B Hirschel

University of Geneva, Genève, Geneva, Switzerland

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Publications (217)1657.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: After structured treatment interruption (STI) of treatment for HIV-1, a fraction of patients maintain suppressed viral loads. Prospective identification of such patients might improve HIV-1 treatment, if selected patients are offered STI. METHODS: We analysed the effect of previously identified genetic modulators of HIV-1 disease progression on patients' ability to suppress viral replication after STI. Polymorphisms in the genes killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DLI (KIR3DL1)/KIR3DS1, human leucocyte antigen B (HLA-B) and HLA Complex P5 (HCP5), and a polymorphism affecting HLA-C surface expression were analysed in 130 Swiss HIV Cohort Study patients undergoing STI. Genotypes were correlated with viral load levels after STI. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant reduction in viral load after STI in carriers of HLA-B alleles containing either the Bw480Thr or the Bw480Ile epitope (mean adjusted effect on post-STI viral load: -0.82 log HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, P < 0.001; and -1.12 log copies/ml, P < 0.001, respectively). No significant effects were detected for the other polymorphisms analysed. The likelihood of being able to control HIV-1 replication using a prespecified cut-off (viral load increase < 1000 copies/ml) increased from 39% in Bw4-negative patients to 53% in patients carrying Bw4-80Thr, and to 65% in patients carrying Bw4-80Ile (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: These data establish a significant impact of HLA-Bw4 on the control of viral replication after STI.
    HIV Medicine 11/2012; 13(10):589-595. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To determine HIV-1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of successfully treated patients and to evaluate if combination antiretroviral treatments (cART) with higher CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) achieve better CSF viral suppression. METHODS:: Viral loads and drug concentrations of lopinavir, atazanavir and efavirenz, were measured in plasma and CSF. The CPE was calculated using two different methods. RESULTS:: We analysed 87 CSF samples of 60 patients. In 4 CSF samples HIV-1 RNA was detectable with 43 to 82 copies/mL. Median CPE in patients with detectable CSF viral load was significantly lower compared to individuals with undetectable viral load: CPE of 1.0 (range 1.0-1.5) versus 2.3 (range 1.0-3.5) using the method of 2008 (p=0.011), and CPE of 6 (range 6-8) versus 8 (range 5-12) with the method of 2010 (p= 0.022). The extrapolated CSF trough levels for atazanavir (n=12) were clearly above the IC50 in only 25% of samples; both patients on atazanavir/r with detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA had trough levels in the range of the presumed IC50. The extrapolated CSF trough level for lopinavir (n=42) and efavirenz (n=18) were above the IC50 in 98% respectively 78% of samples, including the patients with detectable CSF HIV-1 RNA. CONCLUSIONS:: This study suggests that treatment regimens with high intracerebral efficacy reflected by a high CPE score are essential to achieve CSF HIV-1 RNA suppression. The CPE score including all drug components was a better predictor for treatment failure in the CSF than the sole concentrations of PI or NNRTI in plasma or CSF.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2012; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the antibody responses and effect on viral load of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients. A total of 121 HIV-infected patients and 138 healthy subjects were enrolled in a prospective, open-label study. Healthy subjects received one dose and HIV-infected patients two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted split influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix®; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, United Kingdom.) at an interval of 3-4 weeks. The study was extended in 2010/2011 for 66 patients. Geometric mean titres (GMTs), seroprotection rates (post-vaccination titre ≥ 1:40) and HIV-1 RNA levels were measured before and 4 weeks after immunization. After two immunizations, the seroprotection rate (94.2 vs. 87%, respectively) and GMT (376 vs. 340, respectively) in HIV-infected patients were as high as in healthy subjects after one dose, regardless of CD4 cell count. Four weeks after immunization, HIV RNA was detected in plasma samples from 40 of 68 (58.0%) previously aviraemic patients [median 152 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; interquartile range (IQR) 87-509 copies/mL]. Subsequent measures indicated that HIV RNA levels had again declined to <20 copies/mL in most patients (27 of 34; 79.4%). Following (nonadjuvanted) influenza immunization in 2010/2011, HIV RNA levels only slightly increased (median final level 28 copies/mL) in three of 66 (4.5%) previously aviraemic patients, including two of 25 (8%) patients in whom an increase had been elicited by AS03-adjuvanted vaccine the year before. Most HIV-infected patients developed seroprotection after two doses of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine. A transient effect on HIV RNA levels was observed in previously aviraemic patients. A booster dose of the nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine containing the A/09/H1N1 strain the following year did not reproduce this finding, indicating a non-antigen-specific adjuvant effect.
