[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiestrogens including tamoxifen and fulvestrant have been evaluated as chemotherapeutics for ovarian cancer, particularly in cases of platinum resistant disease. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is highly overexpressed in women with ovarian cancer and overexpression of HE4 has been found to correlate with platinum resistance. However, the role of HE4 in modulating responses to hormones and hormonal therapy has not been characterized in ovarian cancer. Here we demonstrate that 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen, and fulvestrant induce nuclear and nucleolar translocation of HE4 and that HE4 overexpression induces resistance to antiestrogens. HE4 was found to interact with estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and HE4 overexpression resulted in ER-α downregulation in vitro and in human ovarian cancers. We identified a novel role for importin-4 in governing the nuclear transport of HE4. Treatment with ivermectin, an importin inhibitor, blocked HE4/importin-4 nuclear accumulation and sensitized HE4-overexpressing ovarian cancer cells to fulvestrant and tamoxifen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
The objective of this study was to examine SLN evaluation alone in women with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vulva and evaluate the inguinal recurrence and complication rates.
An IRB approved prospective study enrolled patients with SCC of the vulva. Peritumoral injection of Tc-99 sulfur colloid and blue dye was used to identify SLNs intraoperatively. Patients with negative SLN for metastasis were followed clinically without further treatment. Patients with metastasis to a SLN underwent full groin node dissection followed by standard treatment protocols.
A total of 73 women were enrolled onto protocol with 69 patients undergoing SLN dissection. Mean age was 66.9 years (Range: 29–91) with 47 stage I, 12 stage II, 9 stage III, 2 stage IV and 3 unstaged patients. SLN dissections were successful in 63 patients. Of the 111 groins evaluated with a SLN dissection 93% had a SLN identified with an average of 2 SLN per groin. There were 92 groins with negative SLN and 11 groins with positive SLN. 57 patients had negative SLN and underwent conservative management with the median follow-up of 58.3 months. Three patients experienced groin recurrences (2 unilateral, 1 bilateral) for a recurrence rate of 5.2% (3/57). The complication rate for the inguinal incisions was 17.5% (1 cellulitis, 1 abscess, 2 lymphoceles, 5 lymphedema and leg pain).
Isolated SLN dissection alone has a low inguinal recurrence rate with decreased complications and should be considered as an option for women with SCC of the vulva.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective overexpression of Human epididymal secretory protein E4 (HE4) points to a role in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis but little is known about the role the HE4 gene or the gene product plays. Here we show that elevated HE4 serum levels correlate with chemoresistance and decreased survival rates in EOC patients. HE4 overexpression promoted xenograft tumor growth and chemoresistance against cisplatin in an animal model resulting in reduced survival rates. HE4 displayed responses to tumor microenvironment constituents and presented increased expression as well as nuclear translocation upon EGF, VEGF and Insulin treatment and nucleolar localization with Insulin treatment. HE4 interacts with EGFR, IGF1R, and transcription factor HIF1α. Constructs of antisense phosphorothio-oligonucleotides targeting HE4 arrested tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively these findings implicate increased HE4 expression as a molecular factor in ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Selective targeting directed towards the HE4 protein demonstrates therapeutic benefits for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
(s): Recurrence following primary platinum-based chemotherapy remains a challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This study examines whether a chemoresponse assay can identify patients who are platinum-resistant prior to treatment.
Women (n=276) with FIGO stage III-IV ovarian, fallopian and peritoneal cancer were enrolled in an observational study, and the responsiveness of their tumors was evaluated using a chemoresponse assay. All patients were treated with a platinum/taxane regimen following cytoreductive surgery. Assay responses to carboplatin (C) or paclitaxel (P) were classified as sensitive (S), intermediate sensitive (IS), or resistant (R). Association of assay response with progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox regression model.
Patients whose tumors were R to C were at increased risk of disease progression compared to those with non-R (S+IS) tumors (median PFS: 11.8 vs. 16.6 months, respectively, p<0.001), and the association was confirmed after adjusting for other clinical factors (HR=1.71, 95% CI=1.12-2.62, p=0.013). Association of assay response to P with PFS trended in multivariate analysis (HR=1.28, 95% CI=0.84-1.95, p=0.245). For tumors R to C, 59% were S or IS to at least one other commonly used agent, demonstrating the ability of the assay to inform treatment decisions beyond the standard platinum/taxane regimen.
