[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetics, safety and antiviral activity of twice-daily fosamprenavir with or without ritonavir were evaluated in 2-18 year-old protease inhibitor (PI)-naïve and -experienced, HIV-1-infected children.Methods: Serial pharmacokinetic samples were collected at Week 2 and pre-dose samples every 4-12 weeks. Safety and plasma HIV-1 RNA were monitored every 4-12 weeks.
Twenty PI-naïve 2-<6 year-old subjects received antiretroviral treatment including unboosted fosamprenavir twice-daily, while 89 PI-naïve and -experienced 2-18 year-old subjects received fosamprenavir/ritonavir-containing therapy twice-daily. Median fosamprenavir exposure was 891 days (range 15-1805 days), with 88% exposed >48 weeks. Twice-daily doses of fosamprenavir/ritonavir 23/3 mg/kg in 2-<6 year olds, 18/3 mg/kg in ≥6 year olds and 700/100 mg in adolescents achieved plasma amprenavir exposures comparable to or higher than 700/100 mg twice daily in adults while fosamprenavir 30 mg/kg twice-daily in 2-<6 year olds led to exposures higher than 1400 mg BID in adults. The proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL at Week 48 was 60% for fosamprenavir and 53-74% for fosamprenavir/ritonavir [Intent-to-Treat (Exposed), Snapshot analysis]. Median increases in absolute and relative (percentage) CD4 counts from Baseline to Week 48 occurred in both the fosamprenavir (340 cells/mm; 8%) and fosamprenavir/ritonavir group (190 cells/mm; 8%). The most common adverse events were vomiting, cough, and diarrhea; 18 subjects experienced serious adverse events, including nine with suspected abacavir hypersensitivity.
Fosamprenavir regimens administered to HIV-1 infected children aged 2-18 years were generally well-tolerated and provided sustained antiviral activity over 48 weeks, with plasma amprenavir exposures comparable to or higher than adults.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 06/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite of highly active antiretroviral therapy, the response to vaccines in HIV-infected children is poor and short-lived, probably due to a defect in cellular immune responses. We compared the cellular immune response (assessed in terms of IFN-γ production) to tetanus toxoid and to cytomegalovirus in a series of 13 HIV-perinatally-infected children and adolescents with optimal immunovirological response to first line antiretroviral therapy, implemented during chronic infection. A stronger cellular response to cytomegalovirus (11 out of 13 patients) was observed, as compared to tetanus toxoid (1 out of 13; p=0.003). These results suggest that the repeated exposition to CMV, as opposed to the past exposition to TT, is able to maintain an effective antigen-specific immune response in stable HIV-infected pediatric patients and strengthen current recommendations on immunization practices in these children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Mitochondrial toxicity in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric patients has been scarcely investigated. Limited data are available about HIV or antiretroviral (ARV)-mediated mitochondrial damage in this population group, specifically, regarding oxygen consumption and apoptosis approach. We aimed to elucidate whether a given mitochondrial DNA depletion is reflected at downstream levels, to gain insight on the pathology of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients. We studied 10 healthy control participants and 20 perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients (10 under ARV treatment and 10 off treatment). We determined mitochondrial mass, subunits II and IV of complex IV, global and specific mitochondrial enzymatic and oxidative activities, and apoptosis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Global oxygen consumption was significantly compromised in HIV-infected untreated patients, compared to the control group (0.76 ± 0.01 versus 1.59 ± 0.15; P = 0.014). Apoptosis showed a trend to increase in untreated patients as well. The overall complex (C) CI-III-IV activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) was significantly decreased in HIV-infected treated patients with respect to the control group (1.52 ± 0.38 versus 6.38 ± 1.53; P = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were found between untreated and HAART-treated patients. These findings suggest the pathogenic role of both HIV and HAART in mitochondrial dysfunction in vertical infection. The abnormalities in mitochondrial genome may be downstream reflected through a global alteration of the MRC. Mitochondrial impairment associated with HIV and HAART was generalized, rather than localized, in this series of perinatally HIV-infected patients.
