G Tosato

National Institutes of Health, Maryland, United States

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Publications (215)1554.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myeloid cells that orchestrate malignant progression in the tumor microenvironment offer targets for a generalized strategy to attack solid tumors. Through an analysis of tumor microenvironments, we explored an experimental model of lung cancer that uncovered a network of Dll4/Notch/TGF-β1 signals that links myeloid cells to cancer progression. Myeloid cells attracted to the tumor microenvironment by the tumor-derived cytokines CCL2 and M-CSF expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand Dll4, thereby activating Notch signaling in the tumor cells and amplifying intrinsic Notch activation there. Heightened Dll4/Notch signaling in tumor cells magnified TGF-β-induced pSMAD2/3 signaling and was required to sustain TGF-β-induced tumor cell growth. Conversely, Notch blockade reduced TGF-β signaling and limited lung carcinoma tumor progression. Corroborating these findings, interrogating RNAseq results from tumor and adjacent normal tissue in clinical specimens of human head and neck squamous carcinoma we found evidence that TGF-β/Notch crosstalk contributed to progression. In summary, the myeloid cell-carcinoma signaling network we describe uncovers novel mechanistic links between the tumor microenvironment and tumor growth, highlighting new opportunities to target tumors where this network is active.
    Cancer Research 02/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    Hidetaka Ohnuki, Giovanna Tosato
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    ABSTRACT: Cell signals integral to the tumor microenvironment influence cancer progression. Tumor-associated myeloid cells secrete pro-tumorigenic agents including, but not limited to, the potent cytokine transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). We have discovered a network of extrinsic signals including delta-like 4 (Dll4), Notch and TGFβ, linking malignant cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, a nexus portending a clinically-relevant anticancer treatment.
    Oncoimmunology. 01/2014; 3:e29029.
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Human IL-6 and a KSHV-encoded homolog, viral IL-6, have been hypothesized to contribute to its pathogenesis but their relative contributions to disease activity is not well understood. We prospectively characterized KSHV viral load (VL), viral (v) and human (h) IL-6, and other cytokines during KSHV-MCD flare and remission in 21 patients with 34 flares and 20 remissions. KSHV-VL, vIL-6, hIL-6 , IL-10, and to a lesser extent TNF-α, and IL-1β were each elevated during initial flares compared with remission. Flares fell into three distinct IL-6 profiles: those associated with elevations of vIL-6 only (2 flares, 6%), hIL-6 elevations only (17 flares, 50%), and elevations in both hIL-6 and vIL-6 (13 flares, 38%). Compared with hIL-6-only flares, flares with elevated hIL-6 plus vIL-6 exhibited higher CRP (P=0.0009); worse hyponatremia (P=0.02); higher KSHV VL (P=0.016) and higher IL-10 (P=0.012). This analysis shows vIL-6 and hIL-6 can independently or together lead KSHV-MCD flares, and suggests that vIL-6 and hIL-6 may jointly contribute to disease severity. These findings have implications for the development of novel KSHV-MCD therapies targeting IL-6 and its downstream signaling. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT099073.