    HIV Medicine 11/2011; 13(4):207-18. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serologic testing algorithms for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) provide important information for HIV surveillance. We have shown that a patient's antibody reaction in a confirmatory line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics) provides information on the duration of infection. Here, we sought to further investigate the diagnostic specificity of various Inno-Lia algorithms and to identify factors affecting it. Plasma samples of 714 selected patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study infected for longer than 12 months and representing all viral clades and stages of chronic HIV-1 infection were tested blindly by Inno-Lia and classified as either incident (up to 12 m) or older infection by 24 different algorithms. Of the total, 524 patients received HAART, 308 had HIV-1 RNA below 50 copies/mL, and 620 were infected by a HIV-1 non-B clade. Using logistic regression analysis we evaluated factors that might affect the specificity of these algorithms. HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL was associated with significantly lower reactivity to all five HIV-1 antigens of the Inno-Lia and impaired specificity of most algorithms. Among 412 patients either untreated or with HIV-1 RNA ≥ 50 copies/mL despite HAART, the median specificity of the algorithms was 96.5% (range 92.0-100%). The only factor that significantly promoted false-incident results in this group was age, with false-incident results increasing by a few percent per additional year. HIV-1 clade, HIV-1 RNA, CD4 percentage, sex, disease stage, and testing modalities exhibited no significance. Results were similar among 190 untreated patients. The specificity of most Inno-Lia algorithms was high and not affected by HIV-1 variability, advanced disease and other factors promoting false-recent results in other STARHS. Specificity should be good in any group of untreated HIV-1 patients.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 11:254. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using new sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is often detectable in the plasma of immunosuppressed patients. We investigated the prognostic value of a positive CMV DNA test for the development of CMV end-organ disease, other AIDS-defining events and mortality. A survival analysis was performed, using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models, for patients prospectively followed in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, from January 1996 to December 2007, who were CMV-seropositive, had a CD4 count of ≤ 100 cells/μL, and had a plasma sample available for the measurement of baseline CMV DNA with an ultrasensitive PCR. The outcome analysed was an AIDS-defining event, including CMV end-organ disease, or death. Variables analysed at the time of CMV measurement were demographic variables, CD4 cell counts, HIV-1 RNA loads, and use and type of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of 1128 patients, 208 (18%) presented an AIDS-defining event and 246 (22%) died. A total of 368 patients (34% of samples) had detectable CMV DNA at baseline, with DNA concentrations of up to 38 800 copies/mL. In the multivariate analysis, CMV DNA predicted evolution not only towards CMV end-organ disease [hazard ratio (HR) 12.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.27-37.41], but also towards other AIDS-defining events (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.60-4.33) and death (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.10-3.34). Quantitative CMV DNA detected in the plasma of HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 100 cells/μL is a predictor for HIV disease progression, CMV disease and death. A single low value of 80 copies/mL identifies patients at low but significantly increased risk during the following months, after the measurement.
    HIV Medicine 08/2011; 12(7):394-402. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children. Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization.