(s): Assay resistance to C is strongly associated with shortened PFS among advanced stage EOC patients treated with C+P therapy, supporting use of this assay to identify patients likely to experience early recurrence on standard platinum-based therapy.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 01/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercalcemia remains a major impediment to the clinical use of vitamin D in cancer treatment. Approaches to remove hypercalcemia and development of nonhypercalcemic agents can lead to the development of vitamin D-based therapies for treatment of various cancers. In this report, in vitro and in vivo anticancer efficacy, safety, and details of vitamin D receptor (VDR) interactions of PT19c, a novel nonhypercalcemic vitamin D derived anticancer agent, are described. PT19c was synthesized by bromoacetylation of PTAD-ergocalciferol adduct. Broader growth inhibitory potential of PT19c was evaluated in a panel of chemoresistant breast, renal, ovarian, lung, colon, leukemia, prostate, melanoma, and central nervous system cancers cell line types of NCI60 cell line panel. Interactions of PT19c with VDR were determined by a VDR transactivation assay in a VDR overexpressing VDR-UAS-bla-HEK293 cells, in vitro VDR-coregulator binding, and molecular docking with VDR-ligand binding domain (VDR-LBD) in comparison with calcitriol. Acute toxicity of PT19c was determined in nontumored mice. In vivo antitumor efficacy of PT19c was determined via ovarian and endometrial cancer xenograft experiments. Effect of PT19c on actin filament organization and focal adhesion formation was examined by microscopy. PT19c treatment inhibited growth of chemoresistant NCI60 cell lines (log10GI50 ~ -4.05 to -6.73). PT19c (10 mg/kg, 35 days) reduced growth of ovarian and endometrial xenograft tumor without hypercalcemia. PT19c exerted no acute toxicity up to 400 mg/kg (QDx1) in animals. PT19c showed weak VDR antagonism, lack of VDR binding, and inverted spatial accommodation in VDR-LBD. PT19c caused actin filament dysfunction and inhibited focal adhesion in SKOV-3 cells. PT19c is a VDR independent nonhypercalcemic vitamin D-derived agent that showed noteworthy safety and efficacy in ovarian and endometrial cancer animal models and inhibited actin organization and focal adhesion in ovarian cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple and highly efficient technique for the analysis of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) subspecies in human plasma is described. The streamlined sample preparation protocol furnishes the five major LPA subspecies with excellent recoveries. Extensive analysis of the enriched sample reveals only trace levels of other phospholipids. This level of purity not only improves MS analyses, but enables HPLC post-column detection in the visible region with a commercially available fluorescent phospholipids probe. Human plasma samples from different donors were analyzed using the above method and validated by LC-ESI/MS/MS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Use of in vitro chemoresponse assays for informing effective treatment selection is a compelling clinical question and a topic of debate among oncologists. A prospective study was conducted evaluating the use of a chemoresponse assay in recurrent ovarian cancer patients.
Women with persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer were enrolled under an IRB-approved protocol, and fresh tissue samples were collected for chemoresponse testing. Patients were treated with one of 15 protocol-designated treatments empirically selected by the oncologist, blinded to the assay results. Each treatment was classified by the assay as: sensitive (S), intermediate (I), or resistant (R). Patients were prospectively monitored for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Associations of assay response for the physician-selected treatment with PFS and OS were analyzed.
A total of 262 evaluable patients were enrolled. Patients treated with an assay-sensitive regimen demonstrated significantly improved PFS and OS while there was no difference in clinical outcomes between I and R groups. Median PFS was 8.8months for S vs. 5.9months for I+R (hazard ratio [HR]=0.67, p=0.009). The association with assay response was consistent in both platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant tumors (HR: 0.71 vs. 0.66) and was independent of other covariates in multivariate analysis (HR=0.66, p=0.020). A statistically significant14-month improvement in mean OS (37.5months for S vs. 23.9months for I+R, HR=0.61, p=0.010) was demonstrated.
