whether the provision of R and C during high altitude training could further enhance aerobic endurance capacity. In this study, we examined the effect of R and C based supplementation on aerobic exercise capacity following 2-week high altitude training. Alterations to autonomic nervous system activity, circulatory hormonal, and hematological profiles were investigated. Eighteen male subjects were divided into two groups: Placebo (n=9) and R/C supplementation (RC, n=9). Both groups received either RC (R: 1400 mg+C: 600 mg per day) or the placebo during a 2-week training period at an altitude of 2200 m. After 2 weeks of altitude training, compared with Placebo group, the exhaustive run time was markedly longer (Placebo: +2.2% vs. RC: +5.7%; p<0.05) and the decline of parasympathetic (PNS) activity was significantly prevented in RC group (Placebo: -51% vs. RC: -41%; p<0.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after high altitude training (p<0.05), whereas the erythropoietin (EPO) level remained higher in the Placebo group (∼48% above RC values; p<0.05). The provision of an RC supplement during altitude training provides greater training benefits in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC treatment may result from better maintenance of PNS activity and accelerated physiological adaptations during high altitude training.
    High altitude medicine & biology. 09/2014; 15(3):371-379.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which Alpiniae oxyphyllae fructus (AOF) promotes neuron regeneration. A piece of silicone rubber was guided across a 15 mm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat. This nerve gap was then filled with different concentrations of AOF extract (0-200 mg/ml). We investigated the role of MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) pathways for AOF-induced matrix-degrading proteolytic enzyme (PAs and MMP2/9) production in RSC96 Schwann cells. The results showed that AOF increased the expressions of uPA, tPA, MMP-9, and MAPKs in vivo. In vitro, our results show that treatment with AOF extract induces ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation to activate the downstream PAs and MMPs signaling expression. AOF-stimulated ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 phosphorylation attenuated by individual pretreatment with siRNAs or inhibitors (U0126, SP600125 and SB203580), resulting in migration and uPA-related signal pathway inhibition. Taken together our data suggests the MAPKs (ERK1/2, JNK and p38), PAs (uPA, tPA), MMP (MMP2, MMP9) regenerative and migration signaling pathway of Schwann cells regulated by AOF extract might play a major role in Schwann cell migration and damaged peripheral nerve regeneration.
    The International journal of artificial organs 04/2014; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is usually applied to treat colon cancer but leads to chemoresistance, and increased metastasis and invasion. The main focus of this study is to observe effects of resistance to irinotecan (CPT-11) on metastasis, invasion and autophagy in CPT-11 resistant (CPT-11-R) LoVo colon cancer cells. CPT-11, a topoisomerase I inhibitor and a first-line chemotherapeutic drug, is used to treat colon cancer. CPT-11-R cells were constructed in a step-wise fashion with increasing CPT-11 doses. The CPT-11-R strain had a significantly lower expression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, but induced an EGFR/IKKα/β/NF-κB pathway with elevated cell cycle, metastasis and basal autophagy.
    Cancer letters 04/2014; · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is an adaptive response of the heart to various types of stress. During the period of stress accumulation, the transition from physiological hypertrophy to pathological hypertrophy results in the promotion of heart failure. Gelsolin (GSN) is a member of the actin-binding proteins, which regulate dynamic actin filament organization by severing and capping. Moreover, GSN also regulates cell morphology, differentiation, movement, and apoptosis. In this study, we used H9c2 and H9c2-GSN stable clones in an attempt to understand the mechanisms of GSN overexpression in cardiomyocytes. These data showed that the overexpression of GSN in H9c2-induced cardiac hypertrophy and increased the pathological hypertrophy markers atrial natriuretic peptide brain natriuretic peptide. Furthermore, we found that E-cadherin expression decreased with the overexpression of GSN in H9c2, but β-catenin expression increased. These data presume that the cytoskeleton is loose. Further, previous studies show that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway can induce cardiac hypertrophy. Our data showed that p-p38 expression increased with the overexpression of GSN in H9c2, and the transcription factor p-GATA4 expression also increased, suggesting that the overexpression of GSN in H9c2-induced cardiac hypertrophy seemed to be regulated by the p38/GATA4 pathway. Moreover, we used both the p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and GSN siRNA to confirm our conjecture. We found that both of these factors significantly suppressed gelsolin-induced cardiac hypertrophy through p38/GATA4 signaling pathway. Therefore, we predict that the gene silencing of GSN and/or the downstream blocking of GSN along the p38 pathway could be applied to ameliorate pathological cardiac hypertrophy in the future.