    HIV Medicine 07/2011; 13(1):54-61. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterized lipid and lipoprotein changes associated with a lopinavir/ritonavir-containing regimen. We enrolled previously antiretroviral-naive patients participating in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Fasting blood samples (baseline) were retrieved retrospectively from stored frozen plasma and posttreatment (follow-up) samples were collected prospectively at two separate visits. Lipids and lipoproteins were analyzed at a single reference laboratory. Sixty-five patients had two posttreatment lipid profile measurements and nine had only one. Most of the measured lipids and lipoprotein plasma concentrations increased on lopinavir/ritonavir-based treatment. The percentage of patients with hypertriglyceridemia (TG >150 mg/dl) increased from 28/74 (38%) at baseline to 37/65 (57%) at the second follow-up. We did not find any correlation between lopinavir plasma levels and the concentration of triglycerides. There was weak evidence of an increase in small dense LDL-apoB during the first year of treatment but not beyond 1 year (odds ratio 4.5, 90% CI 0.7 to 29 and 0.9, 90% CI 0.5 to 1.5, respectively). However, 69% of our patients still had undetectable small dense LDL-apoB levels while on treatment. LDL-cholesterol increased by a mean of 17 mg/dl (90% CI -3 to 37) during the first year of treatment, but mean values remained below the cut-off for therapeutic intervention. Despite an increase in the majority of measured lipids and lipoproteins particularly in the first year after initiation, we could not detect an obvious increase of cardiovascular risk resulting from the observed lipid changes.
    AIDS research and human retroviruses 05/2011; 27(5):525-33. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed genital shedding of HIV in patients on intermittent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and assessed predictors of having detectable genital HIV RNA in 156 Thai patients with CD4 > 350 cells/μL and HIV RNA ≤50 copies/mL who were randomized to continuous therapy (CT, n = 65) or CD4-guided cART (n = 91). There were 383 matched genital and plasma HIV RNA samples (CT: 158, CD4 guided: 225). In 14 samples collected within eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 29% of genital samples and 71% of plasma samples. In 55 samples collected after eight weeks of treatment interruption, detectable HIV RNA was present in 60% of genital samples and 98% of plasma samples. In 110 samples collected up to 96 weeks after treatment re-initiation, detectable genital HIV RNA was found in 8% of samples and all of these were within the first 17 weeks. Independent predictors of detectable genital HIV RNA were increasing age and increasing concentrations of HIV RNA in plasma. These findings support the role of cART in maintaining undetectable HIV RNA in genital secretions.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 02/2011; 22(2):61-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term outcome of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not assessed in controlled trials. We aimed to analyse trends in the population effectiveness of ART in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study over the last decade. We analysed the odds of stably suppressed viral load (ssVL: three consecutive values <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL) and of CD4 cell count exceeding 500 cells/μL for each year between 2000 and 2008 in three scenarios: an open cohort; a closed cohort ignoring the influx of new participants after 2000; and a worst-case closed cohort retaining lost or dead patients as virological failures in subsequent years. We used generalized estimating equations with sex, age, risk, non-White ethnicity and era of starting combination ART (cART) as fixed co-factors. Time-updated co-factors included type of ART regimen, number of new drugs and adherence to therapy. The open cohort included 9802 individuals (median age 38 years; 31% female). From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants with ssVL increased from 37 to 64% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) per year 1.16 (95% CI 1.15-1.17)] and the proportion with CD4 count >500 cells/μL increased from 40 to >50% [OR 1.07 (95% CI 1.06-1.07)]. Similar trends were seen in the two closed cohorts. Adjustment did not substantially affect time trends. There was no relevant dilution effect through new participants entering the open clinical cohort, and the increase in virological/immunological success over time was not an artefact of the study design of open cohorts. This can partly be explained by new treatment options and other improvements in medical care.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 12(5):279-88. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Darunavir was designed for activity against HIV resistant to other protease inhibitors (PIs). We assessed the efficacy, tolerability and risk factors for virological failure of darunavir for treatment-experienced patients seen in clinical practice. We included all patients in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study starting darunavir after recording a viral load above 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL given prior exposure to both PIs and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We followed these patients for up to 72 weeks, assessed virological failure using different loss of virological response algorithms and evaluated risk factors for virological failure using a Bayesian method to fit discrete Cox proportional hazard models. Among 130 treatment-experienced patients starting darunavir, the median age was 47 years, the median duration of HIV infection was 16 years, and 82% received mono or dual antiretroviral therapy before starting highly active antiretroviral therapy. During a median patient follow-up period of 45 weeks, 17% of patients stopped taking darunavir after a median exposure of 20 weeks. In patients followed beyond 48 weeks, the rate of virological failure at 48 weeks was at most 20%. Virological failure was more likely where patients had previously failed on both amprenavir and saquinavir and as the number of previously failed PI regimens increased. As a component of therapy for treatment-experienced patients, darunavir can achieve a similar efficacy and tolerability in clinical practice to that seen in clinical trials. Clinicians should consider whether a patient has failed on both amprenavir and saquinavir and the number of failed PI regimens before prescribing darunavir.