This prospective study demonstrated improved PFS and OS for patients with either platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer treated with assay-sensitive agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Although the epidemiology of typical endometrial carcinomas (grades 1-2 endometrioid or Type I) is well established, less is known regarding higher grade endometrioid or non-endometrioid carcinomas (Type II). Within a large Gynecologic Oncology Group trial (GOG-210), which included central pathology review, we investigated the etiologic heterogeneity of endometrial cancers by comparing risk factors for different histologic categories. METHODS: Based on epidemiologic questionnaire data, risk factor associations, expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were estimated comparing grade 3 endometrioid and Type II cancers (including histologic subtypes) to grades 1-2 endometrioid cancers. RESULTS: Compared with 2,244 grades 1-2 endometrioid cancers, women with Type II cancers (321 serous, 141 carcinosarcomas, 77 clear cell, 42 mixed epithelial with serous or clear cell components) were older; more often non-white, multiparous, current smokers; and less often obese. Risk factors for grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas (n=354) were generally similar to those identified for Type II cancers, although patients with grade 3 endometrioid tumors more often had histories of breast cancer without tamoxifen exposure while those with Type II tumors were more frequently treated with tamoxifen. Patients with serous cancers and carcinosarcomas more frequently had breast cancer histories with tamoxifen treatment compared to patients with other tumors. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for aggressive endometrial cancers, including grade 3 endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors, appear to differ from lower grade endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings support etiologic differences between Type I and II endometrial cancers as well as additional heterogeneity within Type II cancers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy options for advanced endometrial cancer are limited and newer therapeutic agents are urgently needed. This study describes the therapeutic potential of 7 Methyl-indole ethyl isothiocyanate (7Me-IEITC) in endometrial cancer cell lines.
7Me-IEITC was synthesized in our laboratory. The cell viability of 7Me-IEITC treated ECC-1 and KLE endometrial cancer cell was determined by MTS assay. Morphology and apoptosis were further confirmed by DAPI-staining and TUNEL assay. The measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (ΔΨm) and cell cycle phase was determined by FACS analysis. Expression of proteins involved in apoptosis, survival and cell-cycle progression was analyzed by Western blotting.
7Me-IEITC reduced the viability of the ECC-1 and KLE cancer cell-lines (IC(50)~2.5-10 μM) in a dose dependent fashion. 7Me-IEITC treatment caused mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, elevated the production of ROS, leading to activation of apoptosis in endometrial cancer KLE and ECC-1 cells. 7Me-IEITC treatment activated Bad, suppressed Bcl2 phosphorylation followed by PARP-1 deactivation and caspase 3 and 7 activation. 7Me-IEITC treatment arrested the progression of KLE cells in S-phase and caused CDC25 and cyclin-D1 downregulation. Pre-treatment with ascorbic acid abrogated 7Me-IEITC induced apoptosis in ECC-1 and KLE cells, suggesting that 7Me-IEITC mediated cytotoxicity is primarily through ROS production.
7Me-IEITC demonstrated promising cytotoxic effects in endometrial cancer cell line model.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 200,000 women undergo exploratory surgery for a pelvic mass in the United States each year and 13%-21% of pelvic lesions are found to be malignant. Individual reports and meta-analysis indicate better outcomes when cancer surgery is performed by gynecologic oncologists. Despite the advantages provided by more thorough staging and cytoreductive surgery, only 30%-50% of women with ovarian cancer are referred to surgeons with specialized training in the United States. Imaging, menopausal status and biomarkers can aid in distinguishing malignant from benign pelvic masses to inform decisions regarding appropriate referral. The risk of malignancy index (RMI) uses ultrasound, menopausal status and CA125 and has been utilized in the United Kingdom for two decades, providing sensitivity that has ranged from 71%-88% and specificity it from 97%-74% for identifying patients with malignant disease. Criteria have been established by the Society of Gynecology Oncology and American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology for referral to a gynecologic oncologist, but these have lower sensitivity and specificity than the RMI. Recently, two new algorithms have been developed to identify women at sufficiently high risk to prompt referral to a specialized surgeon. The OVA1 multivariate index incorporates imaging, menopausal status, CA125 and four other proteomic biomarkers. Use of OVA1 provides 85%-96% sensitivity at 28%-40% specificity depending upon menopausal status. The negative predictive value for women judged to be at low risk is 94%-96%. The risk of malignancy algorithm (ROMA) includes CA125, human epididymal protein 4 and menopausal status, but not imaging results. The ROMA has yielded 93%-94% sensitivity at 75% specificity with a negative predictive value of 93%-98%. In a direct comparison, ROMA has achieved greater sensitivity (94%) than the RMI (75%) at 75% specificity. OVA1 has not been compared directly to ROMA, but is likely to be as sensitive, but substantially less specific. Both algorithms have high negative predictive values 94%-98%. Although a difference in specificity should not affect patient outcomes, it could affect distribution of medical resources.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 05/2012; 22 Suppl 1:S5-8. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our recent study showed that tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a drug to treat copper overload disorders, can sensitize drug-resistant endometrial cancer cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating anticancer drug doxorubicin. To expand these findings in the present study we explore TM efficacy in combination with a spectrum of ROS-generating anticancer drugs including mitomycin C, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin in ovarian cancer cells as a model system.