    Blood 10/2013; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD) is a distinct lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by inflammatory symptoms, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly and cytopenia. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also called human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), is the cause of virtually all cases of MCD occurring in HIV-infected patients. MCD lesions characteristically contain HHV-8-infected polyclonal IgMλ plasmablasts. A high frequency of HHV-8-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been reported in these patients. We now report on three patients who presented with severe symptoms of MCD, extreme splenomegaly and rapid expansion of B-cell lymphocytosis (44-81%) attributable to circulating HHV-8 positive plasmablasts. The circulating plasmablastic cells shared the phenotype (IgMλ, CD19+, CD20-, CD138-) of HHV-8-infected cells from MCD lesions, mimicking the leukemic phase of large B-cell lymphoma occurring in HHV-8-related MCD, These patients displayed a very high HHV-8 viral load in blood (>7 logs HHV-8 DNA copies/ml) and high levels of serum vIL-6, the viral homolog of human interleukin 6. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 were also abnormally elevated. HHV-8-infected cells were demonstrated by immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis, to be polyclonal and likely represent an expansion of HHV-8-infected cells similar to those found in MCD lesions. Thus, the spectrum of HHV-8-related plasmablastic lymphoproliferative disorders in HIV-infected patients, is expanded to include HHV-8+ polyclonal IgMλ B-cell lymphocytosis. At onset, this lymphoproliferative disorder may mimick plasmablastic leukemia/lymphoma. Recognizing this unusual complication may have important implications in treatment decision avoiding unnecessary toxicity to the patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal Of Haematology 09/2013; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases mediate juxtacrine signals by interacting "in trans" with ligands anchored to the surface of neighboring cells via a GPI-anchor (ephrin-As) or a transmembrane segment (ephrin-Bs), which leads to receptor clustering and increased kinase activity. Additionally, soluble forms of the ephrin-A ligands released from the cell surface by matrix metalloproteases can also activate EphA receptor signaling. Besides these trans interactions, recent studies have revealed that Eph receptors and ephrins coexpressed in neurons can also engage in lateral "cis" associations that attenuate receptor activation by ephrins in trans with critical functional consequences. Despite the importance of the Eph/ephrin system in tumorigenesis, Eph receptor-ephrin cis interactions have not been previously investigated in cancer cells. Here we show that in cancer cells, coexpressed ephrin-A3 can inhibit the ability of EphA2 and EphA3 to bind ephrins in trans and become activated, while ephrin-B2 can inhibit not only EphB4 but also EphA3. The cis inhibition of EphA3 by ephrin-B2 implies that in some cases ephrins that cannot activate a particular Eph receptor in trans can nevertheless inhibit its signaling ability through cis association. We also found that an EphA3 mutation identified in lung cancer enhances cis interaction with ephrin-A3. These results suggest a novel mechanism that may contribute to cancer pathogenesis by attenuating the tumor suppressing effects of Eph receptor signaling pathways activated by ephrins in trans.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e81445. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) K13/vFLIP (viral Flice-inhibitory protein) induces transcription of numerous genes through NF-κB activation, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, which contribute to the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In this study, we report that KSHV vFLIP induces the expression of the NF-κB regulatory proteins A20, ABIN-1 and ABIN-3 (A20-binding NF-κB inhibitors) in primary human endothelial cells, and that KS spindle cells express A20 in KS tissue. In reporter assays, A20 strongly impaired vFLIP-induced NF-κB activation in 293T cells, but ABIN-1 and ABIN-3 did not. Mutational analysis established that the C-terminal domain (residues 427-790) is critical for A20 modulation of NF-κB, but the ubiquitin-editing OTU (ovarian tumor) domain is not. In functional assays, A20 inhibited vFLIP-induced expression of the chemokine IP-10, reduced vFLIP-induced cell proliferation and increased IKK1 protein levels. Thus, we demonstrate that A20 negatively regulates NF-κB activation directly induced by KSHV vFLIP. By attenuating excessive and prolonged vFLIP-induced NF-κB activation that could be harmful to KSHV-infected cells, A20 likely has an important role in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases, in which vFLIP is expressed.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 April 2012; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.145.
    Oncogene 04/2012; · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) or Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus is the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and plasma cell-type multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). HHV-8 encodes a viral homolog of human IL-6, called viral IL-6 (vIL-6), which does not require the cellular IL-6 receptor for binding to the ubiquitously expressed gp130 receptor subunit and subsequent JAK-STAT signaling. Thus, in contrast to IL-6, vIL-6 can stimulate virtually all cells in the body. To elucidate the mechanism by which vIL-6 drives human diseases, we generated transgenic mice that constitutively express vIL-6 under control of the MHC class I promoter. The mice were found to exhibit vIL-6 serum levels comparable with those observed in HHV-8-infected patients, to contain elevated amounts of phosphorylated STAT3 in spleen and lymph nodes, where vIL-6 was produced, and to spontaneously develop key features of human plasma cell-type MCD, including splenomegaly, multifocal lymphadenopathy, hypergammaglobulinemia, and plasmacytosis. Transfer of the vIL-6 transgene onto an IL-6-deficient genetic background abrogated MCD-like phenotypes, indicating that endogenous mouse IL-6 is a crucial cofactor in the natural history of the disease. Our results in mice suggest that human IL-6 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HHV-8-associated MCD.
