[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is a rare inherited childhood cancer predisposition caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR)-genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. Owing to a wide tumor spectrum, the lack of specific clinical features and the overlap with other cancer predisposing syndromes, diagnosis of CMMR-D is often delayed in pediatric cancer patients. Here, we report of three new CMMR-D patients all of whom developed more than one malignancy. The common finding in these three patients is agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Gray matter heterotopia is present in two patients. One of the 57 previously reported CMMR-D patients with brain tumors (therefore all likely had cerebral imaging) also had ACC. With the present report the prevalence of cerebral malformations is at least 4/60 (6.6%). This number is well above the population birth prevalence of 0.09-0.36 live births with these cerebral malformations, suggesting that ACC and heterotopia are features of CMMR-D. Therefore, the presence of cerebral malformations in pediatric cancer patients should alert to the possible diagnosis of CMMR-D. ACC and gray matter heterotopia are the first congenital malformations described to occur at higher frequency in CMMR-D patients than in the general population. Further systematic evaluations of CMMR-D patients are needed to identify possible other malformations associated with this syndrome.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 13 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.117.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 06/2012; 21(1). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2012.117 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Families at high risk for Lynch syndrome can effectively be recognised by microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of a MSI test for the identification of Lynch syndrome in patients selected by a pathologist mainly based on young age at diagnosis (MSI-testing-indicated-by-a-Pathologist; MIPA), with that of patients selected by a clinical geneticist mainly based on family history (MSI-testing-indicated-by-Family-History; MIFH). Patients with a Lynch syndrome associated tumour were selected using MIPA (n=362) or MIFH (n=887). Germline DNA mutation testing was performed in 171 out of 215 patients (80%) with a MSI positive tumour. MSI was tested positive in 20% of the MIPA-group group compared to 16% in the MIFH-group (P=0.291). In 91 of 171 patients with MSI positive tumours tested for germline mutations were identified as Lynch syndrome patients: 42% in the MIPA-group and 56% in the MIFH-group (P=0.066). Colorectal cancer (CRC) or endometrial cancer (EC) presenting at an age below 50 years would have led to the diagnosis of Lynch syndrome in 89% of these families (CRC below 50 years: 88% and EC below 50 years: 12%). Families detected by MIPA were characterised more often by extracolonic Lynch syndrome associated malignancies, especially EC (P<0.001). Our results indicate that recognition of Lynch syndrome by CRC or EC below 50 years is as effective as a positive family history. Families from patients selected by individual criteria more often harbour extracolonic Lynch syndrome associated malignancies.
European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 06/2011; 47(9):1407-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.12.024 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal, endometrial and upper urinary tract tumours are characteristic for Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon carcinoma, HNPCC). The aim of the present study was to establish whether carriers of mutations in mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2 or MSH6 are at increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.
Carriers and first degree relatives of 95 families with a germline mutation in the MLH1 (n=26), MSH2 (n=43), or MSH6 (n=26) gene were systematically questioned about the occurrence of carcinoma. The cumulative risk of cancer occurring before the age of 70 years (CR70) was compared to the CR70 of the general Dutch population. Microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair proteins was performed on bladder tumour tissue.
Bladder cancer was diagnosed in 21 patients (90% men) from 19 Lynch syndrome families (2 MLH1, 15 MSH2, and 4 MSH6). CR70 for bladder cancer was 7.5% (95% CI 3.1% to 11.9%) for men and 1.0% (95% CI 0% to 2.4%) for women, resulting in relative risks for mutation carriers and first degree relatives of 4.2 (95% CI 2.2 to 7.2) for men and 2.2 (95% CI 0.3 to 8.0) for women. Men carrying an MSH2 mutation and their first degree relatives were at highest risks: CR70 for bladder and upper urinary tract cancer being 12.3% (95% CI 4.3% to 20.3%) and 5.9% (95% CI 0.7% to 11.1%). Bladder cancer tissue was MSI positive in 6/7 tumours and loss of IHC staining was found in 14/17 tumours, indicating Lynch syndrome aetiology.