    HIV Medicine 10/2010; 12(5):299-307. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipoatrophy can complicate thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (tNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). Lipoatrophy may be less likely with ART including ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r). Small, placebo-controlled studies found that uridine (in tNRTI recipients) and pravastatin improved HIV lipoatrophy over 12 weeks. Today, most patients with lipoatrophy receive non-tNRTI-based ART; the effect of uridine in such patients is unknown. We performed a prospective, randomized trial in lipoatrophic adults with plasma HIV RNA<50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL on tNRTI-sparing ART including LPV/r. Patients received uridine [36 g three times a day (tid) on 10 consecutive days per month; n=10], pravastatin [40 mg every night (nocte); n=12], uridine plus pravastatin (n=11) or neither (n=12) for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change in limb fat mass as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). With 20 patients per intervention, the study had 80% power to detect a mean difference between a treatment and the control of 0.5 kg, assuming a standard deviation of 0.9 and an alpha threshold equal to 5% (two-sided). Of 45 participants (all men, with median age 49.5 years and median limb fat 2.6 kg), two discontinued pravastatin and one participant stopped both pravastatin and uridine. The difference between the mean changes in limb fat mass for uridine vs. no uridine was 0.03 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.35, +0.28; P=0.79]. The respective difference for pravastatin was -0.03 kg (95% CI -0.29, +0.34; P=0.84). Pravastatin slightly decreased total cholesterol (0.44 mmol/L; P=0.099). Visceral adipose tissue measured by computed tomography did not change significantly. In this population and at the doses used, neither uridine nor pravastatin for 24 weeks significantly increased limb fat mass.
    HIV Medicine 03/2010; 11(8):493-501. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the International AIDS Society 01/2010; 13. · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of antiretroviral therapies represent a major therapeutic progress which dramatically modifies HIV seropositive people's life during the past fifteen years. After the violence of a formerly rapidly fatal disease comes nowadays the heaviness of a chronic disease. If some problems are new for the patients, it also represents new challenges for the caregivers. Due to the lack of access to medications in certain context or because of nonadherence to treatment, the full potential of these therapies is difficult to reach. We present here the experience of a therapeutic patient educational program for HIV seropositive persons. This program aimed not only to develop patient's skills to elicit them to find a balance between their life and their disease, but also to improve the skills of the caregivers to face the problem of chronicity.
    Revue médicale suisse 06/2009; 5(202):1027-31.
