[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
To evaluate predictors and outcomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia among participants undergoing baseline mycobacterial blood culture in the ACTG A5221 STRIDE study, a randomized clinical trial comparing earlier with later ART among HIV-infected patients suspected of having tuberculosis with CD4-positive T-lymphocyte counts (CD4 counts) <250 cells/mm3. We conducted a secondary analysis comparing participants with respect to presence or absence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia.Methods
Participants with a baseline mycobacterial blood culture were compared with respect to the presence or absence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia. Baseline predictors of M. tuberculosis bacteremia were identified and participant outcomes were compared by mycobacteremia status.ResultsOf 90 participants with baseline mycobacterial blood cultures, 29 (32.2%) were female, the median (IQR) age was 37 (31¿45) years, CD4 count was 81 (33¿131) cells/mm3, HIV-1 RNA level was 5.39 (4.96¿5.83) log10 copies/mL, and 18 (20.0%) were positive for M. tuberculosis. In multivariable analysis, lower CD4 count (OR 0.85 per 10-cell increase, p¿=¿0.012), hemoglobin ¿8.5 g/dL (OR 5.8, p¿=¿0.049), and confirmed tuberculosis (OR 17.4, p¿=¿0.001) were associated with M. tuberculosis bacteremia. There were no significant differences in survival and AIDS-free survival, occurrence of tuberculosis IRIS, or treatment interruption or discontinuation by M. tuberculosis bacteremia status. IRIS did not differ significantly between groups despite trends toward more virologic suppression and greater CD4 count increases at week 48 in the bacteremic group.Conclusions
Among HIV-infected tuberculosis suspects, lower CD4 count, hemoglobin ¿8.5 g/dL, and the presence of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were associated with increased adjusted odds of mycobacteremia. No evidence of an association between M. tuberculosis bacteremia and the increased risk of IRIS was detected.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00108862.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms behind natural control of HIV replication are still unclear, and several studies pointed that elite controllers are a heterogeneous group.
We performed analyses of virologic, genetic and immunologic parameters of HIV-1 controllers groups: 1) Elite Controllers (EC; VL <80 copies/mL); 2) Ebbing Elite Controllers (EEC; transient viremia/blips); and Viremic Controllers (VC; detectable viremia <5,000 copies/mL). Untreated non-controllers (NC), patients under suppressive HAART and HIV-1 negative individuals were analyzed as controls.
Total and integrated HIV-1 DNA for EC were significantly lower than for NC and HAART groups. 2-LTR circles were detected in EEC (3/5) and VC (6/7) but not in EC. While EC and EEC maintain normal T cell counts over time, some VC displayed negative CD4+ T cells slopes. VC and EEC showed a higher percentage of activated CD8+ T cells and microbial translocation than HIV-1 negative controls. EC displayed a weaker Gag/Nef IFN-γ T cell response and a significantly lower proportion of anti-HIV IgG antibodies than EEC, VC and NC groups.
Transient/persistent low level viremia in HIV controllers may have an impact on immunologic and virologic profiles. Classify HIV controllers patients taking into account their virologic profile may decrease the heterogeneity of HIV controllers cohorts, which may help to clarify the mechanisms associated to the elite control of HIV.
Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 01/2015;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Worldwide the prevalence of smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is elevated compared to the general population. This probably reflects the cluster of individual characteristics that have shared risk factors for HIV infection and smoking. A cross-sectional study, enrolling a convenience sample from a Brazilian HIV clinical cohort was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the factors associated with current smoking and abstinence. A total of 2,775 HIV-infected individuals were interviewed: 46.2% have never smoked, 29.9% were current smokers and 23.9% were former smokers. Current smokers had a higher prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use when compared to the other two groups. A higher proportion of heterosexual individuals were former smokers or never smokers while among men who have sex with men (MSM) a higher proportion were current smokers. Former smokers had been more frequently diagnosed with high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and depression, while for current smokers lung diseases were more frequent. Former smokers and current smokers were more likely to have had any hospital admission (42.0% and 41.2%, respectively) than participants who never smoked (33.5%) (p<0.001). Multivariate model results showed that current smokers (versus never smokers) were more likely to be less educated, to report the use of alcohol, crack and cocaine and to present clinical comorbidities. Former smokers (versus current smokers) were more likely to be older, to have smoked for a shorter amount of time and to have smoked >31 cigarettes/day. MSM (compared to heterosexuals) and cocaine users (versus non-users) had lower odds of being former smokers. Considering our results, smoking cessation interventions should be tailored to younger individuals, MSM and substance users.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115900. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
World-wide, the notable expansion of HIV/AIDS treatment programs in resource-limited settings has lead to an increasing number of patients in need of second-line cART. To adequately address and prepare for this scenario, critical assessments of the outcomes of second-line cART are particularly relevant in settings where monitoring strategies may be inadequate. We evaluated virologic outcomes of second-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among HIV-infected individuals from Brazil.Methods
This study was conducted at the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazio. For this study we included all patients who started first-line and second-line cART between 2000 and 2013. Second-line cART required a switch in the anchor drug of first-line cART. We evaluated time from second-line start to virologic failure and factors associated with increased risk of failure using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.ResultsAmong the 1,311 patients who started first-line cART a total of 386 patients (29.5%) initiated second-line cART, out of which 35.0% and 60.6% switched from their first-line to their second-line cART when their HIV RNA was undetectable and after documented virologic failure, respectively. At second line cART initiation, median age was 38 years [interquartile range (IQR): 31-45years]. Median CD4 count was significantly different for patients starting second-line cART undetectable [412 cells/mm3 (IQR: 240-617)] compared to those starting second-line cART after documented virologic failure [230 cells/mm3 (IQR: 118-322.5)] (p¿<¿0.01). Median time from second-line cART initiation to failure was also significantly different for patients starting second-line cART undetectable compared to those who with documented virologic failure (log-rank test p¿<¿0.01). Multivariable Cox models showed that younger age, lower education, and HIV RNA level were independently associated with an increased hazard of second-line failure among those with documented virologic failure at start of second-line cART.Conclusions
We have shown that in a middle-income country with universal access to cART, having a detectable HIV RNA at the start of second-line cART as well as younger age and lower education negatively impact second-line outcomes. Our findings could guide HIV treatment efforts as to which strategies would help maximize the durability of these regimens.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV genotype-resistance testing can help identify more effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens for patients, substantially increasing the likelihood of viral suppression and immune recovery. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of genotype-resistance testing prior to 1st-line ART initiation in Brazil.
We used a previously published microsimulation of HIV disease (CEPAC-International) and data from Brazil to compare the clinical impact, costs, and cost-effectiveness of initial genotype testing (Genotype) to no initial genotype testing (No genotype).
Model parameters were derived from the HIV Clinical Cohort at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute and from published data, using Brazilian sources whenever possible. Baseline patient characteristics included: 69% male, mean age 36 years (SD 10 years), mean CD4 count 347/µL (SD 300/µL) at ART initiation, annual ART costs from 2012 US$1,400 to US$13,400, genotype test cost of US$230, and primary resistance prevalence of 4.4%. Life expectancy and costs were discounted 3%/year. Genotype was defined as "cost-effective" compared to No Genotype if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was less than 3x the 2012 Brazilian per capita GDP of US$12,300.
Compared to No genotype, Genotype increased life-expectancy from 18.45 to 18.47 years and reduced lifetime cost from US$45,000 to $44,770; thus, in the base case, Genotype was cost-saving. Genotype was cost-effective at primary resistance prevalences as low as 1.4% and remained cost-effective when subsequent-line ART costs decreased to 30% of baseline value. Cost-inefficient results were observed only when simultaneously holding multiple parameters to extremes of their plausible ranges.
Genotype-resistance testing in ART-naïve individuals in Brazil will improve survival and decrease costs and should be incorporated into HIV treatment guidelines in Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Antiretroviral (ARV) drug use during pregnancy significantly reduces mother-to-child HIV transmission, delays disease progression in the women and reduces the risk of HIV transmission to HIV-serodiscordant partners. Pregnant women are susceptible to the same adverse reactions to ARVs as nonpregnant adults as well as to specific pregnancy-related reactions. In addition, we should consider adverse pregnancy outcomes and adverse reactions in children exposed to ARVs during intrauterine life. However, studies designed to assess the safety of ARV in pregnant women are rare, usually with few participants and short follow-up periods. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss studies reporting adverse reactions to ARV drugs, including maternal toxicity, adverse pregnancy outcomes and the consequences of exposure to ARV in infants. We included results of observational studies, both prospective and retrospective, as well as randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Expert opinion: The benefits of ARV use during pregnancy outweigh the risks of adverse reactions identified to date. More studies are needed to assess the adverse effects in the medium- and long term in children exposed to ARVs during pregnancy, as well as pregnant women using lifelong antiretroviral therapy and more recently available drugs.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 11/2014; · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the SVR12 final analysis of a phase 3 study of telaprevir in combination with peginterferon (P)/ribavirin (R) in HCV-genotype 1, treatment-naïve and -experienced patients with HCV/HIV co-infection (INSIGHT).
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19626. · 4.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal anal cytology [≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm(3), 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of anal specimens contained ≥1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal anal cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤50 cells/mm(3), HIV-1 viral load ≥50 copies/mL, and anal HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ≥anal ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal anal cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced anal SCC screening efforts.
AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 10/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined antiretroviral therapy is now acknowledged for preventing new HIV infections, besides decreasing mortality and morbidity. However, in many Latin America countries the epidemic is still driven by unprotected sexual intercourse. This study aims to describe sexual practices related to HIV/STD and to evaluate factors associated to unprotected sex among men who have sex with women (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) under care at a reference center for HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, nested in a Brazilian clinical cohort, evaluated the sexual practices of 404 sexually active HIV-positive MSW and men who have MSM. Approximately 30 % of them reported unprotected sexual practices during the 6 months prior to the interview. Most frequent risky practices reported were unprotected vaginal sex among MSW and unprotected receptive anal sex among MSM. Factors increasing the chance of unprotected sexual practices among MSW were the partner's desire of becoming pregnant (OR 2.81; CI 95 %: 1.36-5.95). To have received comments about excessive consumption of alcohol (OR 2.43; CI 95 %: 1.01-5.83), illicit drug use (OR 4.41; CI 95 %: 1.75-11.60) and lived in marital situation (OR 2.10; CI 95 %: 1.09-4.08) were significantly associated with unsafe sexual practices among MSM. The results highlight that health care of men living with HIV, as well as the prevention strategies, must consider the particularities of sexual behavior practiced by people who differ in sexual orientation.
Archives of Sexual Behavior 10/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe nevirapine and efavirenz exposure on and off tuberculosis treatment and consequences for virological efficacy and tolerance in patients included in the ANRS 12146/12214-CARINEMO trial.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 09/2014; · 5.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studies in heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples have provided critical evidence on the role of HIV treatments and undetectable viral load in reducing the risk of HIV transmission. There is very limited data on the risk of transmission from anal sex in homosexual male serodiscordant couples.Methods/design: The Opposites Attract Study is an observational prospective longitudinal cohort study of male homosexual serodiscordant partnerships running from 2012 to 2015 and conducted in clinics throughout Australia, Brazil and Thailand. Couples attend two or more clinic visits per year. The HIV-positive partner's viral load is tested and the HIV-negative partner is tested for HIV antibodies at every clinic visit. Results from any tests for sexually transmitted infections are also collected. Detailed behavioural questionnaires are completed by both partners at the time of each visit. The primary research question is whether HIV incidence is lower in those couples where the HIV-positive partner is receiving HIV treatment compared to couples where he is not receiving treatment. A voluntary semen sub-study will examine semen plasma viral load in a subsample of HIV-positive partners in Sydney, Rio de Janeiro and Bangkok. In cases of seroconversion of the initially HIV-negative partner, phylogenetic analysis will be conducted at the end of the study on virus from stored blood samples from both partners to determine if the infection came from the HIV-positive study partner. Men in new serodiscordant relationships will specifically be targeted for recruitment.
BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):917. · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : The life expectancy of people living with HIV has dramatically improved with the much increased access to antiretroviral therapy. Consequently, a larger number of people living with HIV are living longer and facing the increased burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs and HIV infection share common epidemiologic and sociodemographic characteristics that influence their outcomes, which may be difficult to address in the relatively weak health systems of the region. Data on the prevalence and interactions of NCDs and HIV in Latin American countries remain very limited, which hinders their governments' ability to make informed decisions about health care policies. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a research agenda that will be the basis for an integrated and comprehensive health care approach to HIV and NCD comorbidities in Latin America.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains an important cause of new HIV infections worldwide, especially in low and middle-resource limited countries. Safety data from studies involving pregnant women and prenatal antiretroviral (ARV) exposure are still needed once these studies are often small and with a limited duration to assess adverse drug reactions (ADR). The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of ADR related to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnant women in two referral centers in Rio de Janeiro State. A prospective study was carried out from February 2005 to May 2006. Women were classified according to their ART status during pregnancy diagnosis: ARV-experienced (ARTexp) or ARV-naïve (ARTn). Two hundred fourteen HIV-infected pregnant women were included: 36 ARTexp and 178 ARTn. ARTexp women have not experienced ADR. Among ARTn, 20.2% presented ADR. Incidence rate of ADR was 70.8 per 1000 person-months and the most common ADRs observed were: gastrointestinal (belly or abdominal cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomit) in 16.3%, cutaneous (pruritus and rash) in 6.2%, anemia (2.2%) and hepatitis (1.7%). The frequency of obstetrical complications, pre-term delivery, low birth weight and birth abnormalities was low in this population. ADRs ranged from mild to moderate intensity, none of them being potentially fatal. Only in a few cases it was necessary to discontinue ART. In conclusion, the high effectiveness of ARV for HIV PMTCT overcomes the risk of ADR.
The Brazilian journal of infectious diseases: an official publication of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases 07/2014; · 1.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous cohort studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viral load suppression. We aimed to examine the factors associated with virologic suppression for HIV-infected patients on ART receiving care at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In high-income settings, the spectrum of morbidity and mortality experienced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has switched from predominantly AIDS-related to non-AIDS-related conditions. In the context of universal access to care, we evaluated whether that shift would apply in Brazil, a middle-income country with universal access to treatment, as compared to France.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL) and mortality. The study design, patients' profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described.
Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2-5.9 years) with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7∶1), with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years); 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4%) initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%). The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1-78.6). Nearly half (45.4%) of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years.
Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient profile, which is similar to that of the AIDS epidemic in the country.
PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e95673. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many countries are facing concentrated HIV epidemics among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) is the main HIV transmission route among them and its understanding in the different cultures and how it relates to HIV transmission, re-infection and development of HIV antiretroviral resistance has important public health implications. Data on UAI among Brazilian MSM are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of UAI among HIV-infected MSM who had sex with seronegative or male partners with an unknown serostatus.
A cross-sectional study nested in a cohort was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The one hundred and fifty five MSM included in the study answered an ACASI interview and provided biological samples. Generalized linear models were used to identify variables associated with UAI.
Overall, UAI with an HIV-negative or unknown serostatus male partner was reported by 40.6% (63/155) of MSM. Lifetime sexual abuse or domestic violence was reported by 35.9%, being more frequent among MSM who reported UAI compared to those who did not (P = 0.001). Use of stimulants before sex was reported by 20% of the MSM, being slightly higher among those who reported UAI (27.0% vs. 15.2%; P = 0.072). Commercial sex was frequent among all MSM (48.4%). After multivariate modeling, the report of sexual abuse or domestic violence (OR = 2.70; 95%CI: 1.08-7.01), commercial sex (OR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.04- 5.10), the number of male sexual partners (p = 0.039) and exclusively receptive anal intercourse (OR = 0.21; 95%CI: 0.06-0.75) remained associated with UAI. CD4 levels, HIV viral load and antiretroviral therapy were not associated with UAI.
The UAI prevalence found with negative or unknown HIV status partners points out that other interventions are needed as additional prevention tools to vulnerable MSM. The main factors associated with UAI were a lifetime history of violence, commercial sex and the number of male sexual partners. This clustering of different behavioral, health and social problems in this population reinforce the need of a comprehensive approach on treating and preventing HIV among MSM.
BMC Public Health 04/2014; 14(1):379. · 2.32 Impact Factor