    Blood 04/2012; 119(22):5173-81. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is now widely considered a pivotal contributor to cancer progression. In this study, we show that the Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a sufficient cause of EndMT, potentially helping to explain the aggressiveness of KS that occurs commonly in AIDS patients. Upon KSHV infection, primary dermal microvascular endothelial cells lost expression of endothelial markers and acquired expression of mesenchymal markers, displaying new invasive and migratory properties along with increased survival. KSHV activated Notch-induced transcription factors Slug and ZEB1, and canonical Notch signaling was required for KSHV-induced EndMT. In contrast, KSHV did not utilize the TGFβ signaling pathway, which has also been linked to EndMT. Within KS lesions, KSHV-infected spindle cells displayed features compatible with KSHV-induced EndMT including a complex phenotype of endothelial and mesenchymal properties, Notch activity, and nuclear ZEB1 expression. Our results show that KSHV engages the EndMT program to increase the invasiveness and survival of infected endothelial cells, traits that likely contribute to viral persistence and malignant progression. One important implication of our findings is that therapeutic approaches to disrupt the Notch pathway may offer novel approaches for KS treatment.
    Cancer Research 03/2012; 72(5):1157-69. · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is the primary means to acquire stem cell grafts for hematopoietic cell transplantation. Since hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells represent a minority of all blood cells mobilized by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, the underlying mechanisms need to be understood in order to develop selective drugs. We analyzed phenotypic, biochemical and genetic changes in bone marrow cell populations from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized and control mice, and linked such changes to effective mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor indirectly reduces expression of surface vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 on bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells by promoting the accumulation of microRNA-126 (miR126)-containing microvescicles in the bone marrow extracellular compartment. We found that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells readily incorporate these miR126-loaded microvescicles, and that miR126 represses vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression on bone marrow hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, stromal cells and endothelial cells. In line with this, miR126-null mice displayed a reduced mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Our results implicate miR126 in the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell trafficking between the bone marrow and peripheral sites, clarify the role of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mediated mobilization, and have important implications for improved approaches to selective mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.
    Haematologica 01/2012; 97(6):818-26. · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Formation of new vessels during development and in the mature mammal generally proceeds through angiogenesis. Although a variety of molecules and signaling pathways are known to underlie endothelial cell sprouting and remodeling during angiogenesis, many aspects of this complex process remain unexplained. Here we show that the transmembrane semaphorin6A (Sema6A) is expressed in endothelial cells, and regulates endothelial cell survival and growth by modulating the expression and signaling of VEGFR2, which is known to maintain endothelial cell viability by autocrine VEGFR signaling. The silencing of Sema6A in primary endothelial cells promotes cell death that is not rescued by exogenous VEGF-A or FGF2, attributable to the loss of pro-survival signaling from endogenous VEGF. Analyses of mouse tissues demonstrate that Sema6A is expressed in angiogenic and remodeling vessels. Mice with null mutations of Sema6A exhibit significant defects in hyaloid vessels complexity associated with increased endothelial cell death, and in retinal vessels development that is abnormally reduced. Adult Sema6A-null mice exhibit reduced tumor, Matrigel and choroidal angiogenesis compared to controls. Sema6A plays important roles in development of the nervous system. Here we show that it also regulates vascular development and adult angiogenesis.
    Blood 01/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    Ombretta Salvucci, Giovanna Tosato
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    ABSTRACT: Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their Ephrin ligands represent an important signaling system with widespread roles in cell physiology and disease. Receptors and ligands in this family are anchored to the cell surface; thus Eph/Ephrin interactions mainly occur at sites of cell-to-cell contact. EphB4 and EphrinB2 are the Eph/Ephrin molecules that play essential roles in vascular development and postnatal angiogenesis. Analysis of expression patterns and function has linked EphB4/EphrinB2 to endothelial cell growth, survival, migration, assembly, and angiogenesis. Signaling from these molecules is complex, with the potential for being bidirectional, emanating both from the Eph receptors (forward signaling) and from the Ephrin ligands (reverse signaling). In this review, we describe recent advances on the roles of EphB/EphrinB protein family in endothelial cell function and outline potential approaches to inhibit pathological angiogenesis based on this understanding.
