Saad F Jazrawi

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

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Publications (17)94.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: While pancreatitis is uncommon in children, pseudocyst development can be a serious complication. Endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts is well established in adults. However, there are limited data regarding this procedure in a pediatric population. The objective of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided pseudocyst drainage in children. The study group included children (age <18 years) who presented for endoscopic drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts in whom endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) was performed. In those cases with EUS guidance, a 19-gauge needle was used to access the pseudocyst and place a guidewire under fluoroscopic visualization. Needle-knife diathermy and balloon dilation of the tract were performed with subsequent placement of double pig-tailed stents for drainage. Ten children with mean age of 11.8 years (range 4-17 years) were analyzed for pancreatic pseudocysts due to biliary pancreatitis (n = 4), trauma (n = 2), familial pancreatitis (n = 1), idiopathic pancreatitis (n = 2), and pancreas divisum (n = 1). In eight cases, EUS-guided puncture and stent placement was successful. In the remaining two cases, aspiration of cyst fluid until complete collapse was adequate. As experience increased with EUS examination in children, the therapeutic EUS scope alone was used in 50% of cases for the entire procedure. In all ten cases, successful transgastric endoscopic drainage of pseudocysts was achieved. Endoscopic drainage of symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts can be achieved safely in children. EUS guidance facilitates optimal site of puncture as well as placement of transmural stents.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 03/2011; 56(3):902-8. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pancreatitis is rare during pregnancy; limited data are available about maternal and fetal outcomes. We investigated the effects of acute pancreatitis during pregnancy on fetal outcome. This retrospective cohort study, performed at a single academic center, included consecutive pregnant women who presented with (n = 96) or developed acute pancreatitis in the hospital (n = 7) in 2000-2006 (mean age, 26 y). Patient histories and clinical data were collected from medical records. Of the 96 patients with spontaneous pancreatitis, 4 had complications: 1 patient in the first trimester had acute peripancreatic fluid collection, and 3 patients in the third trimester developed disseminated vascular coagulation (DIC). None of these patients achieved term pregnancy, and 1 of the patients with DIC died. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in 23 patients with acute pancreatitis; post-ERCP pancreatitis was diagnosed in 4 patients (a total of 11 patients developed ERCP-associated pancreatitis). Term pregnancy was achieved in 73 patients (80.2%). Patients who developed pancreatitis in the first trimester had the lowest percentage of term pregnancy (60%) and highest risks of fetal loss (20%) and preterm delivery (16%). Of the patients with pancreatitis in the second and third trimesters, only one had fetal loss. Fetal malformations were not observed. The majority of pregnant patients with acute pancreatitis did not have complications; most adverse fetal outcomes (fetal loss and preterm delivery) occurred during the first trimester. Acute pancreatitis, complicated by DIC, occurred most frequently in the third trimester and was associated with poor fetal and maternal outcomes.
    Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association 09/2009; 8(1):85-90. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2009; 69(2). · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of pancreatic cyst fluid analysis is to differentiate mucin-producing or malignant cysts from other cysts which have a benign course. K-ras-2 point mutation and at least two mutations of allelic imbalance or loss of heterozygosity with good quality DNA has been suggested to predict mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN). Elevated carcinogenic embryonic antigen (CEA) level in cyst fluid has also been shown to be predictive of mucinous or malignant cysts. Identify the clinical impact of DNA mutational analysis of pancreatic cyst fluid with its correlation to cyst fluid chemistry and histologic analysis. This retrospective analysis included all consecutive patients with pancreatic cysts who presented for evaluation by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA) over an 18 month period until November 2007. DNA analysis performed by Pathfinder TG (RedPath Integrated Pathology, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA, USA) and fluid CEA exceeding 192 ng/dL were used to suggest mucinous or malignant cysts. These parameters were compared to surgical histology or cytopathology of FNA specimens. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with cysts had samples submitted for DNA analysis which included 15 men and 12 women (mean age 62.8 and 61.3 years, respectively). In 20 patients, all parameters including cyst fluid, DNA analysis, and histology were available for comparison. Consistent findings were seen in 7/20 (35%) in which all parameters suggested negative benign findings. CEA level was elevated in 7 patients of which 4 had mucinous or malignant histology. In the remaining 13 patients with low CEA levels, 11 had negative histology. The sensitivity and specificity of CEA based on these results was 66% and 78.6% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) of CEA was 57% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 84.6%. K-ras-2 mutation was detected in 3 patients, absent in 17 patients and falsely negative in 4 cases based on histology. The sensitivity and specificity were 33% and 92.6% respectively. The PPV was 66% and NPV was 76%. Detection of loss of heterozygosity mutations was noted in 7 patients, of which 4 were falsely positive. In the remaining 13 patients, 3 were falsely negative. The sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 71% respectively. The PPV was 42.9% and NPV was 76.9%. In a group of 6 patients with available surgical histology demonstrating mucin-producing or malignant cysts, fluid CEA level had a sensitivity of 66.7%. However, K-ras-2 and loss of heterozygosity mutational analysis had a much lower sensitivity at 33% and 50% respectively. Consistency in histology, CEA levels, and K-ras-2 and loss of heterozygosity mutations was seen in only 35% of cases, all of which were benign cysts. In the detection of malignant cysts, elevated CEA levels were more predictive of histology in comparison to K-ras-2 or loss of heterozygosity mutations. Additionally, false positivity of loss of heterozygosity mutations was noted to be considerably higher than K-ras-2 mutations or even fluid CEA levels. These findings suggest that DNA mutation analysis should not be used routinely but rather selectively in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts.
    JOP: Journal of the pancreas 02/2009; 10(2):163-8.
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy 02/2009; 69(2):372-4. · 6.71 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 02/2009; 69(2). · 5.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnostic esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is generally a very safe procedure. We report the first case of iatrogenic esophageal submucosal dissection after an attempted diagnostic gastroscopy in a patient with a small previously undiagnosed Zenker's diverticulum (ZD). After EGD, she developed severe dysphagia with the inability to swallow solids, liquids, and even her own saliva. On barium swallow study, there was a column of contrast below the upper esophageal sphincter, and this was misdiagnosed as a large ZD by the radiologist. The resultant stricture was successfully managed with endoscopic balloon dilatation under fluoroscopy with wire-guided cannulation. The ZD was treated with flexible endoscopic clip-assisted diverticulotomy. Iatrogenic submucosal dissection is a unique complication of upper endoscopy. Endoscopists, otolaryngologists, radiologists, and cardiothoracic surgeons should be aware of this condition and prepare to manage it appropriately. If the patient is stable and the possibility of perforation is small, conservative and supportive care can be tried first. A surgical gastrostomy tube can be placed for enteral feeding. In patients with ZD, ZD recognition and gentle manipulation is strongly recommended during esophageal intubation.
    The Laryngoscope 01/2009; 119(1):36-8. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During fluoroscopy, radiologists and gastroenterologists are able to manipulate live fluoroscopic video for better orientation and visualization. During endoscopy and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), this function is not currently available. Particularly during NOTES, the endoscopic image is sometimes inverted, and off-axis operation is required. Our purpose was to develop and test a prototype live video manipulator (LVM) for endoscopy, laparoscopy, and NOTES. Prospective ex vivo and in vivo feasibility study. We developed a prototype LVM software for video image manipulation that can be easily installed on any computer. The video input is streamed into the computer and can be displayed on a standard monitor. LVM was tested ex vivo in the following functions: (1) instant live video rotation, (2) vertical or horizontal video inversion, (3) mirror imaging, and (4) digital zooming. These functions were also tested during upper and lower GI endoscopy, ERCP, diagnostic laparoscopy, and various transvaginal NOTES procedures (cholecystectomy, gastroenterostomy, and sleeve gastrectomy) in porcine models. Image quality observation between unmanipulated and manipulated live videos. LVM reliably and easily performed live video manipulation during these tests. Besides standard definition video signals, LVM is fully compatible with high-definition video endoscopy. Three observers reported that the subjective image quality was the same in specified areas between manipulated and unmanipulated live videos. Observation and feasibility study. LVM reliably and conveniently performed live video manipulations. LVM requires minimal equipment, capital investment, and maintenance, and is easy to set up. LVM can be a useful tool in many medical imaging studies, including endoscopy, laparoscopy, and NOTES, either as a built-in technology or as an as-needed add-on feature.
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 09/2008; 68(3):559-64. · 6.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In treating Zenker's diverticulum (ZD), there are potential risks associated with performing flexible endoscopic diverticulotomy without suturing or stapling. We recently introduced flexible endoscopic clip-assisted diverticulotomy (ECD) in treating ZD by securing the septum prior to dissection. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of ECD for complete septum dissection. Case series at an academic center. Seven consecutive patients (mean age 71 y; range 48-91 y) with symptomatic ZD of various craniocaudal sizes based on radiographic measurements (mean 2.6 cm; range 0.8 cm-4.5 cm) were included. The mean depth of the septum was 1.73 cm (range 0.3 cm-3.1 cm). The mean duration of symptoms was 4.8 years (range 0.5-10 y). After endoclips were placed on either side of the cricopharyngeal bar, the septum was dissected between these two clips down to the inferior end of the diverticulum with a needle-knife. Procedures including "one-step ECD" (n = 1), "stepwise ECD" (n = 3), and "bottom ECD" (n = 2) were performed based on the septum depth of the ZD during endoscopy. ECD was not performed on one patient due to severe mucosal fragility of the esophageal inlet. Iatrogenic blunt dissection of the septum by the endoscopic hood occurred secondary to patient retching during the procedure. Main outcome measurements were symptom resolution and complications. All patients (n = 6) who underwent ECD had complete resolution of esophageal symptoms at a minimum 6-month follow-up. There were no procedural complications. The patient who did not undergo ECD developed an esophageal perforation. She was managed conservatively without surgical intervention. On follow-up, her dysphagia was completely resolved. ECD is feasible, safe, and effective for complete septum dissection. ECD and endoscopic stapler-assisted diverticulotomy are complimentary rather than competing strategies in approaching ZD. Study limitations include the case series design and limited follow-up period.
    The Laryngoscope 08/2008; 118(7):1199-205. · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Shou-Jiang Tang, Saad F Jazrawi
    Gastroenterology 06/2008; 134(5):e7-8. · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Shou-jiang Tang, Linda Tang, Saad F Jazrawi
    Gastrointestinal endoscopy 06/2008; 68(4):786-9. · 6.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is the most commonly performed bariatric operation in the USA. We hypothesize that therapeutic endoscopy can be used to treat some unusual post-operative complications. We report two cases of early post-operative complications: (1) gastrogastrotomy (GG) stricture and (2) "trans-mesenteric tunnel" or "mesocolic" jejunal stricture. Endoscopic strictureplasty/revision of the gastric pouch of a bypass after gastroplasty was performed. The mesocolic stricture was managed with endoscopic dilatation using the achalasia dilating balloon under fluoroscopic and endoscopic guidance. With endotherapy, the patient with the GG stricture did not require re-operation, and there were no complications or stricture recurrence. The patient with mesocolic stricture responded short-term to endotherapy but ultimately required surgical adhesion lysis. None of these patients developed any procedure-related complications. Thus, in patients with unusual post-operative complications after RYGBP, endotherapy may be useful when there is good collaboration between the endoscopist and the surgeon.
    Obesity Surgery 05/2008; 18(4):423-8. · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2008; 67(5). · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2008; 67(5). · 5.21 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2008; 134(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor
  • Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, ISSN 0016-5107. 01/2008; 68(3):559-564.
  • Gastroenterology 01/2008; 134(4). · 12.82 Impact Factor