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    ABSTRACT: An article by the Swiss AIDS Commission states that patients with stably suppressed viraemia [i.e. several successive HIV-1 RNA plasma concentrations (viral loads, VL) below the limits of detection during 6 months or more of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)] are unlikely to be infectious. Questions then arise: how reliable is the undetectability of the VL, given the history of measures? What factors determine reliability? We assessed the probability (henceforth termed reliability) that the n+1 VL would exceed 50 or 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL when the nth one had been <50 copies/mL in 6168 patients of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study who were continuing to take HAART between 2003 and 2007. General estimating equations were used to analyse potential factors of reliability. With a cut-off at 50 copies/mL, reliability was 84.5% (n=1), increasing to 94.5% (n=5). Compliance, the current type of HAART and the first antiretroviral therapy (ART) received (HAART or not) were predictive factors of reliability. With a cut-off at 1000 copies/mL, reliability was 97.5% (n=1), increasing to 99.1% (n=4). Chart review revealed that patients had stopped their treatment, admitted to major problems with compliance or were taking non-HAART ART in 72.2% of these cases. Viral escape caused by resistance was found in 5.6%. No explanation was found in the charts of 22.2% of cases. After several successive VLs at <50 copies/mL, reliability reaches approximately 94% with a cut-off of 50 copies/mL and approximately 99% with a cut-off at 1000 copies/mL. Compliance is the most important factor predicting reliability.
    HIV Medicine 06/2009; 10(8):470-6. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has almost abolished HIV-related mortality and serious opportunistic diseases; among them, AIDS-related dementia. However, minor forms of cognitive dysfunction, have not disappeared, and even increased in frequency. Ageing of HIV+ patients, insufficient penetration of anti-viral drugs into the brain with continuous low-grade viral production and inflammation may play a role. Minor cognitive dysfunction in HIV infection shares some clinical and pathophysiological features with neuro-degenerative diseases, in particular Alzheimers disease. It can thus be postulated that, such in Alzheimer disease, anti-cholinesterase drugs might also be efficacious in AIDS-related minor cognitive dysfunction. This hypothesis has not been tested yet however A clinical trial using ravistigmine is starting this spring in patients with HIV-associated cognitive dysfunction in Geneva and Lausanne.
    Revue médicale suisse 05/2009; 5(201):955-6, 958-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of continued injecting drug use, enrolment in an opiate substitution treatment programme (OSTP), or cessation of injecting drug use on the uptake and course of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design A prospective observational study of all participants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study followed between 1997 and 2006 was carried out. We distinguished four groups of former or current injecting drug users (IDUs): (i) abstinent former IDUs; (ii) persons in OSTPs without concomitant injecting drug use; (iii) persons in OSTPs with concomitant injecting drug use; (vi) current IDUs. These groups were compared with a group of patients who had never been IDUs. Factors related to ART uptake and virological endpoints were analysed using logistic generalized estimating equations. We followed 8660 participants for 48 477 person-years; 29.7% were in the IDU HIV transmission group. The likelihood of being on ART at biannual visits was lower among individuals in OSTPs with concomitant injecting drug use [odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.89] and current IDUs (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67-0.96), compared with those who had never been IDUs (reference), abstinent former IDUs (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.02-1.25) and individuals in OSTPs without injecting drug use (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.06-1.31). The likelihood of suppressed viral replication on ART was similar among those who had never been IDUs, abstinent former IDUs and individuals in an OSTP without injecting drug use, and lower among those in OSTPs with concomitant drug use (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.72-0.93) and current IDUs (OR 0.81; 0.65-1.00). Adherence to ART was decreased among persons with continued injecting drug use, and correlated with virological outcome. Uptake of and virological response to ART were improved among abstinent former IDUs and persons in OSTPs without concomitant injecting drug use, compared with persons with continued injecting drug use.
    HIV Medicine 04/2009; 10(7):407-16. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the contribution of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Treponema pallidum in various biological specimens with the secondary objective of comparing its value according to HIV status. Prospective cohort of incident syphilis cases from three Swiss hospitals (Geneva and Bern University Hospitals, Outpatient Clinic for Dermatology of Triemli, Zurich) diagnosed between January 2006 and September 2008. A case-control study was nested into the cohort. Biological specimens (blood, lesion swab or urine) were taken at diagnosis (as clinical information) and analysed by real-time PCR using the T pallidum 47 kDa gene. 126 specimens were collected from 74 patients with primary (n = 26), secondary (n = 40) and latent (n = 8) syphilis. Among primary syphilis, sensitivity was 80% in lesion swabs, 28% in whole blood, 55% in serum and 29% in urine, whereas among secondary syphilis, it was 20%, 36%, 47% and 44%, respectively. Among secondary syphilis, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were also tested and provided a sensitivity of 100% and 50%, respectively. The global sensitivity of T pallidum by PCR (irrespective of the compartment tested) was 65% during primary, 53% during secondary and null during latent syphilis. No difference regarding serology or PCR results was observed among HIV-infected patients. Specificity was 100%. Syphilis PCR provides better sensitivity in lesion swabs from primary syphilis and displays only moderate sensitivity in blood from primary and secondary syphilis. HIV status did not modify the internal validity of PCR for the diagnosis of primary or secondary syphilis.