The effects of TM alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, fenretinide, or 5-fluorouracil were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the induction of apoptosis and ROS generation. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in signaling pathways.
TM potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and modulated key regulators of apoptosis (PARP, caspases, JNK and p38 MAPK) in SKOV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. These effects were linked to the increased production of ROS, as shown in SKOV-3 cells. ROS scavenging by ascorbic acid blocked the sensitization of cells by TM. TM also sensitized SKOV-3 to mitomycin C, fenretinide, and 5-fluorouracil. The increased cytotoxicity of these drugs in combination with TM was correlated with the activity of ROS, loss of a pro-survival factor (e.g. XIAP) and the appearance of a pro-apoptotic marker (e.g. PARP cleavage).
Our data show that TM increases the efficacy of various anticancer drugs in ovarian cancer cells in a ROS-dependent manner.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous vitamin-D analogs exhibited poor response rates, high systemic toxicities and hypercalcemia in human trials to treat cancer. We identified the first non-hypercalcemic anti-cancer vitamin D analog MT19c by altering the A-ring of ergocalciferol. This study describes the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action of MT19c in both in vitro and in vivo models.
Antitumor efficacy of MT19c was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell (SKOV-3) xenografts in nude mice and a syngenic rat ovarian cancer model. Serum calcium levels of MT19c or calcitriol treated animals were measured. In-silico molecular docking simulation and a cell based VDR reporter assay revealed MT19c-VDR interaction. Genomewide mRNA analysis of MT19c treated tumors identified drug targets which were verified by immunoblotting and microscopy. Quantification of cellular malonyl CoA was carried out by HPLC-MS. A binding study with PPAR-Y receptor was performed. MT19c reduced ovarian cancer growth in xenograft and syngeneic animal models without causing hypercalcemia or acute toxicity. MT19c is a weak vitamin-D receptor (VDR) antagonist that disrupted the interaction between VDR and coactivator SRC2-3. Genome-wide mRNA analysis and western blot and microscopy of MT19c treated xenograft tumors showed inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FASN) activity. MT19c reduced cellular levels of malonyl CoA in SKOV-3 cells and inhibited EGFR/phosphoinositol-3kinase (PI-3K) activity independently of PPAR-gamma protein.
Antitumor effects of non-hypercalcemic agent MT19c provide a new approach to the design of vitamin-D based anticancer molecules and a rationale for developing MT19c as a therapeutic agent for malignant ovarian tumors by targeting oncogenic de novo lipogenesis.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34443. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study determined the in vitro potential of novel compounds adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate to treat gynecological cancers. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein is postulated to be an in vivo metabolite of adamantyl isothiocyanate as dietary isothiocyanates are converted to N-acetylcysteine-conjugates. A viability assay suggested that adamantyl isothiocyanate and adamantyl-N-acetylcystein are cytotoxic to cancer cells including gynecological cell lines. A NCI60 cancer cell assay revealed that growth-inhibition and cytotoxicity of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein were cell line, but not tissue type-specific. Cell cycle studies revealed that adamantyl-N-acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate arrest SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells in G2/M phase. By TUNEL, immunoblotting, and viability studies employing caspase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that reduction in SKOV-3 viability is a consequence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Cytotoxic action of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein in SKOV-3 and endometrial cancer (ECC-1, RL95-2, AN3CA, and KLE) cells required excess generation of reactive oxygen species which could be blocked by antioxidant co-treatment. Adamantyl-N-acetylcystein treatment led to modified expression or activation of apoptotic and oncogenic proteins such as JNK/SAPK, AKT, XIAP, and EGF-R for SKOV-3 and JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 for ECC-1 cells. We suggest the further development of adamantyl-N-acetylcystein by sensitizing cells to the drug using signaling inhibitors or redox-modulating agents and by evaluating the drug efficacy in ovarian and endometrial in-vivo tumor models.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 01/2012; 79(1):92-103. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimized purification of oligomeric proanthocyanidines (PAC) from cranberry generated PAC-1A which selectively affected the viability of various neuroblastoma (NB) cell lines representing a spectrum of high-risk NB features. PAC-1A caused a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization potential (∆Ψm) and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which was directly correlated to the modulation of apoptotic marker proteins in SMS-KCNR cells. PAC-1A reduced the expression of pro-survival (Bcl-2, MCL-1, Bcl-xL) and increased levels of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bad, Bid) Bcl family proteins, upregulated the activity of SAPK/JNK MAPK and downregulated expression or activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway components. PAC-1A increased the cellular uptake/retention of cyclophosphamide (CP). PAC-1A and CP synergistically increased cytotoxicity and expression of pro-apoptotic markers, reduced cellular glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Additional features of PAC-1A as an anticancer drug as shown in SMS-KCNR NB cells include delay of cell cycle progression and induction of cell death via TNF-family death receptor activity, thus, targeting both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PAC-1A partially blocked the cell cycle in G2/M phase which correlated with a decrease of the G0/G1 subpopulation, upregulation of cyclin D1 and downregulation of CDK6 and p27 expression. In summary, PAC-1A has demonstrated chemotherapeutic potential to treat a broad spectrum of NBs including highly malignant tumors that show resistance to standard chemotherapeutics and apoptotic stimuli.
International Journal of Oncology 01/2012; 40(1):99-108. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study determined the in vitro potential of novel compounds adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate to treat gynecological cancers. Adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein is postulated to be an in vivo metabolite of adamantyl isothiocyanate as dietary isothiocyanates are converted to N‐acetylcysteine‐conjugates. A viability assay suggested that adamantyl isothiocyanate and adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein are cytotoxic to cancer cells including gynecological cell lines. A NCI60 cancer cell assay revealed that growth‐inhibition and cytotoxicity of adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein were cell line, but not tissue type‐specific. Cell cycle studies revealed that adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein and adamantyl isothiocyanate arrest SKOV‐3 ovarian cancer cells in G2/M phase. By TUNEL, immunoblotting, and viability studies employing caspase and p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase inhibitors, we proved that reduction in SKOV‐3 viability is a consequence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. Cytotoxic action of adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein in SKOV‐3 and endometrial cancer (ECC‐1, RL95‐2, AN3CA, and KLE) cells required excess generation of reactive oxygen species which could be blocked by antioxidant co‐treatment. Adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein treatment led to modified expression or activation of apoptotic and oncogenic proteins such as JNK/SAPK, AKT, XIAP, and EGF‐R for SKOV‐3 and JNK/SAPK and ERK1/2 for ECC‐1 cells. We suggest the further development of adamantyl‐N‐acetylcystein by sensitizing cells to the drug using signaling inhibitors or redox‐modulating agents and by evaluating the drug efficacy in ovarian and endometrial in‐vivo tumor models.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 01/2012; 79(1). · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish normal ranges for human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) serum levels in healthy women.
HE4 levels were measured in healthy women and analyzed by age, menopausal status, and pregnancy status. Upper 95th percentiles were determined for normal ranges.
Serum samples from 1101 healthy women and 67 pregnant women were analyzed. Above the age of 40 years significant elevations in HE4 concentrations emerged with advancing age. The upper 95th percentile for HE4 levels was 89 pmol/L for premenopausal women, 128 pmol/L for postmenopausal women, and 115 pmol/L for all women. There was a significant difference in the median serum HE4 levels in premenopausal women (46.6 pmol/L) compared with postmenopausal women (57.6 pmol/L; P < .001). In pregnant women, median HE4 concentrations were significantly lower than their premenopausal counterparts (P < .001).
HE4 serum concentrations vary significantly on the basis of age. These variations must be considered when the upper limit of normal for HE4 is determined.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2011; 206(4):349.e1-7. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel biomarker for ovarian cancer. This study measured the HE4 and CA125 levels in women with benign gynecological disorders.
Sera were obtained from women prior to surgery for a pelvic mass and HE4 and CA125 levels were determined. The proportions of patients with elevated biomarker levels were compared.
There were 1042 women with benign disease. HE4 levels were less often elevated than CA125 (8% vs 29%, P < .001). A marked difference was observed in patients with endometriosis in which HE4 was elevated in 3% of patients and CA125 in 67% (P < .0001). Serous ovarian tumors were associated with elevated levels of HE4 in 8% of patients and CA125 in 20% (P = .0002); uterine fibroids in 8% vs 26% (P = .0083); dermoids in 1% vs 21% (P = .0004); and inflammatory disease in 10% vs 37% (P = .014).
