Laurence Slutsker

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (180)1164.27 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in HIV-negative pregnant women, but it is contraindicated in HIV-infected women taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CTXp) because of potential added risk of adverse effects associated with taking two antifolate drugs simultaneously. We studied the safety and efficacy of mefloquine (MQ) in women receiving CTXp and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLITNs).
    PLoS Medicine 09/2014; 11(9):e1001735. · 15.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent global malaria burden modeling efforts have produced significantly different estimates, particularly in adult malaria mortality. To measure malaria control progress, accurate malaria burden estimates across age groups are necessary. We determined age-specific malaria mortality rates in western Kenya to compare with recent global estimates. We collected data from 148,000 persons in a health and demographic surveillance system from 2003-2010. Standardized verbal autopsies were conducted for all deaths; probable cause of death was assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Annual malaria mortality rates per 1,000 person-years were generated by age group. Trends were analyzed using Poisson regression. From 2003-2010, in children <5 years the malaria mortality rate decreased from 13.2 to 3.7 per 1,000 person-years; the declines were greatest in the first three years of life. In children 5-14 years, the malaria mortality rate remained stable at 0.5 per 1,000 person-years. In persons ≥15 years, the malaria mortality rate decreased from 1.5 to 0.4 per 1,000 person-years. The malaria mortality rates in young children and persons aged ≥15 years decreased dramatically from 2003-2010 in western Kenya, but rates in older children have not declined. Sharp declines in some age groups likely reflect the national scale up of malaria control interventions and rapid expansion of HIV prevention services. These data highlight the importance of age-specific malaria mortality ascertainment and support current strategies to include all age groups in malaria control interventions.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e106197. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessing the progress in achieving the United Nation's Millennium Development Goals in terms of population health requires consistent and reliable information on cause-specific mortality, which is often rare in resource-constrained countries. Health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS) have largely used medical personnel to review and assign likely causes of death based on the information gathered from standardized verbal autopsy (VA) forms. However, this approach is expensive and time consuming, and it may lead to biased results based on the knowledge and experience of individual clinicians. We assessed the cause-specific mortality for children under 5 years old (under-5 deaths) in Siaya County, obtained from a computer-based probabilistic model (InterVA-4).
    Global Health Action 01/2014; 7:25581. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. OBJECTIVE: To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. DESIGN: From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992-2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006-2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. RESULTS: Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years) and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years). Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the details of malaria epidemiology.
    Global Health Action 01/2014; 7:25369. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses full and timely vaccination coverage and factors associated with full vaccination in children ages 12-23 months in Gem, Nyanza Province, Kenya in 2003. A simple random sample of 1,769 households was selected, and guardians were invited to bring children under 5 years of age to participate in a survey. Full vaccination coverage was 31.1% among 244 children. Only 2.2% received all vaccinations in the target month for each vaccination. In multivariate logistic regression, children of mothers of higher parity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.27, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.13-0.65, P ≤ 0.01), children of mothers with lower maternal education (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.13-0.97, P ≤ 0.05), or children in households with the spouse absent versus present (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.17-0.91, P ≤ 0.05) were less likely to be fully vaccinated. These data serve as a baseline from which changes in vaccination coverage will be measured as interventions to improve vaccination timeliness are introduced.
