[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells.
Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil.
The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 mug/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%.
These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2013; 13(1):249. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The possible role of sialic acids in host cells-fungi interaction and their association with glycoproteins were evaluated using a clinical isolate of the dimorphic fungus Mucor polymorphosporus. Lectin-binding assays with spores and yeast cells denoted the presence of surface sialoglycoconjugates containing 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialylglycosyl groups. Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled Limulus polyphemus agglutinin revealed the occurrence of different sialoglycoprotein types in both cell lysates and cell wall protein extracts of mycelia, spores, and yeasts of M. polymorphosporus. Sialic acids contributed to the surface negative charge of spores and yeast forms as evaluated by adherence to a cationic substrate. Sialidase-treated spores were less resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and monocytes from healthy individuals than control (untreated) fungal suspensions. The results suggest that sialic acids are terminal units of various glycoproteins of M. polymorphosporus, contributing to negative charge of yeasts and spore cells and protecting infectious propagules from destruction by host cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The anti-corrosion effect and the antimicrobial activity of lemongrass essential oil (LEO) against the planktonic and sessile growth of a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) were evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of LEO and its major component, the citral, was 0.17 mg ml-1. In addition, both LEO and citral showed an immediate killing effect against SRB in liquid medium, suggesting that citral is responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LEO against SRB. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the MIC of LEO caused discernible cell membrane alterations and formed electron-dense inclusions. Neither biofilm formation nor corrosion was observed on carbon steel coupons after LEO treatment. LEO was effective for the control of the planktonic and sessile SRB growth and for the protection of carbon steel coupons against biocorrosion. The application of LEO as a potential biocide for SRB growth control in petroleum reservoirs and, consequently, for souring prevention, and/or as a coating protection against biocorrosion is of great interest for the petroleum industries.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Teas from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in the folk medicine to treat arthritis and other inflammatory processes. Some works show that some varieties have biological activities. However, one of the main variety of the species, C. nucifera var. typica, known in Brazil as "gigante", was not studied yet. Thus, this study evaluates if this variety has the anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities already reported in other varieties. METHODS: C. nucifera aqueous crude extract (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and the reference drugs morphine (1 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) were evaluated in models of inflammation (formalin-induced licking and subcutaneous air pouch). The antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) photometric assay and compared with those of the standards (quercetin, rutin, and ascorbic acid). The extract was also screened against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in the agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth micro-dilution assay. Activities of combinations of the extract and antibiotics (methicillin or vancomycin) against MRSA were evaluated using checkerboard assays. RESULTS: The extract significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paws (second phase). The extract also inhibited the inflammatory process induced by subcutaneous carrageenan injection by reducing cell migration, protein extravasation, and TNF-alpha production. Additionally, the extract showed an antioxidant potential in vitro as good as standards in their antioxidant activity. The extract was active only against S. aureus and MRSA. MIC and the bactericidal concentrations were identical (1,024 mug/ml). The extract and methicillin acted synergistically against the clinical MRSA isolate, whereas an indifferent effect was detected when the extract was combined with vancomycin. CONCLUSIONS: The extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of the cell migration. The mixture of extract constituents and methicillin could lead to the development of a new combination antibiotic against MRSA infections.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 13(1):107. · 2.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lippia sidoides Cham., also known as pepper-rosmarin, produces an essential oil in its leaves that is currently used by the pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetic industries for its antimicrobial and aromatic properties. Because of the antimicrobial compounds (mainly thymol and carvacrol) found in the essential oil, we believe that the endophytic microorganisms found in L. sidoides are selected to live in different parts of the plant. RESULTS: In this study, the endophytic microbial communities from the stems and leaves of four L. sidoides genotypes were determined using cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent approaches. In total, 145 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated and further grouped using either ERIC-PCR or BOX-PCR, resulting in 76 groups composed of different genera predominantly belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria. The endophytic microbial diversity was also analyzed by PCR-DGGE using 16S rRNA-based universal and group-specific primers for total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria and 18S rRNA-based primers for fungi. PCR-DGGE profile analysis and principal component analysis showed that the total bacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and fungi were influenced not only by the location within the plant (leaf vs. stem) but also by the presence of the main components of the L. sidoides essential oil (thymol and/or carvacrol) in the leaves. However, the same could not be observed within the Actinobacteria. CONCLUSION: The data presented here are the first step to begin shedding light on the impact of the essential oil in the endophytic microorganisms in pepper-rosmarin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 01/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The defensive secretion of the frontal gland from termite soldiers is a mixture of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, the latter being the most representative. Analyses of the dichloromethane extract from soldiers of the Brazilian termite, Nasutitermes macrocephalus (Silvestri, 1903) (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae), described for the first time, allowed to identify the presence of two monoterpenes (alpha-pinene and limonene) and two sesquiterpenes (beta-trans-caryophyllene and alpha-selinene) by GC-EIMS, and the isolation of one rippertane and six trinervitane diterpenes by RP-HPLC. The chemical structures of the purified compounds were elucidated by interpretation of their spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR, EIMS, HRESIMS, and specific optical rotation) and the complete unequivocal assignment of the 3a-hydroxy-trinervita-1(15),8(19)-dien-2-one (6) was included in this paper, to complement the lack of information in the literature. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines activities were evaluated. In particular, the compounds 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxytrinervita-l(15),8(19)-diene (2) and 3alpha-hydroxy-15-rippertene (7) exhibited the better activities against the clinically isolated Gram-positive bacterium methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BMB 9393, both with a MIC value of 31.2 microg mL(-1). This is the first description of a rippertane diterpene (7) as an antibacterial agent.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10-3 μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10-8 μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Species belonging to the Burseraceae family, especially of the genus Protium, are well known for producing fragrant oleoresins known in Brazil as breus. In this study, the physicochemical properties and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from commercials samples of breu from the Brazilian Amazon were evaluated. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). p-Cymene was the major constituent in all of the analyzed breu samples, with concentrations ranging from 21.9% to 51.9%, except for the white breu sample from Adolfo Lisboa Popular Market (ALPM), which contained α-pinene (22.7%). Other common monoterpenes were β-phellandrene, α-phellandrene, β-pinene, trans-dihydro-α-terpineol, α-terpineol and α-terpinene. The refractive indices ranged from 1.4769 to 1.4849 and the optical rotation ranged from −14.15° to +29.96°. The antimicrobial activity was low for all of the samples. The essential oil of black breu from ALPM was the only sample exhibiting antimycobacterial activity.
Journal of Essential Oil Research 12/2012; · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fonsecaea pedrosoi, a dematiaceous fungus, is the main agent responsible for chromoblastomycosis, a chronic and progressive mycosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. This disease can cause different types of lesions depending on the immune status of the host. Its treatment is complicated by the toxicity of available antifungal agents as well as drug resistance. In this work, an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in this fungus was characterised, with the degree of expression related to the drug resistance of two strains (a patient isolated strain and a laboratory strain). A 150 kDa protein was detected by western blotting. The ATPase activity of membrane preparations was also evaluated. The F. pedrosoi transporter appears to behave like Pdr5p, a well-studied multidrug resistance transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the ability to hydrolyse different triphosphate nucleotides, as well as its response to classical inhibitors tested. Finally, a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach was used and a 400 bp product was detected, corresponding to the highly conserved ATP-binding domain of ABC transporters. We suggest that an ABC transporter must be involved in F. pedrosoi multidrug resistance, and a complete understanding of this protein could bring an important contribution to antifungal treatment of this disease.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 11/2012; 40(5):409-415. · 4.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fusarium species have emerged as one of the more outstanding groups of clinically important filamentous fungi, causing localized and life-threatening invasive infections with high morbidity and mortality. The ability to produce different types of hydrolytic enzymes is thought to be an important virulence mechanism of fungal pathogens and could be associated with the environment of the microorganism. Here, we have measured the production of two distinct lipolytic enzymes, phospholipase and esterase, by sixteen Fusarium isolates recovered from the hospital environment, immunocompromised patients' blood cultures, foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompromised patients, and foot interdigital space scrapings from immunocompetent patients (4 isolates each). Fourteen of these 16 isolates were identified as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and two were identified as F. oxysporum species complex (FOSC). Some relevant genus characteristics were visualized by light and electron microscopy such as curved and multicelled macroconidia with 3 or 4 septa, microconidia, phialides, and abundant chlamydospores. All Fusarium isolates were able to produce esterase and phospholipase under the experimental conditions. However, a negative correlation was observed between these two enzymes, indicating that a Fusarium isolate with high phospholipase activity has low esterase activity and vice versa. In addition, Fusarium isolated from clinical material produced more phospholipases, while environmental strains produced more esterases. These observations may be correlated with the different types of substrates that these fungi need to degrade during their nutrition processes.
Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas / Sociedade Brasileira de Biofisica ... [et al.] 03/2012; 45(5):411-6. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes.
MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 03/2012; 28(3):953-62. · 1.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are two neglected and potentially lethal diseases that affect mostly the poor and marginal populations of developing countries around the world and consequently have an important impact on public health. Clinical manifestations such as cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral disorders are the most frequent forms of leishmaniasis, a group of diseases caused by several Leishmania spp. American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite that causes progressive damage to different organs, particularly the heart, esophagus, and lower intestine. African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei and is characterized by first presenting as an acute form that affects blood clotting and then becoming a chronic meningoencephalitis. The limited number, low efficacy, and side effects of conventional anti-leishmania and anti-trypanosomal drugs and the resistance developed by parasites are the major factors responsible for the growth in mortality rates. Recent research focused on plants has shown an ingenious way to obtain a solid and potentially rich source of drug candidates against various infectious diseases. Bioactive phytocompounds present in the crude extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are components of an important strategy linked to the discovery of new medicines. These compounds have proven to be a good source of therapeutic agents for the treatment of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. This work highlights some chemotherapeutic agents while emphasizing the importance of plants as a source of new and powerful drugs against these widespread diseases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial activities of the isomers and enantiomers of pinene were evaluated against bacterial and fungal cells. The agar diffusion test showed that only the positive enantiomers of the α- and β-isomers of pinene were active. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) of these monoterpenes were also determined, confirming that the positive enantiomers exhibited microbicidal activity against all fungi and bacteria tested with MICs ranging from 117 to 4,150 μg/mL. However, no antimicrobial activity was detected with the negative enantiomers up to 20 mg/mL. Time-kill curves showed that (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene were highly toxic to Candida albicans, killing 100% of inoculum within 60 min. By contrast, the bactericidal effect occurred after 6 h in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In combination with commercial antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin plus (+)-α-pinene or (+)-β-pinene presented synergistic activity against MRSA whereas an indifferent effect against all fungi was detected when amphotericin B was combined with the positive enantiomers of pinene. The potential of (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene to inhibit phospholipase and esterase activities was also evaluated, and the best inhibition results were obtained with Cryptococcus neoformans. C. albicans biofilm formation was prevented with the MIC concentration of (+)-α-pinene and twice the MIC value of (+)-β-pinene. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the positive enantiomers of pinene to murine macrophages was evaluated, and 250 μg/mL of (+)-α-pinene and (+)-β-pinene reduced the cell viability to 66.8% and 57.7%, respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) is a shrub native to Amazon region and locally known as sacaca. Two morphotypes are known, namely white ‘sacaca’ and red ‘sacaca’. The essential oils from the leaves of these morphotypes are rich in linalool and 7-hydroxycalamenene, respectively. The effectiveness of the oils from forty individuals from a germplasm bank regarding the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans was investigated by drop diffusion (or agar diffusion) method. Expressive inhibition zones for both microorganisms tested were observed. Essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against S. aureus while linalool-rich essential oils acted inhibiting C. albicans. The minimal inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal concentrations of the main constituents of the oils were also determined, using broth dilution assay. It was observed that isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene presented high bactericidal activity, with a MIC of 0.3 μg/mL, while for fungicidal activity a MIC of 45 μg/mL was recorded. For S. aureus, the isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene was more active than the whole oil, whereas the linalool-rich essential oil presented higher bactericide activity than pure linalool. For C. albicans, however, pure linalool was more active than the whole essential oil.
Journal of Essential Oil Research - J ESSENT OIL RES. 01/2012; 24(4):351-357.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peri-implant inflammation contributes for loss of secondary stability of orthodontic mini-implants. The investigation of microbial colonization in this area would benefit its control, and consequently favor the long-term success of mini-implants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the establishment and the evolution of microbial colonization process in orthodontic mini-implants for 3 months, since the time of their installation. One-hundred and fifty samples collected from 15 mini-implants were investigated from baseline up to 3 months. The biological material was obtained from peri-implant area using paper points. Nonspecific, Streptococcus spp, Lactobacillus casei and Candida spp colonizations were analyzed by cell growth methods. Porphyromonas gingivalis colonization was observed by 16S rDNA-directed polymerase chain reaction. Data from cell growth were submitted to the Wilcoxon sign rank test and results from molecular analysis were presented in a descriptive way. There was no significant difference in the microbial colonization among the examined time intervals, except for Streptococcus spp, between baseline and 24 h, which characterized the initial colonization in this time interval. Lactobacillus casei and Candida spp colonizations were insignificant. No Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected among the analyzed samples. The microbial colonization of mini-implants did not significantly change during the study. However, it should be monitored by orthodontists, since it is an important factor for mini-implants success.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocimum selloi, a traditional medicinal plant from Brazil, is sold in open-air markets at Rio de Janeiro State. Hesperozygis myrtoides is a very aromatic small bush found in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, growing at an altitude of 1800m. The chemical composition of both essential oils was analyzed as well as their antimicrobial activity against fungi and bacteria. For all specimens of Ocimum selloi obtained at open-air markets, methylchavicol was major compound found (93.6% to 97.6%) in their essential oils. The major compounds identified in the oil of H. myrtoides were pulegone (44.4%), isomenthone (32.7%), and limonene (3.5%). Both oils displayed antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms but Candida albicans was the most susceptible one. Combinations of the two oils in different proportions were tested to verify their antimicrobial effect against C. albicans, which, however, was not modified in any of the concentrations tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to confirm the antimicrobial activity against C. albicans as well as other clinical isolates (C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The action of the complement system on pigmented and hypopigmented mycelia of the fungus Fonsecaea pedrosoi, the major aetiological pathogen of the chromoblastomycosis is herein discussed. Fungi were grown in medium Czapeck-Dox at 37°C, for 14 days, without shaking to obtain pigmented mycelium. To obtain hypopigmented mycelium, the fungus was grown at the same conditions, but in the dark and with low oxygenation. Activation was measured by complement consumption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also observed by immunofluorescence the deposition of C3, C4 fragments and C9 on the surface of the different forms studied. The results indicate that both forms were able to activate the complement system mainly by the alternative pathway. Pigmented mycelia had the highest consumption results, indicating that the pigment, melanin, may have influence in activation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a tree that is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Its latex is collected and used extensively to treat acne, warts, diseases related to bursitis, and inflammation. In this work, we describe the anti-inflammatory effects of the latex.
The latex from Hancornia speciosa (0.06-1.3mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drug acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 200mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated in analgesia (formalin-induced licking, acetic acid-induced contortions, and hot plate) and inflammation models (formalin-induced licking, paw oedema, and subcutaneous air pouch, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasations, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α, and IL-6, and expression of the enzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2).
The latex from Hancornia speciosa significantly inhibited the number of writhings and the time that the animal spent licking the formalin-injected paw (second phase). Doses of 0.1-1.3mg/kg latex reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. However, only the highest doses (0.6 and/or 1.3mg/kg) reduced the oedema induced by bradykinin, histamine, and serotonin. The latex also inhibited inflammation induced by subcutaneous carrageenan injection, cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasations, increased levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α, and IL-6) produced in the pouch, and increased expression of the enzymes nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2.
Our results indicate that the latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of nitric oxide, PGE2, and cytokine production, thus confirming the popular use of this plant as an anti-inflammatory agent.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2011; 135(2):530-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The species Lippia gracilis Schauer, known in Brazil as "Alecrim-da-chapada", is popularly used in folk medicine to treat cough, bronchitis, nasal congestion, and headache.
Lippia gracilis essential oil (EO; 10, 30, and 100mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs morphine (5mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated using models for analgesia (acetic acid-induced contortion, formalin-induced licking, and hot plate) or inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and subcutaneous air pouch model). To elucidate the antinociceptive mechanism of action, animals were pre-treated with naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 1mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (cholinergic antagonist; 1mg/kg, i.p.) or l-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 3mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min prior to oral administration of EO.
EO significantly inhibited the number of writhings in acetic acid-induced contortions and the time that the animal spent licking the formalin-injected paw (second phase). All doses of EO increased the baseline and the area under the curve in the hot plate model. The administration of naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of EO in the acetic acid-induced contortion and formalin-induced licking models. L-NAME and atropine significantly reversed the effect of EO in the models of contortion, formalin, and hot plate. EO also inhibited the inflammatory process induced by subcutaneous carrageenan injection, reducing cell migration, exudate volume, extravased protein, and inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) produced in the pouch.
Our results indicate that the essential oil from Lippia gracilis produces an antinociceptive effect that could be potentially mediated by cholinergic receptors and the nitric oxide pathway. Our data also suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity caused by EO exposure occurs through inhibition of nitric oxide and PGE2 production.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2011; 135(2):406-13. · 2.32 Impact Factor