HE4 is elevated less frequently than CA125 in benign disease, particularly in premenopausal patients.
American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 12/2011; 206(4):351.e1-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serous borderline ovarian tumors have a favorable prognosis, and recurrences are uncommon. The factors influencing recurrence are not fully understood. Epithelial inclusions are identified in serous borderline ovarian tumors and are traditionally referred to as epithelial implants, which often show epithelial proliferation. We investigated whether the presence of epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation portends a higher risk for recurrence of serous borderline ovarian tumors in patients who underwent surgical removal of these tumors. Also examined was whether the anatomical site of epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation was associated with a higher risk of recurrence. One hundred eighty-eight cases of pure serous or predominantly serous borderline ovarian tumors were studied for the presence of epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation, and subsequent recurrences were recorded. The anatomical sites of epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation were compared between serous borderline ovarian tumors with or without recurrence. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test. Epithelial implant was noted in 106 cases (56%), and epithelial proliferation, in 26 cases (14%). Recurrence was identified in 10.4% cases with epithelial implant and 23% cases with epithelial proliferation. Statistical analyses of patients with recurrence showed significant differences in the following groups: epithelial implant versus no epithelial implant (P < .025) and epithelial proliferation versus no epithelial implant (P < .001). Recurrence rates were higher in the epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation groups as compared with no epithelial implant or epithelial proliferation groups. Epithelial implant and epithelial proliferation appear to pose a statistically significantly higher risk of recurrence in serous borderline ovarian tumors as compared with the absence of epithelial implant. Although the anatomical location of such implants was not significantly associated with a higher risk, the presence of epithelial proliferation at multiple sites was more frequently seen in recurrent serous borderline ovarian tumors.
Human pathology 10/2011; 43(5):747-52. · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cranberry extracts may provide beneficial health effects in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of antineoplastic properties are not understood. We report the effect of a proanthocyanidin (PAC)-rich isolate from cranberry (PAC-1) as a therapeutic agent with dual activity to target both ovarian cancer viability and angiogenesis in vitro. PAC-1 treatment of chemotherapy-resistant SKOV-3 cells blocked cell cycle progression through the G2/M phase, increased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induced apoptosis through activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway components. Cytotoxicity of PAC-1 was partially based on ROS generation and could be blocked by co-treatment with antioxidant glutathione. PAC-1 reduced the cell viability of both SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells and HUVEC endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and blocked the activation of the pro-survival factor AKT. Furthermore, PAC-1 blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated receptor phosphorylation in endothelial cells, which correlated with the inhibition of endothelial tube formation in vitro. Our findings suggest that PAC-1 exerts potent anticancer and anti-angiogenic properties and that highly purified PAC from cranberry can be further developed to treat ovarian cancer in combinational or single-agent therapy.
International Journal of Oncology 09/2011; 40(1):227-35. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the in-vitro effect of Abietyl-Isothiocyanate (ABITC), a representative of a new class of anti-cancer drugs, on endometrial cancer (EC) cell lines. ABITC at concentrations ≥1 μM displayed dose-dependent and selective cytotoxicity to EC cell lines (ECC-1, AN3CA, RL95-2) in comparison to other cancer cell lines. After treatment with ABITC, ECC-1 unlike control cells displayed hallmark features of apoptosis including chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. At concentrations below the IC50, ABITC exerted anti-proliferative effects by blocking cell-cycle progression through G0/G1 and S-phase. In addition, cells attempted to counteract drug treatment by pro-survival signaling such as deactivation of JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK and activation of AKT and ErK1/2. ABITC also altered EGF-receptor phosphorylation. At a concentration of 5 μM ABITC generated an excess amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and displayed pro-apoptotic signaling such as activation of caspase-8, JNK-SAPK and deactivation of PARP-1. Co-treatment with an antioxidant blocked the drug effects by reducing ROS generation, cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic signaling. In summary, novel isothiocyanate ABITC is an anti-proliferative and selectively cytotoxic drug to EC cells in-vitro. Key mechanisms during cell death are predominantly correlated to excess generation of ROS. We suggest the further development of ABITC as a potential therapeutic by studying the drug efficacy in EC in-vivo models.
Investigational New Drugs 08/2011; 30(4):1460-70. · 3.50 Impact Factor