    Advances in Cancer Research 01/2012; 114:21-57. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    Shuhei Sakakibara, Giovanna Tosato
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    ABSTRACT: Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) is a product of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expressed in latently infected cells and to a higher degree during viral replication. A distinctive feature of vIL-6 is the ability to directly bind and activate gp130 signaling in the absence of other receptor subunits. Secretion of vIL-6 is generally poor, but vIL-6 can activate gp130 from inside the cell. Due to the wide cell distribution of gp130, vIL-6 has the potential to induce a wide range of biological effects. Expression of vIL-6 is variable in KSHV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD), and in a newly described MCD-like systemic inflammatory syndrome observed in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. PEL effusions usually contain vIL-6 at high concentrations; since vIL-6 induces vascular endothelial growth factor, vIL-6 likely contributes to vascular permeability and formation of PEL effusions. Lymph nodes affected with MCD contain vIL-6-positive cells, and vIL-6 levels rise in conjunction with flares of the disease and likely contribute to symptoms of inflammation. The development of vIL-6 inhibitors is a potentially important advance in the treatment of KSHV-associated malignancies where vIL-6 is expressed.
    Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 07/2011; 31(11):791-801. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A precise identification of adult human hemangioblast is still lacking. To identify circulating precursors having the developmental potential of the hemangioblast, we established a new ex vivo long-term culture model supporting the differentiation of both hematopoietic and endothelial cell lineages. We identified from peripheral blood a population lacking the expression of CD34, lineage markers, CD45 and CD133 (CD34⁻Lin⁻CD45⁻CD133⁻ cells), endowed with the ability to differentiate after a 6-week culture into both hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. The bilineage potential of CD34⁻Lin⁻CD45⁻CD133⁻ cells was determined at the single-cell level in vitro and was confirmed by transplantation into NOD/SCID mice. In vivo, CD34⁻Lin⁻CD45⁻CD133⁻ cells showed the ability to reconstitute hematopoietic tissue and to generate functional endothelial cells that contribute to new vessel formation during tumor angiogenesis. Molecular characterization of CD34⁻Lin⁻D45⁻CD133⁻ cells unveiled a stem cell profile compatible with both hematopoietic and endothelial potentials, characterized by the expression of c-Kit and CXCR4 as well as EphB4, EphB2, and ephrinB2. Further molecular and functional characterization of CD34⁻Lin⁻CD45⁻CD133⁻ cells will help dissect their physiologic role in blood and blood vessel maintenance and repair in adult life.
    Blood 06/2011; 118(8):2105-15. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder most commonly observed in HIV-infected patients. It is characterized by KSHV-infected plasmablasts that frequently express lytic genes. Patients manifest inflammatory symptoms attributed to overproduction of KSHV viral IL-6, human IL-6, and human IL-6. There is no standard therapy and no established response criteria. We investigated an approach targeting 2 KSHV lytic genes, ORF36 and ORF21, the protein of which, respectively, phosphorylate ganciclovir and zidovudine to toxic moieties. In a pilot study, 14 HIV-infected patients with symptomatic KSHV-MCD received high-dose zidovudine (600 mg orally every 6 hours) and the oral prodrug, valganciclovir (900 mg orally every 12 hours). Responses were evaluated using new response criteria. A total of 86% of patients attained major clinical responses and 50% attained major biochemical responses. Median progression-free survival was 6 months. With 43 months of median follow-up, overall survival was 86% at 12 months and beyond. At the time of best response, the patients showed significant improvements in C-reactive protein, albumin, platelets, human IL-6, IL-10, and KSHV viral load. The most common toxicities were hematologic. These observations provide evidence that therapy designed to target cells with lytic KSHV replication has activity in KSHV-MCD. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00099073.
    Blood 04/2011; 117(26):6977-86. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EphB4 receptor tyrosine kinase together with its preferred ligand, ephrin-B2, regulates a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including tumor progression, pathological forms of angiogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and bone remodeling. We previously reported the identification of TNYL-RAW, a 15 amino acid-long peptide that binds to the ephrin-binding pocked of EphB4 with low nanomolar affinity and inhibits ephrin-B2 binding. Although ephrin-B2 interacts promiscuously with all the EphB receptors, the TNYL-RAW peptide is remarkably selective and only binds to EphB4. Therefore, this peptide is a useful tool for studying the biological functions of EphB4 and for imaging EphB4-expressing tumors. Furthermore, TNYL-RAW could be useful for treating pathologies involving EphB4-ephrin-B2 interaction. However, the peptide has a very short half-life in cell culture and in the mouse blood circulation due to proteolytic degradation and clearance by the kidneys and reticuloendothelial system. To overcome these limitations, we have modified TNYL-RAW by fusion with the Fc portion of human IgG1, complexation with streptavidin or covalent coupling to a 40 KDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer. These modified forms of TNYL-RAW all have greatly increased stability in cell culture, while retaining high binding affinity for EphB4. Furthermore, PEGylation most effectively increases peptide half-life in vivo. Consistent with increased stability, submicromolar concentrations of PEGylated TNYL-RAW effectively impair EphB4 activation by ephrin-B2 in cultured B16 melanoma cells as well as capillary-like tube formation and capillary sprouting in co-cultures of endothelial and epicardial mesothelial cells. Therefore, PEGylated TNYL-RAW may be useful for inhibiting pathological forms of angiogenesis through a novel mechanism involving disruption of EphB4-ephrin-B2 interactions between endothelial cells and supporting perivascular mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, the PEGylated peptide is suitable for other cell culture and in vivo applications requiring prolonged EphB4 receptor targeting.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e28611. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a gammaretrovirus linked to prostate carcinoma and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here we report that NF-κB activation can markedly increase XMRV production. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which activates NF-κB, significantly augmented viral Gag protein production in XMRV-infected cells. Reporter assays showed that TNF-α and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), an intrinsic NF-κB activator, increased long terminal repeat (LTR)-dependent XMRV transcription. We identified two NF-κB binding sites (designated κB-1 and κB-2) in the LTR U3 region of XMRV and demonstrated that both sites bind to the NF-κB component p65/RelA. Mutation of the κB-1 site, but not the κB-2 site, impaired responsiveness to TNF-α and LMP1 in reporter assays. A mutant XMRV with a mutation at the κB-1 site replicated significantly less efficiently than the wild-type XMRV in the prostate carcinoma LNCaP, DU145, and PC-3 cell lines, HEK293 cells, the EBV-immortalized cell line IB4, and the Burkitt's lymphoma cell line BJAB. These results demonstrate that TNF-α and EBV LMP1 enhance XMRV replication in prostate carcinoma and B-lineage cells through the κB-1 site in the XMRV LTR, suggesting that inflammation, EBV infection, and other conditions leading to NF-κB activation may promote XMRV spread in humans.
    Journal of Virology 01/2011; 85(7):3179-86. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ligand interaction with cognate cell-surface receptor often promotes receptor internalization, protecting cells from prolonged or excessive signaling from extracellular ligands. Compounds that induce internalization of surface receptors prevent ligand binding to cognate cell-surface receptors serving as inhibitors. Here, we show that synthetic polyriboguanosine (poly G) and oligo-deoxyriboguanosine (oligo G) reduce endothelial levels of surface neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a receptor shared by semaphorin 3A and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which plays critical roles in angiogenesis. Oligo G also reduces levels of cell-surface scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cells I (SREC-I), but not levels of NRP2, gp130, CD31, VEGFR-1, or VEGFR-2. Poly or oligo A, T, and C do not promote NRP1 or SREC-I internalization. We find that oligo G binds to NRP1 with high affinity (Kd:1.3 ± 0.16 nM), bridges the extracellular domain of NRP1 to that of SREC-I, and induces coordinate internalization of NRP1 and SREC-I. In vitro, oligo G blocks the binding and function of VEGF(165) in endothelial cells. In vivo, intravitreal administration of oligo G reduces choroidal neovascularization in mice. These results demonstrate that synthetic oligo G is an inhibitor of pathologic angiogenesis that reduces cell-surface levels and function of NRP1 acting as an internalization inducer.
    Blood 10/2010; 116(16):3099-107. · 9.78 Impact Factor
  • Giovanna Tosato, Marta Segarra, Ombretta Salvucci
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 09/2010; 102(18):1377-9. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Patients with KSHV-MCD develop fevers, wasting, hypoalbuminemia, cytopenias, and hyponatremia that are related to overproduction of KSHV-encoded viral interleukin (IL)-6 (vIL-6) and human IL-6 (hIL-6). We identified 6 HIV-infected patients with KS or serological evidence of KSHV infection who had severe inflammatory MCD-like symptoms but in whom we could not diagnose MCD, and we hypothesized that these symptoms resulted from vIL-6 overproduction. Serum vIL-6 levels were assessed in these 6 patients and compared with levels in 8 control patients with symptomatic KSHV-MCD and 32 control patients with KS. KSHV viral load, serum hIL-6 level, and human IL-10 level were also evaluated. Patients with inflammatory MCD-like symptoms but without MCD had elevated vIL-6 levels, comparable with levels in patients with symptomatic KSHV-MCD, and had levels that were significantly greater than those in control patients with KS (P = .003). Elevated hIL-6, IL-10, and KSHV viral loads were also comparable to patients with symptomatic KSHV-MCD and significantly greater than those with KS. A subset of patients with HIV and KSHV co-infection, but without MCD, can develop severe systemic inflammatory symptoms associated with elevated levels of KSHV vIL-6, IL-6, and KSHV viral loads. Excess lytic activation of KSHV, production of the lytic gene product vIL6, and associated immunologic dysregulation may underlie the pathophysiology of these symptoms. This IL-6-related inflammatory syndrome is important to consider in critically ill patients with HIV and KSHV co-infection.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 08/2010; 51(3):350-8. · 9.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) and the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) are individually essential for neutrophil differentiation from myeloid progenitors. Here, we provide evidence that the functions of Gfi1 and G-CSF are linked in the regulation of granulopoiesis. We report that Gfi1 promotes the expression of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), an exchange factor that activates Ras, and that RasGRP1 is required for G-CSF signaling through the Ras/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/Erk) pathway. Gfi1-null mice have reduced levels of RasGRP1 mRNA and protein in thymus, spleen, and bone marrow, and Gfi1 transduction in myeloid cells promotes RasGRP1 expression. When stimulated with G-CSF, Gfi1-null myeloid cells are selectively defective at activating Erk1/2, but not signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) or STAT3, and fail to differentiate into neutrophils. Expression of RasGRP1 in Gfi1-deficient cells rescues Erk1/2 activation by G-CSF and allows neutrophil maturation by G-CSF. These results uncover a previously unknown function of Gfi1 as a regulator of RasGRP1 and link Gfi1 transcriptional control to G-CSF signaling and regulation of granulopoiesis.
    Blood 03/2010; 115(19):3970-9. · 9.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,554.51 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1979–2014
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Laboratory of Cellular Oncology
      • • Center for Cancer Research
      • • Branch of Experimental Transplantation and Immunology
      • • Basic Research Laboratory
      • • Branch of Medical Genetics
      • • Laboratory of Pathology
      • • Laboratory of Immunology
      • • Branch of Metabolism
      • • Branch of Pediatric Oncology
      Maryland, United States
  • 1994–2013
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch
      • • Laboratory of Cellular Oncology
      • • Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch
      Maryland, United States
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2010
    • Leidos Biomedical Research
      Maryland, United States
  • 1988–2008
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • • Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
      • • Laboratory of Immunoregulation
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2007
    • Astellas Pharmaceutical
      Northbrook, Illinois, Japan
  • 2004
    • Translational Genomics Research Institute
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2001
    • American Society of Hematology
      American Fork, Utah, United States
  • 2000
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Pathology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 1995–1997
    • Children's National Medical Center
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1991
    • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1985
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States