    Sexually transmitted infections 02/2009; 85(4):264-9. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: HIV lipodystrophy is characterized by peripheral, subcutaneous lipoatrophy in the face, arms, legs, and buttocks and central fat accumulation in the neck, breasts, and abdomen (referred as lipohypertrophy). Lipodystrophy is associated with atherogenic lipid abnormalities, low levels of HDL cholesterol, insulin resistance, and, less commonly, hyperglycaemia. Causes of lipodystrophy are not completely elucidated. The prevalence of lipodystrophy ranges from 20% to 70% of the patients after one year of ART, depending on the type of ART, with lower prevalence in more recent studies of newer agents. Treatment strategies are disappointing. A multidisciplinary approach is now proposed in the Geneva University Hospital in order to coordinate efforts from different department, including internal medicine, infectiology or esthetic surgery for example.
    Revue médicale suisse 01/2009; 4(184):2755-7.
  • Medecine Et Maladies Infectieuses - MED MAL INFEC. 01/2009; 39.
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    ABSTRACT: : The epidemiology of HIV associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was investigated in 6550 European patients with AIDS. NHL was diagnosed in 3.5% of all patients at the time of the AIDS diagnosis. Although the probability of being diagnosed with NHL at AIDS diagnosis was significantly higher among intravenous drug users than among homosexual men, and was associated with increasing age, the observed incidences of NHL were more strikingly similar than any differences.The rate of developing NHL after a previous AIDS diagnosis was 2.4 per 100 patient years of follow-up, and remained constant during a 5-year follow-up period. While primary brain lymphomas comprised only 9% of NHL diagnosed at the time of AIDS, they comprised 38% of NHL diagnosed after AIDS (p<0.001).The prognosis for patients with NHL at AIDS diagnosis was poor with a median survival of 5 months. A diagnosis of primary brain lymphoma was uniformly associated with a poor outcome.It is concluded that the probability of developing NHL in late stage HIV infection is lower than previously anticipated from the results of small studies on patients receiving long-term anti-retroviral therapy.
    European Journal Of Haematology 01/2009; 55(4):245-250. · 2.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,657.98 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2012
    • University of Geneva
      • • Division of Infectious Diseases
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Paediatrics
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 2008–2011
    • The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 1997–2011
    • University of Zurich
      • • Institute of Virology
      • • Internal Medicine Unit
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
    • Institute Of Tropical Medicine
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
  • 2000–2009
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • • Service de neurologie
      • • Service des maladies infectieuses
      Lausanne, VD, Switzerland
    • Kantonsspital St. Gallen
      San Gallo, Saint Gallen, Switzerland
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Universität Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2001–2008
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      • Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CEB)
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1999–2000
    • Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
      • Laboratoire d'epidémiologie et santé publique
      Villeurbanne, Rhone-Alpes, France
  • 1998
    • Institute of Tropical Medicine
      Antwerpen, Flanders, Belgium
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Social and Preventive Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1996–1997
    • Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève
      • Service des maladies infectieuses
      Genève, Geneva, Switzerland
  • 1995
    • Rigshospitalet
      • Department of Infectious Diseases
      Copenhagen, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1992
    • Hannover Medical School
      • Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology
      Hannover, Lower Saxony, Germany