Drug and Chemical Toxicology 03/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regular screening methods may miss the diagnosis of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and seronegative hepatitis C virus infection in immunocompromised patients. A cross-sectional study within a Spanish cohort of HIV-Infected children yielded 6/254 (2.4%) possible OBI cases and 2/254 (0.8%) seronegative HCV-infected patients. Implementation of occult hepatitis screening in the routine care of these children may be warranted.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 02/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are approximately from 1,100 to 1,200 HIV-infected children in a follow-up in Spain. In 2008 an open, multicentral, retrospective and prospective Cohort of the Spanish Paediatric HIV Network (CoRISpe) was founded. The CoRISpe is divided into the node 1 and node 2 representing geographically almost the whole territory of Spain. Since 2008 seventy-five hospitals have been participating in the CoRISpe. All the retrospective data of the HIV-infected children have been kept in the CoRISpe since 1995 and prospective data since 2008. In this article we are going to present the notion of CoRISpe, its role, the structure, how the CoRISpe works and the process how a child is transferred from Paediatric to Adults Units.The main objective of the CoRISpe is to contribute to furthering scientific knowledge on paediatric HIV infection by providing demographic, sociopsychological, clinical and laboratory data from HIV-infected paediatric patients. Its aim is to enable high-quality research studies on HIV-infected children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been reported to reshape the NK-cell receptor (NKR) distribution, promoting an expansion of CD94/NKG2C(+) NK and T cells. The role of NK cells in congenital HCMV infection is ill-defined. Here we studied the expression of NKR (i.e. NKG2C, NKG2A, LILRB1, CD161) and the frequency of the NKG2C gene deletion in children with past congenital infection, both symptomatic (n = 15) and asymptomatic (n = 11), including as controls children with postnatal infection (n = 11) and non-infected (n = 20). The expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells in HCMV-infected individuals appeared particularly marked and was associated with an increased number of LILRB1(+) NK cells in cases with symptomatic congenital infection. Increased numbers of NKG2C(+) , NKG2A(+) and CD161(+) T cells were also associated to HCMV infection. The NKG2C deletion frequency was comparable in children with congenital HCMV infection and controls. Remarkably, the homozygous NKG2C(+/+) genotype appeared associated with increased absolute numbers of NKG2C(+) NK cells. Moreover, HCMV-infected NKG2C(+/+) children displayed higher absolute numbers of NKG2A(+) and total NK cells than NKG2C(+/-) individuals. Our study provides novel insights on the impact of HCMV infection on the homeostasis of the NK-cell compartment in children, revealing a modulatory influence of NKG2C copy number.
European Journal of Immunology 09/2012; · 4.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and HIV-related mitochondrial toxicity lead to several adverse effects and have become a major issue, especially in children. The main goal in the treatment of HIV-infected children is to maximize cost-effectiveness while minimizing toxicity. We aimed to study the evolution of mitochondrial parameters over time in children receiving different types antiretroviral regimens.
We followed-up 28 HIV-infected children receiving HAART including either first-generation nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (1gNRTIs; didanosine, zidovudine, or stavudine; n = 15) or second-generation NRTIs (2gNRTIs; the remaining drugs; n = 13) for a period of 2 years for their immunovirological and mitochondrial status, and compared these subjects with a group of untreated HIV-infected patients (n = 10) and uninfected controls (n = 27). We measured T-lymphocyte CD4+ content (flow cytometry), viral load (real-time polymerase chain reaction), and lactate levels (spectrophotometry); we assessed mtDNA content (real-time polymerase chain reaction), mitochondrial protein levels (Western blot), oxidative stress, mitochondrial mass, and electron transport chain function (spectrophotometry) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
At the second time point, lactate levels were significantly higher in children on 1gNRTIs compared with those receiving 2gNRTIs (1.28 ± 0.08 vs. 1.00 ± 0.07 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.022). MtDNA content was similar among all HIV-infected groups and significantly lower than in healthy controls at baseline. Oxidative stress tended to increase over time in all the groups, with no differences among them. However, a significant decrease in cytochrome c oxidase activity was found over time in HIV-infected patients; this decline was greater in the 1gNRTIs group.
HIV infection and the use of 1gNRTIs caused greater mitochondrial damage than 2gNRTIs over time. The higher lactate levels and the significant decrease observed in cytochrome c oxidase activity argue against the use of 1gNRTIs in HIV-infected children when an alternative is available, in accordance with international recommendations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite metabolic disorders in HIV-infected children being widely described, there is still a lack of agreed criteria for diagnoses and management. Numerous studies are coming from other settings and results are heterogeneous when assessing several analytical and clinical parameters.
To describe the prevalence of metabolic disorders and associated risk factors in the Spanish National cohort of HIV-infected pediatric patients (CoRISpe).
This was a cross-sectional study following all vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents in three referral centers included in the CoRISpe. Metabolic data (fasting lipids, glucose and insulin levels and thyroid hormone levels) were collected. Fat distribution was clinically assessed by expert clinicians.
We included 157 patients [median age 13 years, interquartile range (IQR) 10-16]. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy was 10.2 years (IQR 5.0-13.0). Almost 20% of patients had insulin resistance and this was associated with hepatitis C co-infection, current use of stavudine (d4T) and hypertriglyceridemia. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia were found in 23.9% and 24.8% of patients and were associated with current use of protease inhibitors (p = 0.042 and p = 0.022, respectively). Abnormal fat distribution was observed in 63 patients (40.5%): lipoatrophy in 32 (20.4%), lipohypertrophy in eight (5.1%) and a mixed pattern in 23 patients (14.6%), and it was significantly associated with previous exposure to stavudine (p < 0.001).