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate whether chronic cocaine abuse will increase cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS, 0.5 mL, SQ per day) and a cocaine-treated group (Cocaine, 10 mg/kg, SQ per day). After 3 months of treatment, the excised left ventricles were measured by H&E staining, Western blotting, DAPI staining and TUNEL assays. More cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed in the Cocaine group than the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-alpha, Fas ligand, Fas death receptor, FADD, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts in the Cocaine group were significantly increased, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bax, cytosolic cytochrome c, t-Bid-to-Bid, Bak-to-Bcl-xL, Bax-to-Bcl-2 ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the Cocaine group, compared to the PBS group. Chronic cocaine exposure appeared to activate the cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, which may indicate a possible mechanism for the development of cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic cocaine abuse.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(4):5988-6001. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dizziness is a common clinical symptom frequently referred to general neurologists and practitioners. Exercise intervention, in the form of vestibular rehabilitation, is known as an effective clinical management for dizziness. This intervention is reported to have a functional role in correcting dizziness, improving gaze stability, retraining balance and gait, and enhancing physical fitness. Dizziness is known to be highly related to inflammation and oxidative stress. SIRT1 is a major molecule for the regulation of inflammation and mitigation of oxidative stress in chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the bio-molecular roles of SIRT1 involved in the pathogenesis of dizziness are still largely unclear. In this study, a total of 30 subjects were recruited (15 patients with chronic dizziness, and 15 age/gender matched non-dizzy control subjects). The dizzy subjects group received 18 sessions of 30-min vestibular training. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of SIRT1 in the blood samples of chronic dizzy patients were repressed compared with those of healthy controls. After vestibular training, the dizzy patients had significant symptomatic improvements. The SIRT1 expression and its downstream genes (PPAR-γ and PGC-1α) were upregulated after vestibular exercises in dizzy subjects. Notably, the catalytic activity of SIRT1, NADPH and antioxidant enzyme activities were also activated in dizzy patients after vestibular training. Furthermore, vestibular exercise training reduced oxidative events and p53 expression in patients with dizziness. This study demonstrated that vestibular exercise training improved dizziness symptoms, and mechanisms for alleviation of chronic dizziness may partly involve the activation of the SIRT1 axis and the repression of redox status.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:27. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic heart damage usually triggers cardiomyopathological remodeling and fibrosis, thus promoting the development of heart functional failure. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous group of cells in culture, with multipotent and hypoimmunogenic characters to aid tissue repair and avoid immune responses, respectively. Numerous experimental findings have proven the feasibility, safety, and efficiency of MSC therapy for cardiac regeneration. Despite that the exact mechanism remains unclear, the therapeutic ability of MSCs to treat ischemia heart diseases has been tested in phase I/II clinical trials. Based on encouraging preliminary findings, MSCs might become a potentially efficacious tool in the therapeutic options available to treat ischemic and nonischemic cardiovascular disorders. The molecular mechanism behind the efficacy of MSCs on promoting engraftment and accelerating the speed of heart functional recovery is still waiting for clarification. It is hypothesized that cardiomyocyte regeneration, paracrine mechanisms for cardiac repair, optimization of the niche for cell survival, and cardiac remodeling by inflammatory control are involved in the interaction between MSCs and the damaged myocardial environment. This review focuses on recent experimental and clinical findings related to cellular cardiomyoplasticity. We focus on MSCs, highlighting their roles in cardiac tissue repair, transdifferentiation, the MSC niche in myocardial tissues, discuss their therapeutic efficacy that has been tested for cardiac therapy, and the current bottleneck of MSC-based cardiac therapies.
    Cell Transplantation 01/2014; 23(4):513-29. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.
    The Chinese journal of physiology 12/2013; 56(6):334-40. · 0.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Very limited information regarding the influence of chronic methamphetamine exposure on cardiac apoptosis is available. In this study, we evaluate whether chronic methamphetamine exposure will increase cardiac Fas-dependent (type I) and mitochondria-dependent (type II) apoptotic pathways. Thirty-two male Wistar rats at 3-4 months of age were randomly divided into a vehicle-treated group [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) 0.5 ml SQ per day] and a methamphetamine-treated group (MA 10 mg/kg SQ per day) for 3 months. We report that after 3 months of exposure, abnormal myocardial architecture, more minor cardiac fibrosis and cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were observed at greater frequency in the MA group than in the PBS group. Protein levels of TNF-α, Fas ligand, Fas receptor, Fas-associated death domain, activated caspase-8, and activated caspase-3 (Fas-dependent apoptosis) extracted from excised hearts were significantly increased in the MA group, compared to the PBS group. Protein levels of cardiac Bak, t-Bid, Bak to Bcl-xL ratio, activated caspase-9, and activated caspase-3 (mitochondria-dependent apoptosis) were significantly increased in the MA group, compared with the PBS group. The results from this study reveal that chronic methamphetamine exposure will activate cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways, which may indicate a possible mechanism for developing cardiac abnormalities in humans with chronic methamphetamine abuse.