Patients with Lynch syndrome carrying an MSH2 mutation are at increased risk of urinary tract cancer including bladder cancer. In these cases surveillance should be considered.
Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2010; 47(7):464-70. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2010.076992 · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cancer risk is unknown for those families in which a microsatellite instable tumour is neither explained by MLH1 promoter methylation nor by a germline mutation in a mismatch repair (MMR) gene. Such information is essential for genetic counselling. Families suspected of Lynch syndrome (n = 614) were analysed for microsatellite instability, MLH1 promoter methylation and/or germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Characteristics of the 76 families with a germline mutation (24 MLH1, 2 PMS2, 32 MSH2, and 18 MSH6) were compared with those of 18 families with an unexplained microsatellite instable tumour. The mean age at diagnosis of the index patients in both groups was comparable at 44 years. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the loss of an MMR protein. Together this suggests germline inactivation of a known gene. The Amsterdam II criteria were fulfilled in 50/75 families (66%) that carried a germline mutation in an MMR gene and in only 2/18 families (11%) with an unexplained microsatellite instable tumour (P<0.0001). Current diagnostic strategies can detect almost all highly penetrant MMR gene mutations. Patients with an as yet unexplained microsatellite instable tumour likely carry a different type of mutation that confers a lower risk of cancer for relatives.
British Journal of Cancer 05/2007; 96(10):1605-12. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603754 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models. In a retrospective study of 263 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients, the utility of the Frank (Myriad), Gilpin (family history assessment tool) and Evans (Manchester) model was analysed, to select 49 BRCA mutation-positive families. For various cutoff levels and combinations, the sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared. The best combinations were subsequently validated in additional sets of families. Comparable sensitivity and specificity were obtained with the Gilpin and Evans models. They appeared to be complementary to the Frank model. To obtain an optimal sensitivity, five 'additional criteria' were introduced that are specific for the selection of small or uninformative families. The optimal selection is made by the combination 'Frank >or=16% or Evans2 >or=12 or one of five additional criteria'. The efficiency of the selection of families for mutation testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 can be optimised by using a combination of available easy to apply risk assessment models.
British Journal of Cancer 10/2006; 95(6):757-62. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603306 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) occur in both sporadic and familial forms. The best known example of a familial RCC syndrome is the Von Hippel Lindau cancer syndrome. In addition, RCC families segregating constitutional chromosome 3 translocations have been reported. The list of these latter families is rapidly expanding. We have initiated a survey of all Dutch families known to segregate chromosome 3 translocations for (i) the ocurrence of RCCs and (ii) the establishment of refined risk estimates. This information will be critical for genetic counseling and clinical patient management. Within the families 'at risk' that we have identified so far, this approach has already led to early RCC detection and surgical intervention.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Through allele-segregation and loss-of-heterozygosity analyses, we demonstrated loss of the translocation-derivative chromosome 3 in five independent renal cell tumors of the clear-cell type, obtained from three members of a family in which a constitutional t(2;3)(q35;q21) was encountered. In addition, analysis of the von Hippel-Lindau gene, VHL, revealed distinct insertion, deletion, and substitution mutations in four of the five tumors tested. On the basis of these results, we conclude that, in this familial case, an alternative route for renal cell carcinoma development is implied. In contrast to the first hit in the generally accepted two-hit tumor-suppressor model proposed by Knudson, the familial translocation in this case may act as a primary oncogenic event leading to (nondisjunctional) loss of the der(3) chromosome harboring the VHL tumor-suppressor gene. The risk of developing renal cell cancer may be correlated directly with the extent of somatic (kidney) mosaicism resulting from this loss.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 07/1998; 62(6):1475-83. DOI:10.1086/301888 · 10.99 Impact Factor