    The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mass drug administration (MDA), defined as the empiric administration of a therapeutic antimalarial regimen to an entire population at the same time, has been a historic component of many malaria control and elimination programmes, but is not currently recommended. With renewed interest in MDA and its role in malaria elimination, this review aims to summarize the findings from existing research studies and program experiences of MDA strategies for reducing malaria burden and transmission. To assess the impact of antimalarial MDA on population asexual parasitaemia prevalence, parasitaemia incidence, gametocytaemia prevalence, anaemia prevalence, mortality and MDA-associated adverse events. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE+, EMBASE, to February 2013. We also searched CABS Abstracts, LILACS, reference lists, and recent conference proceedings. Cluster-randomized trials and non-randomized controlled studies comparing therapeutic MDA versus placebo or no MDA, and uncontrolled before-and-after studies comparing post-MDA to baseline data were selected. Studies administering intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) to sub-populations (for example, pregnant women, children or infants) were excluded. Two authors independently reviewed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Studies were stratified by study design and then subgrouped by endemicity, by co-administration of 8-aminoquinoline plus schizonticide drugs and by plasmodium species. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Two cluster-randomized trials, eight non-randomized controlled studies and 22 uncontrolled before-and-after studies are included in this review. Twenty-two studies (29 comparisons) compared MDA to placebo or no intervention of which two comparisons were conducted in areas of low endemicity (≤5%), 12 in areas of moderate endemicity (6-39%) and 15 in areas of high endemicity (≥ 40%). Ten studies evaluated MDA plus other vector control measures. The studies used a wide variety of MDA regimens incorporating different drugs, dosages, timings and numbers of MDA rounds. Many of the studies are now more than 30 years old. Areas of low endemicity (≤5%)Within the first month post-MDA, a single uncontrolled before-and-after study conducted in 1955 on a small Taiwanese island reported a much lower prevalence of parasitaemia following a single course of chloroquine compared to baseline (1 study, very low quality evidence). This lower parasite prevalence was still present after more than 12 months (one study, very low quality evidence). In addition, one cluster-randomized trial evaluating MDA in a low endemic setting reported zero episodes of parasitaemia at baseline, and throughout five months of follow-up in both the control and intervention arms (one study, very low quality evidence). Areas of moderate endemicity (6-39%)Within the first month post-MDA, the prevalence of parasitaemia was much lower in three non-randomized controlled studies from Kenya and India in the 1950s (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.08, three studies, moderate quality evidence), and in three uncontrolled before-and-after studies conducted between 1954 and 1961 (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.48, three studies,low quality evidence).The longest follow-up in these settings was four to six months. At this time point, the prevalence of parasitaemia remained substantially lower than controls in the two non-randomized controlled studies (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.33, two studies, low quality evidence). In contrast, the two uncontrolled before-and-after studies found mixed results: one found no difference and one found a substantially higher prevalence compared to baseline (not pooled, two studies, very low quality evidence). Areas of high endemicity (≥40%)Within the first month post-MDA, the single cluster-randomized trial from the Gambia in 1999 found no significant difference in parasite prevalence (one study, low quality evidence). However, prevalence was much lower during the MDA programmes in three non-randomized controlled studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.27, three studies, moderate quality evidence), and within one month of MDA in four uncontrolled before-and-after studies (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.49, four studies,low quality evidence).Four trials reported changes in prevalence beyond three months. In the Gambia, the single cluster-randomized trial found no difference at five months (one trial, moderate quality evidence). The three uncontrolled before-and-after studies had mixed findings with large studies from Palestine and Cambodia showing sustained reductions at four months and 12 months, respectively, and a small study from Malaysia showing no difference after four to six months of follow-up (three studies,low quality evidence). 8-aminoquinolinesWe found no studies directly comparing MDA regimens that included 8-aminoquinolines with regimens that did not. In a crude subgroup analysis with a limited number of studies, we were unable to detect any evidence of additional benefit of primaquine in moderate- and high-transmission settings. Plasmodium speciesIn studies that reported species-specific outcomes, the same interventions resulted in a larger impact on Plasmodium falciparum compared to P. vivax. MDA appears to reduce substantially the initial risk of malaria parasitaemia. However, few studies showed sustained impact beyond six months post-MDA, and those that did were conducted on small islands or in highland settings.To assess whether there is an impact of MDA on malaria transmission in the longer term requires more quasi experimental studies with the intention of elimination, especially in low- and moderate-transmission settings. These studies need to address any long-term outcomes, any potential barriers for community uptake, and contribution to the development of drug resistance.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 12/2013; 12:CD008846. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although several studies have investigated the impact of reduced malaria transmission due to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the patterns of morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on their effect on parasite diversity. Sequencing was used to investigate the effect of ITNs on polymorphisms in two genes encoding leading Plasmodium falciparum vaccine candidate antigens, the 19 kilodalton blood stage merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-119kDa) and the Th2R and Th3R T-cell epitopes of the pre-erythrocytic stage circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in a large community-based ITN trial site in western Kenya. The number and frequency of haplotypes as well as nucleotide and haplotype diversity were compared among parasites obtained from children <5 years old prior to the introduction of ITNs (1996) and after 5 years of high coverage ITN use (2001). A total of 12 MSP-119kDa haplotypes were detected in 1996 and 2001. The Q-KSNG-L and E-KSNG-L haplotypes corresponding to the FVO and FUP strains of P. falciparum were the most prevalent (range 32--37%), with an overall haplotype diversity of > 0.7. No MSP-119kDa 3D7 sequence-types were detected in 1996 and the frequency was less than 4% in 2001. The CSP Th2R and Th3R domains were highly polymorphic with a total of 26 and 14 haplotypes, respectively detected in 1996 and 34 and 13 haplotypes in 2001, with an overall haplotype diversity of > 0.9 and 0.75 respectively. The frequency of the most predominant Th2R and Th3R haplotypes was 14 and 36%, respectively. The frequency of Th2R and Th3R haplotypes corresponding to the 3D7 parasite strain was less than 4% at both time points. There was no significant difference in nucleotide and haplotype diversity in parasite isolates collected at both time points. High diversity in these two genes has been maintained overtime despite marked reductions in malaria transmission due to ITNs use. The frequency of 3D7 sequence-types was very low in this area. These findings provide information that could be useful in the design of future malaria vaccines for deployment in endemic areas with high ITN coverage and in interpretation of efficacy data for malaria vaccines based on 3D7 parasite strains.
    Malaria Journal 08/2013; 12(1):295. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Global health reflects the realities of globalization, including worldwide dissemination of infectious and noninfectious public health risks. Global health architecture is complex and better coordination is needed between multiple organizations. Three overlapping themes determine global health action and prioritization: development, security, and public health. These themes play out against a background of demographic change, socioeconomic development, and urbanization. Infectious diseases remain critical factors, but are no longer the major cause of global illness and death. Traditional indicators of public health, such as maternal and infant mortality rates no longer describe the health status of whole societies; this change highlights the need for investment in vital registration and disease-specific reporting. Noncommunicable diseases, injuries, and mental health will require greater attention from the world in the future. The new global health requires broader engagement by health organizations and all countries for the objectives of health equity, access, and coverage as priorities beyond the Millennium Development Goals are set.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 08/2013; 19(8):1192-7. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was adopted as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Kenya in 2006. Monitoring drug efficacy at regular intervals is essential to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The efficacy of AL and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) were evaluated for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children aged six to 59 months in western Kenya. From October 2010 to August 2011, children with fever or history of fever with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection were enrolled in an in vivo efficacy trial in accordance with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The children were randomized to treatment with a three-day course of AL or DP and efficacy outcomes were measured at 28 and 42 days after treatment initiation. A total of 137 children were enrolled in each treatment arm. There were no early treatment failures and all children except one had cleared parasites by day 3. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-uncorrected adequate clinical and parasitological response rate (ACPR) was 61% in the AL arm and 83% in the DP arm at day 28 (p = 0.001). PCR-corrected ACPR at day 28 was 97% in the AL group and 99% in the DP group, and it was 96% in both arms at day 42. AL and DP remain efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children in western Kenya. The longer half-life of piperaquine relative to lumefantrine may provide a prophylactic effect, accounting for the lower rate of re-infection in the first 28 days after treatment in the DP arm.
    Malaria Journal 07/2013; 12(1):254. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scale-up of malaria control interventions has resulted in a substantial decline in global malaria morbidity and mortality. Despite this achievement, there is evidence that current interventions alone will not lead to malaria elimination in most malaria-endemic areas and additional strategies need to be considered. Use of antimalarial drugs to target the reservoir of malaria infection is an option to reduce the transmission of malaria between humans and mosquito vectors. However, a large proportion of human malaria infections are asymptomatic, requiring treatment that is not triggered by care-seeking for clinical illness. This article reviews the evidence that asymptomatic malaria infection plays an important role in malaria transmission and that interventions to target this parasite reservoir may be needed to achieve malaria elimination in both low- and high-transmission areas.
    Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 06/2013; 11(6):623-39. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    Laurence Slutsker, S Patrick Kachur
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    ABSTRACT: April 25 marks World Malaria Day, an opportunity for those who work to defeat the illness, to review progress and renew commitments. After a decade of steady success, this year's commemoration of the date is also an opportunity to reconsider current approaches and assess the state of the science needed to keep pace in the global effort to combat malaria.
    Malaria Journal 04/2013; 12(1):140. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet Infectious Diseases 04/2013; 13(4):292. · 19.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) GM and KM allotypes, genetic markers of γ and κ chains, are associated with humoral immune responsiveness. Previous studies have shown the relationships between GM6-carrying haplotypes and susceptibility to malaria infection in children and adults; however, the role of the genetic markers in placental malaria (PM) infection and PM with HIV co-infection during pregnancy has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between the gene polymorphisms of Ig GM6 and KM allotypes and the risk of PM infection in pregnant women with known HIV status. DNA samples from 728 pregnant women were genotyped for GM6 and KM alleles using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Individual GM6 and KM genotypes and the combined GM6 and KM genotypes were assessed in relation to PM in HIV-1 negative and positive women, respectively. There was no significant effect of individual GM6 and KM genotypes on the risk of PM infection in HIV-1 negative and positive women. However, the combination of homozygosity for GM6(+) and KM3 was associated with decreased risk of PM (adjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.8; P = 0.019) in HIV-1 negative women while in HIV-1 positive women the combination of GM6(+/-) with either KM1-3 or KM1 was associated with increased risk of PM infection (adjusted OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.18-3.73; P = 0.011). Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) tests further showed an overall significant positive F(is) (indication of deficit in heterozygotes) for GM6 while there was no deviation for KM genotype frequency from HWE in the same population. These findings suggest that the combination of homozygous GM6(+) and KM3 may protect against PM in HIV-1 negative women while the HIV-1 positive women with heterozygous GM6(+/-) combined with KM1-3 or KM1 may be more susceptible to PM infection. The deficit in heterozygotes for GM6 further suggests that GM6 could be under selection likely by malaria infection.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53948. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information on trauma-related deaths in low and middle income countries is limited but needed to target public health interventions. Data from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) were examined to characterise such deaths in rural western Kenya. Verbal autopsy data were analysed. Of 11,147 adult deaths between 2003 and 2008, 447 (4%) were attributed to trauma; 71% of these were in males. Trauma contributed 17% of all deaths in males 15 to 24 years; on a population basis mortality rates were greatest in persons over 65 years. Intentional causes accounted for a higher proportion of male than female deaths (RR 2.04, 1.37-3.04) and a higher proportion of deaths of those aged 15 to 65 than older people. Main causes in males were assaults (n=79, 25%) and road traffic injuries (n=47, 15%); and falls for females (n=17, 13%). A significantly greater proportion of deaths from poisoning (RR 5.0, 2.7-9.4) and assault (RR 1.8, 1.2-2.6) occurred among regular consumers of alcohol than among non-regular drinkers. In multivariate analysis, males had a 4-fold higher risk of death from trauma than females (Adjusted Relative Risk; ARR 4.0; 95% CI 1.7-9.4); risk of a trauma death rose with age, with the elderly at 7-fold higher risk (ARR 7.3, 1.1-49.2). Absence of care was the strongest predictor of trauma death (ARR 12.2, 9.4-15.8). Trauma-related deaths were higher among regular alcohol drinkers (ARR 1.5, 1.1-1.9) compared with non-regular drinkers. While trauma accounts for a small proportion of deaths in this rural area with a high prevalence of HIV, TB and malaria, preventive interventions such as improved road safety, home safety strategies for the elderly, and curbing harmful use of alcohol, are available and could help diminish this burden. Improvements in systems to record underlying causes of death from trauma are required.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79840. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy-related (PR) deaths are often a result of direct obstetric complications occurring at childbirth. To estimate the burden of and characterize risk factors for PR mortality, we evaluated deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2008 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years) using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data in rural western Kenya. WHO ICD definition of PR mortality was used: "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death". In addition, symptoms and events at the time of death were examined using the WHO verbal autopsy methodology. Deaths were categorized as either (i) directly PR: main cause of death was ascribed as obstetric, or (ii) indirectly PR: main cause of death was non-obstetric. Of 3,223 deaths in women 15 to 49 years, 249 (7.7%) were PR. One-third (34%) of these were due to direct obstetric causes, predominantly postpartum hemorrhage, abortion complications and puerperal sepsis. Two-thirds were indirect; three-quarters were attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS), malaria and tuberculosis. Significantly more women who died in lower socio-economic groups sought care from traditional birth attendants (p = 0.034), while less impoverished women were more likely to seek hospital care (p = 0.001). The PR mortality ratio over the six years was 740 (95% CI 651-838) per 100,000 live births, with no evidence of reduction over time (χ(2) linear trend = 1.07; p = 0.3). These data supplement current scanty information on the relationship between infectious diseases and poor maternal outcomes in Africa. They indicate low uptake of maternal health interventions in women dying during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting improved access to and increased uptake of skilled obstetric care, as well as preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis among all women of childbearing age may help to reduce pregnancy-related mortality.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e68733. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization met in Geneva, Switzerland from 11 to 13 September, 2012. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting. Meeting sessions included: updated policy recommendations on the use of sulphadoxinepyrimethamine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of malaria in pregnancy, as well as the use of single dose primaquine as a Plasmodium falciparum gametocytocide; the need to develop a Global Technical Strategy for Malaria Control and Elimination 2016- 2025 and a global strategy for control of Plasmodium vivax; the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria independent evaluation and promoting malaria case management in the private sector; updates from the Technical Expert Group on drug resistance and containment and the Evidence Review Group on malaria burden estimation; update on the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine; progress on the policy setting process for malaria vector control; and the process for updating the WHO Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Policy statements, position statements, and guidelines that arise from the MPAC meeting conclusions and recommendations will be formally issued and disseminated to World Health Organization Member States by the World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme.
    Malaria Journal 12/2012; 11(1):424. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The candidate malaria vaccine RTS,S/AS01 reduced episodes of both clinical and severe malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age by approximately 50% in an ongoing phase 3 trial. We studied infants 6 to 12 weeks of age recruited for the same trial. Methods We administered RTS,S/AS01 or a comparator vaccine to 6537 infants who were 6 to 12 weeks of age at the time of the first vaccination in conjunction with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) vaccines in a three-dose monthly schedule. Vaccine efficacy against the first or only episode of clinical malaria during the 12 months after vaccination, a coprimary end point, was analyzed with the use of Cox regression. Vaccine efficacy against all malaria episodes, vaccine efficacy against severe malaria, safety, and immunogenicity were also assessed. Results The incidence of the first or only episode of clinical malaria in the intention-to-treat population during the 14 months after the first dose of vaccine was 0.31 per person-year in the RTS,S/AS01 group and 0.40 per person-year in the control group, for a vaccine efficacy of 30.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.6 to 36.1). Vaccine efficacy in the per-protocol population was 31.3% (97.5% CI, 23.6 to 38.3). Vaccine efficacy against severe malaria was 26.0% (95% CI, −7.4 to 48.6) in the intention-to-treat population and 36.6% (95% CI, 4.6 to 57.7) in the per-protocol population. Serious adverse events occurred with a similar frequency in the two study groups. One month after administration of the third dose of RTS,S/AS01, 99.7% of children were positive for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies, with a geometric mean titer of 209 EU per milliliter (95% CI, 197 to 222). Conclusions The RTS,S/AS01 vaccine coadministered with EPI vaccines provided modest protection against both clinical and severe malaria in young infants. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative; RTS,S ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00866619.)
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2012; 367(367):2284-2295. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The KEMRI/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in Rarieda, Siaya and Gem Districts (Siaya County), lying northeast of Lake Victoria in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. The KEMRI/CDC HDSS, with approximately 220 000 inhabitants, has been the foundation for a variety of studies, including evaluations of insecticide-treated bed nets, burden of diarrhoeal disease and tuberculosis, malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, treatment strategies and immunological correlates of malaria infection, and numerous HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrhoeal disease treatment and vaccine efficacy and effectiveness trials for more than a decade. Current studies include operations research to measure the uptake and effectiveness of the programmatic implementation of integrated malaria control strategies, HIV services, newly introduced vaccines and clinical trials. The HDSS provides general demographic and health information (such as population age structure and density, fertility rates, birth and death rates, in- and out-migrations, patterns of health care access and utilization and the local economics of health care) as well as disease- or intervention-specific information. The HDSS also collects verbal autopsy information on all deaths. Studies take advantage of the sampling frame inherent in the HDSS, whether at individual, household/compound or neighbourhood level.
    International Journal of Epidemiology 08/2012; 41(4):977-87. · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission and health outcomes requires accurate estimates of exposure to infectious mosquitoes. However, measures of exposure such as mosquito density and entomological inoculation rate (EIR) are generally aggregated over large areas and time periods, biasing the outcome-exposure relationship. There are few studies examining the extent and drivers of local variation in malaria exposure in endemic areas. We describe the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria transmission intensity measured by mosquito density and EIR in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system using entomological data collected during 2002-2004. Geostatistical zero inflated binomial and negative binomial models were applied to obtain location specific (house) estimates of sporozoite rates and mosquito densities respectively. Model-based predictions were multiplied to estimate the spatial pattern of annual entomological inoculation rate, a measure of the number of infective bites a person receive per unit of time. The models included environmental and climatic predictors extracted from satellite data, harmonic seasonal trends and parameters describing space-time correlation. Anopheles gambiae s.l was the main vector species accounting for 86% (n=2309) of the total mosquitoes collected with the remainder being Anopheles funestus. Sixty eight percent (757/1110) of the surveyed houses had no mosquitoes. Distance to water bodies, vegetation and day temperature were strongly associated with mosquito density. Overall annual point estimates of EIR were 6.7, 9.3 and 9.6 infectious bites per annum for 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively. Monthly mosquito density and EIR varied over the study period peaking in May during the wet season each year. The predicted and observed densities of mosquitoes and EIR showed a strong seasonal and spatial pattern over the study area. Spatio-temporal maps of malaria transmission intensity obtained in this study are not only useful in understanding variability in malaria epidemiology over small areas but also provide a high resolution exposure surface that can be used to analyse the impact of transmission on malaria related and all-cause morbidity and mortality.
    Parasites & Vectors 04/2012; 5:86. · 3.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

9k Citations
1,164.27 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • • Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria
      • • Division of Vector-Borne Diseases
      • • Division of Bacterial Diseases
      • • National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
      Atlanta, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • KEMRI / CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration
      Winam, Kisumu, Kenya
  • 2012
    • Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • PATH
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • CRESIB Barcelona Centre for International Health Research
      • Barcelona Centre for International Health Research
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2010
    • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2004–2010
    • Kenya Medical Research Institute
      • Centre for Global Health Research
      Nairobi, Nairobi Province, Kenya
  • 2006–2009
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Faculty of Medicine AMC
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme
      Kilifi, Kilifi, Kenya
    • Centers for Disease Control, Lesotho
      Maseru, Maseru, Lesotho
  • 2007
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Academic Medical Center
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1998–2006
    • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
      Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • Tulane University
      New Orleans, Louisiana, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • Kenya Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      Winam, Kisumu, Kenya
  • 2001
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • State of California
      California City, California, United States
  • 2000
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Division of General Internal Medicine
      San Francisco, CA, United States
  • 1999
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Pediatrics
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • University of Georgia
      • Department of Food Science and Technology
      Athens, GA, United States
  • 1994
    • Ministry of Health, Malawi
      Lilongwe, Central Region, Malawi