    Cardiovascular toxicology 12/2013; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metformin is a kind of oral hypoglycemic agents commonly prescribed to patients with diabetes mellitus. Although past studies had proven its protective effect on cardiovascular risk and related mortality, the evidence of metformin on stroke prevention was still insufficient and conflicting. Our study randomly selected 14,856 patients with diabetes from the database provided by the Taiwan National Health Research Institute, and 2 cohorts were formulated according to whether metformin was in the prescription record. All cases were followed up for 4 years to track their stroke incidence. As a result, 701 (17.5%) of 3999 diabetic patients had stroke without metformin use, whereas 994 (9.2%) of 10,857 patients had stroke with metformin use. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the stroke hazard ratio (HR) of metformin was .383. After adjustment for the patients' age, gender, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, and medications including antiplatelets, coumadin, statin, and estrogen use, the HR was still .468. Further stratified analysis revealed that metformin had more protective effect in the patients with higher risk of stroke. Therefore, metformin should be placed in priority when prescribing oral hypoglycemic agents for diabetic patients when considering stroke prevention according to our study.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: From ancient times, Dǎngshēn (Codonopsis javanica) has been used in Chinese traditional medicine. In this study we investigated the anti-hyperinsulinemia and antioxidant properties of C. javanica root extracts in a rat model of insulin resistance (IR), induced by chronic fructose feeding. Twenty-four Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into control, fructose-treated (10%, w/v), and fructose then C. javanica (Fru + Cod)-treated groups. After 8 weeks fructose feeding, increased fasting serum insulin levels (2.6 ± 0.45 μg/L) and insulin area under the curve confirmed the IR (p < 0.001). However, C. javanica treatment to fructose-fed rats significantly attenuated the hyperinsulinemia with correspondingly improved glucose tolerance. Weight gain in Fru + Cod group was comparably (p < 0.01) lower than in the fructose-fed group. Furthermore, IR-induced increased hepatic lipid peroxidation, as demonstrated by elevated malondialdehyde levels, were significantly (p < 0.001) alleviated by C. javanica treatment. These findings reveal that chronic fructose intake may facilitate IR and oxidative damage, which could be eradicated by improved antioxidant status. Accordingly, we found that C. javanica treatment significantly improved the antioxidant enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in the liver. These findings that fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia and associated oxidative stress could be attenuated by C. javanica root extracts.
    Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 09/2013; · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 107 colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 109 cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2013; · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Shu-Man Chen, Hsueh-Yi Lin, Chia-Hua Kuo
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    ABSTRACT: Under altitude hypoxia condition, energy reliance on anaerobic glycolysis increases to compensate the shortfall caused by reduced fatty acid oxidation. Short-term moderate altitude exposure plus endurance physical activity has been found to improve glucose tolerance (not fasting glucose) in humans, which is associated with the improvement in the whole-body insulin sensitivity. However, most of people cannot accommodate high altitude exposure above 4500 M due to acute mountain sickness (AMS) and insulin resistance. There is a wide variation among individuals in response to the altitude challenge. In particular, the improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by prolonged altitude hiking activity was not apparent in those individuals with low baseline DHEA-S concentration. In rats, exercise training recovery under prolonged hypoxia exposure (14-15% oxygen, 8 h per day for 6 weeks) can also improve insulin sensitivity, secondary to an effective suppression of adiposity. After prolonged hypoxia training, obese abnormality in upregulated baseline levels of AMPK and AS160 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle can be reversed. In humans, moderate hypoxia increases postprandial blood distribution towards skeletal muscle during a training recovery. This physiological response plays a role in the redistribution of fuel storage among important energy storage sites and may explain its potent effect on the favorable change in body composition. Conclusion: Altitude training can exert strong impact on our metabolic system, and has the potential to be designed as a non-pharmacological or recreational intervention regimen for correcting metabolic syndromes.
    The Chinese journal of physiology 08/2013; 56(4). · 0.75 Impact Factor
  • Chemical Research in Toxicology 06/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

480 Citations
225.20 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013–2014
    • Taipei University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • National Chiao Tung University
      • Department of Biological Science and Technology
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • I-Shou University
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    • China Medical University (ROC)
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2003–2014
    • Taipei Physical Education College
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2012–2013
    • Asia University
      • Department of Psychology
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2010–2013
    • National Yang Ming University
      • • Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology
      • • Department and Institute of Physiology
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Shih Chien University
      Kao-hsiung-shih, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
  • 2008–2013
    • China Medical University Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Chung Shan Medical University
      • Institute of Medicine
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Taichung Veterans General Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Changhua Christian Hospital
      Chang-hua Pei-pu, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • Toko University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2003–2013
    • Shih Hsin University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2004–2012
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Kinesiology and Health Education
      Texas City, TX, United States
    • Chang Gung Memorial Hospital
      • Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2011
    • National Taiwan Sport University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
    • National Taichung University of Education
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2008–2010
    • Kainan University
      Taoyuan City, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2009
    • Wan Fang Hospital
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Jen-Teh Junior College Of Medicine, Nursing And Management
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2006
    • Soochow University, Taiwan
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • National Chi Nan University
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2005
    • Vanung University
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Fu Jen Catholic University
      • Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences
      Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Chang Gung University
      Hsin-chu-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan