Eric Skipper

Carolinas Medical Center University, Charlotte, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (15)48.17 Total impact

  • Eric R Skipper, Kevin D Accola, Robert M Sade
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2011; 92(4):1163-9. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intensive insulin therapy has become a major therapeutic target in cardiac surgery patients. It has been associated, however, with an increased risk of hypoglycemia compared with conventional insulin therapy. Our study sought to identify the factors predisposing to hypoglycemia with intensive insulin therapy and investigate its effect on early clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery. A concurrent cohort study of 2,538 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, or bypass grafting and valve surgery) from January 2005 to March 2010 was carried out. Multivariable logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used (1) to identify the risk factors for developing hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 60 mg/dL) after cardiac surgery and (2) to compare major morbidity, operative mortality, and actuarial survival between patients in whom hypoglycemia developed (n = 77) and those in whom it did not (n = 2461). The propensity score-adjusted sample included 61 patients in whom hypoglycemia developed and 305 patients in whom it did not (1 to 5 matching). Risk factors for hypoglycemia included female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.4-3.7; P < .001), diabetes (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.7-4.5; P < .001), hemodialysis (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.3-6.8; P = .009), intraoperative blood product transfusion (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.2-3.4; P = .010), and earlier date of surgery (years of surgery, 2005-2007; OR = 2.1, CI = 1.2-3.7; P = .007) . Hypoglycemia increased the risk for operative mortality in univariate (hypoglycemic 10% vs normoglycemic patients 2%; P < .001) but not in propensity score- adjusted analysis (OR= 2.5, 0.9-6.7; P = .11). The propensity score-adjusted analysis demonstrated a significant increase in hemorrhage-related reexploration (P = .048), pneumonia (P < .001), reintubation (P < .001), prolonged ventilatory support (P < .001), hospital length of stay (P < .001), and intensive care unit length of stay (P < .001) for the hypoglycemic compared with normoglycemic patients. Five-year actuarial survival was similar in the compared patient groups (hypoglycemic 75% vs normoglycemic 75%; P = .22). Hypoglycemia with intensive insulin therapy is independently associated with increased risk for respiratory complications and prolonged hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay after cardiac surgery. In our study, hypoglycemia was not independently associated with increased risk of death.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2011; 142(1):166-73. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis compared with patients with normal body mass index (BMI). This study sought to quantify the effect of BMI on clinical outcomes after cardiac surgery and investigate the obesity paradox. A concurrent cohort study of 2,440 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG], valve, or CABG and valve surgery) from January 2004 to December 2008 was carried out. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of BMI: normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9; n=556; 23%), overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9; n=965; 39%), and obese (BMI≥30; n=919; 38%). Multivariable analyses and propensity score matching were used to compare the early and late clinical outcomes among the different BMI groups. Overweight patients had a lower operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.9; p=0.031) compared with normal BMI patients. Obese patients had a comparable risk for operative mortality (odds ratio, 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.6; p=0.47) compared with normal-weight patients. Actuarial 5-year survival was better for the overweight (hazard ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.8; p=0.002) and comparable for the obese (hazard ratio, 0.9; 95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.4; p=0.49) groups compared with the normal-weight patients. Overweight patients have better early hospital outcomes and improved survival after cardiac surgery compared with normal BMI patients, supporting the obesity paradox.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 01/2011; 91(1):42-7. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the general increase in human lifespan, cardiac surgeons are faced with treating an increasing number of elderly patients. The aim of our study was to investigate whether advanced age poses an increased risk for major morbidity and mortality with repair of acute type A aortic dissection. Between 2000 and 2008, 119 patients underwent emergency operation for acute type A aortic dissection at two institutions; 90 were younger than 70 years of age and 29 patients were 70 years or older. Major morbidity, operative and 5-year actuarial survival were compared between groups. The operative mortality rates were comparable between the two groups (18.9% in patients <70 years vs. 24.1% for patients >or=70 years, P=0.6). There was no difference in the rates of reoperation for bleeding (<70 years 31.7% vs. 14.3% for >or=70 years, P=0.09), stroke (18.9% for those <70 years vs. 20.7% for those >or=70 years, P=0.79), acute renal failure (22.2% for those <70 years vs. 17.2% for those >or=70 years, P=0.79) or prolonged ventilation (34.4% for those <70 years vs. 24.1% for those >or=70 years, P=0.36) between the two groups. Actuarial 5-year survival rates were 77% for patients <70 years vs. 59% for patients >or=70 years (P=0.07). The mortality for patients who presented with hemodynamic instability was markedly higher (10 out of 14 patients, 71.4%) compared with the mortality of those who presented with stable hemodynamics (21 out of 88 patients, 23.9%, P<0.001), regardless of age group. No significant differences in operative mortality, major morbidity and actuarial 5-year survival were observed between patients >or=70 years and younger patients although there was a trend toward a lower actuarial 5-year survival in older patients. Surgery for type A acute aortic dissection in patients 70 years or older can be performed with acceptable outcomes. Hemodynamic instability portends a poor prognosis, regardless of age.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 04/2010; 10(4):539-44. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2010; 89(3):1010. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    Annals of internal medicine 12/2009; 151(12):895; author reply 895. · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aprotinin is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved agent to reduce haemorrhage related to cardiac surgery and its safety and efficacy has been extensively studied. Our study sought to compare the efficacy, early and late mortality and major morbidity associated with aprotinin compared with e-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in cardiac surgery operations. Between January 2002 and December 2006, 2101 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve surgery or CABG and valve surgery in our institution with the use of aprotinin (1898 patients) or EACA (203 patients). Logistic regression and propensity score analysis were used to adjust for imbalances in the patients' preoperative characteristics. The propensity score-adjusted sample included 570 patients who received aprotinin and 114 who received EACA (1-5 matching). Operative mortality was higher in the aprotinin group in univariate (aprotinin 4.3% vs EACA 1%, p=0.023) but not propensity score-adjusted multivariate analysis (4% vs 0.9%, p=0.16). In propensity score-adjusted analysis, aprotinin was also associated with a lower rate of blood transfusion (38.8% vs 50%, p=0.04), a lower rate of haemorrhage-related re-exploration (3.7% vs 7.9%, p=0.04) and a higher risk of in-hospital cardiac arrest (3.7% vs 0%, p=0.03) and a marginally but not statistically significantly higher risk of acute renal failure (6.8% vs 2.6%, p=0.09). In Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, the risk of late death was higher in the aprotinin compared to EACA group (hazard ratio=4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.60-11.67, p=0.004). Aprotinin decreases the rate of postoperative blood transfusion and haemorrhage-related re-exploration, but increases the risk of in-hospital cardiac arrest and late mortality after cardiac surgery when compared to EACA. Cumulative evidence suggests that the risk associated with aprotinin may not be worth the haemostatic benefit.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 09/2009; 36(5):869-75. · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early tracheal extubation is a common goal after cardiac surgery and may improve postoperative outcomes. Our study evaluates the impact of a quality improvement program (QIP) on early extubation, pulmonary complications, and resource utilization after cardiac surgery. Between 2002 and 2006, 980 patients underwent early tracheal extubation (<6 hours after surgery) and 1231 had conventional extubation (> 6 hours after surgery, conventional group). Outcomes compared between the two groups included: (1) pneumonia, (2) sepsis, (3) intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, (4) hospital length of stay, (5) ICU readmission, and (6) reintubation. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score adjustment were used to adjust for imbalances in the patients' preoperative characteristics. Early extubation rates were significantly increased with QIP (QIP 53% vs. Non-QIP 38%, p = 0.01). Early extubation was associated with a lower rate of (1) pneumonia (odds ratio [OR]= 0.35, 95% confidence intervals [CI]= 0.22-0.55, p <0.001), (2) sepsis (OR = 0.38, CI = 0.20-0.74, p <0.004), (3) prolonged ICU length of stay (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.35-0.50, p <0.001), (4) hospital length of stay (OR = 0.37, CI = 0.29-0.47, p <0.001), (5) ICU readmission (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.39-0.78, p <0.001), and (6) reintubation (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.34-0.81, p <0.003) both in multivariable logistic regression analysis and propensity score adjustment. QIP and early tracheal extubation reduce pulmonary complications and resource utilization after cardiac surgery.
    Journal of Cardiac Surgery 06/2009; 24(4):414-23. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Invasive dental procedures are often indicated before cardiac valve surgery. The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the risks and benefits of concomitant dental and thoracic surgery. Critically ill cardiac inpatients requiring cardiac valve surgery were referred by the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery to our Oral Medicine consult service. Those requiring dental extractions were considered for dental treatment during the same general anesthetic as the cardiac surgery. These study patients were compared with control patients who had extractions before valve surgery in a different setting. There was no attempt to analyze the impact of this practice on the development of infective endocarditis. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics during dental surgery. Twenty-one patients had concomitant oral and cardiac valve surgery. Seventeen patients were in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls in demographics, length of stay, nature of the dental surgery, mean number of teeth removed, oral bleeding, or postoperative infections. One patient in the control group developed prosthetic valve endocarditis versus none in the concomitant surgery group. This case-control study suggests that concomitant surgical procedures for dental and valvular heart disease can be accomplished without clinically significant oral complications. Given the risk from poor oral health following cardiac valve surgery, this approach should be considered for patients who would benefit by avoiding a second general anesthetic and/or a delay in cardiac surgery, and by having their oral surgery performed in the safest environment.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 02/2009; 107(1):71-6. · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our quality improvement program began in 2004 to improve cardiac surgery outcomes. Early tracheal extubation in the cardiovascular intensive unit was utilized as a multidisciplinary driver for the quality improvement program. Continuous improvement in the rate of early extubation to drive multidisciplinary quality improvement in cardiac critical care correlated with decreased mortality, morbidity, and improved operational efficiency. Supportive educational efforts included, but were not limited to, principles of change, trust, competing values, crew resource management, evidence based medicine, and quality improvement.
    HSR proceedings in intensive care & cardiovascular anesthesia. 01/2009; 1(1):16-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Early tracheal extubation is a common goal after cardiac surgery. Our study aims to examine whether timing of tracheal extubation predicts improved postoperative outcomes and late survival after cardiac surgery. We also evaluated the optimal timing of extubation and its association with better postoperative outcomes. Between 2002 and 2006, 1164 patients underwent early tracheal extubation (<6 hours after surgery) and 1571 had conventional extubation (>6 hours after surgery). Propensity score adjustment and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to adjust for imbalances in the patients' preoperative characteristics. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to identify the best timing of extubation and improved postoperative outcomes. Cox regression analysis was used to identify whether early extubation is a risk factor for decreased late mortality. Results - Early extubation was associated with lower propensity score-adjusted rate of operative mortality (Odds Ratio =0.55, 95% Confidence Intervals =0.31-0.98, p=0.043). Extubation within 9 hours emerged as the best predictor of improved postoperative morbidity and mortality (sensitivity =85.5%, specificity =52.7%, accuracy =64.5%). Early extubation also predicted decreased late mortality (Hazard Ratio =0.45, 95% Confidence Intervals 0.31-0.67, p<0.001). Early extubation may predict improved outcomes after cardiac surgery. Extubation within 9 hours after surgery was the best predictor of uncomplicated recovery after cardiac surgery. Those patients intubated longer than 16 hours have a poorer postoperative prognosis. Early extubation predicts prolonged survival up to 16 months after surgery.
    HSR proceedings in intensive care & cardiovascular anesthesia. 01/2009; 1(2):39-47.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate how a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program affected major morbidity and postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those who underwent surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, isolated valve surgery, or coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery) after the establishment of a CQI program (from January 2005 to December 2006, n = 922) and those who underwent surgery beforehand (from January 2002 to December 2003, n = 1,289). Patients who had surgery in 2004, when the system and processes were reengineered, were not included in the analysis. Outcomes compared between the 2 groups included (1) acute renal failure, (2) stroke, (3) sepsis, (4) hemorrhage-related reexploration, (5) cardiac tamponade, (6) mediastinitis, and (7) prolonged length of stay. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score adjustment were used to adjust for imbalances in the patients' preoperative characteristics. After propensity score adjustment, CQI was found to decrease the rate of sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3 to 0.9, p = 0.02) and cardiac tamponade (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.8, p = 0.02) but to only marginally decrease the rate of acute renal failure (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0, p = 0.07). CQI did not emerge as an independent risk factor for hemorrhage-related reexploration, prolonged length of stay, mediastinitis, or stroke in either multivariate logistic regression analysis or propensity score adjustment. In conclusion, the systematic implementation of a CQI program and the application of multidisciplinary protocols decrease sepsis and cardiac tamponade after cardiac surgery.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 10/2008; 102(6):772-7. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of a quality improvement program and goal-oriented, multidisciplinary protocols on mortality after cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into two groups: those undergoing surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, isolated valve surgery, or coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery) after establishment of the multidisciplinary quality improvement program (January 2005-December 2006, n = 922) and those undergoing surgery before institution of the program (January 2002-December 2003, n = 1289). Logistic regression and propensity score analysis were used to adjust for imbalances in patients' preoperative characteristics. Operative mortality was lower in the quality improvement group (2.6% vs 5.0%, P < .01). Unadjusted odds ratio was 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.3-0.8, P < .01); propensity score-adjusted odds ratio was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.99, P = .04). In multivariable analysis, diabetes (P < .01), chronic renal insufficiency (P = .05), previous cardiovascular operation (P = .04), congestive heart failure (P < .01), unstable angina (P < .01), age older than 75 years (P < .01), prolonged pump time (P < .01), and prolonged operation (P = .05) emerged as independent predictors of higher mortality after cardiac surgery, whereas quality improvement program (P < .01) and male sex (P = .03) were associated with lower mortality. Mortality decline was less pronounced in patients with than without diabetes (P = .04). Application of goal-directed, multidisciplinary protocols and a quality improvement program were associated with lower mortality after cardiac surgery. This decline was less prominent in patients with diabetes, and focused quality improvement protocols may be required for this subset of patients.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 08/2008; 136(2):494-499.e8. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computerized robotic enhancement has recently emerged as a promising technology to facilitate minimally invasive cardiac surgery. We report the first totally endoscopic closure of an atrial septal defect in a child using the da Vinci robot and hypothermic fibrillation.
    Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery 01/2008; 6(6):828-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduction ascending aortoplasty is a controversial procedure. Some believe that it can be appropriately applied when the anatomic features are favorable. Others suggest that it should be restricted to those patients who are at unacceptably high risk for more radical procedures, and there are also those who believe that reduction ascending aortoplasty should not be applied at all. The purpose of the article is to draw conclusions on the applicability of reduction ascending aortoplasty in modern cardiovascular surgery. The issue was examined in the mirror of the authors' own experiences, by review and scrutiny of the literature available on the subject, and by conducting an extensive survey of the profession. We found that given proper indications (ie, poststenotic dilatations of <6 cm in diameter, absence of cystic medial necrosis, and a technique that decreases aortic diameter to <3.5 cm), nonreinforced reduction ascending aortoplasty performed concomitantly with aortic valve replacement appears to be a simple and safe procedure, with low morbidity and mortality and rare late complications. External reinforcement might extend the scope of indication for reduction ascending aortoplasty to ascending aortic aneurysms associated with aortic regurgitation and to those with primary structural aortic wall disease with comparable results. Experience also has shown that late complications might be further reduced by means of proper proximal anchoring and extending the wrap past the origin of the innominate artery. We conclude that reduction ascending aortoplasty is certainly alive. Although it does not appear to be an extremely popular operation, about half of the surgeons who responded believe it to be justified. Regardless of which modality is used, lifetime monitoring of ascending aortic size is essential and so advised. Because of recent sporadic reports of "under-the-wrap" aortic wall atrophy and rupture, the issue of reinforcement of reduction ascending aortoplasty requires continued re-evaluation.
    Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 10/2004; 128(4):562-70. · 3.99 Impact Factor