Metabolic disorders are a significant problem in our HIV-infected pediatric population. We need to encourage the development of global strategies and the creation of consensus guidelines that can decrease the cardiovascular risk in this population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B cell-helper function after receiving reprogramming signals, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Splenic neutrophils induced immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism that involved the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and a lower abundance of preimmune immunoglobulins to T cell-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial immunoglobulin defense by interacting with MZ B cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on mother-to-child transmitted human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfection are scarce. A prospective observational study with a cohort of 70 HCV-infected children (13 of whom were HIV/HCV-coinfected; mean follow-up: 7.3 years) is presented. In our series, surrogate markers of disease progression (HCV viremia, maximum alanine aminotransferase values, and spontaneous HCV infection clearance) suggest that the evolution of liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected pediatric patients is more aggressive than it is in HCV-only infected children.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a heterogeneous group of inherited skin disorders characterized by blistering and skin fragility secondary to mechanical trauma. Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is the most frequent form of EB, with Dowling-Meara (DM-EBS) subtype being the most severe form in this group. Conventional histopathological evaluation is usually of low value in the diagnosis of EB, and significant histological features have rarely been reported in this group of diseases. We describe a case of severe DM-EBS in which acantholysis was observed in the histological examination. This finding led us to consider other diagnoses, such as neonatal pemphigus vulgaris or lethal acantholytic EB. Histological, immunological, ultrastructural and genetic tests were performed, leading to a final diagnosis of DM-EBS. Therefore, we believe that DM-EBS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a newborn with blisters, where acantholysis is the main histological feature.
European journal of dermatology: EJD 08/2011; 21(6):966-71. · 1.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined the mitochondrial status of a group of HIV-infected children, some with body fat abnormalities (BFA). We included 24 controls, 16 HIV-infected untreated, 26 HIV-infected treated, 6 BFA-untreated, and 21 BFA-treated patients. Genetic, translational, and functional mitochondrial values were measured. As compared with controls, mitochondrial DNA depletion and a reduction in functionality were found in BFA groups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No data are available on 2009 H1N1 influenza in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, a highly susceptible and vulnerable population. We report 13 cases of pandemic influenza among a cohort of HIV-infected pediatric patients. Clinical features of H1N1 influenza were similar to those described in the general population. Most patients received antivirals on an outpatient basis. An uneventful evolution was observed in all patients, only 2 of whom required hospitalization. Influenza had no effect on the evolution of HIV infection.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HAART can cause mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion, which may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA and mitochondrial function abnormalities are present in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asymptomatic HIV-infected children.
A cross-sectional study in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed in 47 asymptomatic (free from any HIV- or AIDS-related active condition or HAART-related toxicity), HIV-infected, HAART-treated children and adolescents and 27 uninfected healthy paediatric patients. We measured mtDNA and mitochondrial RNA (mtRNA) content by quantitative real-time PCR. Mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymatic activity of complex-IV (CIV) and mitochondrial mass (estimated by citrate synthase) were measured spectrophotometrically, and CIV protein subunit content was measured with western blot analysis.
A reduction in mtDNA levels was observed in HIV-infected children compared with controls (mean ± sem 4.47 ± 0.31 and 5.82 ± 0.48, respectively; 23% depletion; P=0.018), whereas similar levels of mtRNA, CIV protein subunit content and enzymatic activity were found in the two groups. These findings remained unaltered after considering mitochondrial abundance. Among HIV-infected children, mtDNA levels did not correlate with viral load, CD4(+) T-cell counts or lactataemia at the time of assessment. No differences were observed when current or past use of individual antiretroviral drugs or HAART regimens were taken into account.
Depletion in mtDNA from asymptomatic HIV-infected children did not lead to differences in mtRNA levels or mitochondrially-encoded CIV proteins, nor to CIV dysfunction. This may be explained by homeostatic-compensatory mechanisms at the transcription level or by the mild depletion we observed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: to describe the impact of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use on renal function in HIV-infected pediatric patients.
it is a prospective, multicenter study. The setting consisted of five third-level pediatric hospitals in Spain. The study was conducted on patients aged 18 years and younger who had received TDF for at least 6 months. The intervention was based on the study of renal function parameters by urine and serum analyses. The main outcome measures were renal function results following at least 6 months of TDF therapy.
forty patients were included (32 were white and 26 were diagnosed with AIDS). Median (range) duration of TDF treatment was 77 months (16-143). There were no significant changes in the estimated creatinine clearance. Urine osmolality was abnormal in eight of 37 patients, a decrease in tubular phosphate absorption was documented in 28 of 38 patients, and 33 of 37 patients had proteinuria. A statistically significant decrease in serum phosphate and potassium concentrations was observed during treatment (P = 0.005 and P = 0.003, respectively), as well as a significant relationship between final phosphate concentration and tubular phosphate absorption (P = 0.010). A negative correlation was found between phosphate concentration and time on TDF.
TDF use showed a significant association with renal tubular dysfunction in HIV-infected pediatric patients. Periodic assessment of tubular function may be advisable in the follow-up of this population.
AIDS (London, England) 11/2010; 25(2):171-6. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 and myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 deficiencies impair Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and interleukin-1 receptor-mediated immunity. We documented the clinical features and outcome of 48 patients with IRAK-4 deficiency and 12 patients with MyD88 deficiency, from 37 kindreds in 15 countries.The clinical features of IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiency were indistinguishable. There were no severe viral, parasitic, and fungal diseases, and the range of bacterial infections was narrow. Noninvasive bacterial infections occurred in 52 patients, with a high incidence of infections of the upper respiratory tract and the skin, mostly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The leading threat was invasive pneumococcal disease, documented in 41 patients (68%) and causing 72 documented invasive infections (52.2%). P. aeruginosa and Staph. aureus documented invasive infections also occurred (16.7% and 16%, respectively, in 13 and 13 patients, respectively). Systemic signs of inflammation were usually weak or delayed. The first invasive infection occurred before the age of 2 years in 53 (88.3%) and in the neonatal period in 19 (32.7%) patients. Multiple or recurrent invasive infections were observed in most survivors (n = 36/50, 72%).Clinical outcome was poor, with 24 deaths, in 10 cases during the first invasive episode and in 16 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease. However, no death and invasive infectious disease were reported in patients after the age of 8 years and 14 years, respectively. Antibiotic prophylaxis (n = 34), antipneumococcal vaccination (n = 31), and/or IgG infusion (n = 19), when instituted, had a beneficial impact on patients until the teenage years, with no seemingly detectable impact thereafter.IRAK-4 and MyD88 deficiencies predispose patients to recurrent life-threatening bacterial diseases, such as invasive pneumococcal disease in particular, in infancy and early childhood, with weak signs of inflammation. Patients and families should be informed of the risk of developing life-threatening infections; empiric antibacterial treatment and immediate medical consultation are strongly recommended in cases of suspected infection or moderate fever. Prophylactic measures in childhood are beneficial, until spontaneous improvement occurs in adolescence.
Medicine 11/2010; 89(6):403-25. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early highly active antiretroviral therapy is recommended in all vertically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. We describe the long-term immunologic outcome after planned treatment interruption (PTI) in 7 children diagnosed and treated during acute HIV infection (age <12 weeks). Children had remained a median of 57 months off treatment, 3 of them indefinitely. The 2 patients with the lowest nadir CD4% reinitiated highly active antiretroviral therapy because of a CD4 cell decline of <20%; 2 children resumed treatment because of clinical progression and parents' wishes. All patients experienced a decrease in CD4% after PTI, which particularly affected the naive subpopulation. The interferon-γ response against HIV-p24 antigen directly correlated with nadir CD4%. Our results suggest that early treatment in HIV-infected infants increases their potential to safely control viral replication after PTI for long periods.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HAART-related long-term toxicities, many of them ascribed to mitochondrial (mt) toxicity of the nucleoside analogues, are being increasingly reported in HIV-infected children. HIV infection can also cause mt damage. Case series include 13 vertically HIV-infected pediatric patients (9 girls, median age 10.5 years) with optimal long-term response to a first-line HAART regimen who underwent planned treatment interruption (PTI). MtDNA content from peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed by means of a real-time PCR technique at PTI and 12 months later and expressed as an mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratio, together with lactate levels. At PTI, patients had remained a median time of 4.7 years on HAART and 4.3 years with complete suppression of viral replication. The main reason leading to PTI was treatment fatigue. One month after PTI, HIV plasmatic viral load had increased to 4.8 log copies/ml and stabilized thereafter. During the 12-month study period, all children remained free from any HIV-related clinical event. A progressive and significant decrease in median CD4 cell counts and percentages was observed 12 months after PTI. One year after PTI, the median mtDNA/nuclear DNA ratios had increased from 0.76 to 1.08 (p = 0.002) and lactate levels had decreased (from 1.12 to 0.73 mmol/liter; p = 0.019). Changes in mtDNA did not correlate with changes in lactate levels. No relationship was found between the evolution in mt toxicity markers and the rest of the clinical, immunological, and virological variables. In this series, PTI led to a partial restoration of mtDNA levels and a significant decrease in lactate values.
AIDS research and human retroviruses 09/2010; 26(9):1015-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor